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  • 1.
    Carlo Cacciabue, Pietro
    et al.
    KITE Solut, Italy .
    Enjalbert, Simon
    University of Lille Nordic France, France .
    Soderberg, Hakan
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Unified Driver Model simulation and its application to the automotive, rail and maritime domains2013In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 21, p. 315-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the implementation of a model of a driver into a computerised numerical simulation. The model is developed to capture the essential characteristics and common aspects of cognition and behaviour of a human being in control of a "vehicle" in different surface transport systems, namely trains, cars and ships. The main functions of the simulation are discussed as well as the experiments carried out in different types of driving simulators to support the estimation of the parameters utilised in the numerical simulation. The validation processes carried out in the rail and maritime domains are also discussed together with a critical review of capacities and limitations of the proposed approach.

  • 2.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Gregersen, N.P.
    Fixation patterns of learner drivers with and without cerebral palsy (CP) when driving in real traffic environments2001In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 171-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among learner drivers with cerebral palsy (CP), driver education is problematic for those failing to fulfil their education as well as for those becoming licensed drivers. A crucial ingredient in the development of driving is the quality of the visual search. Problems increase for CP learners in those parts of training where high demands are set on visual search abilities. The aim of the study was to increase knowledge about search patterns among learners with CP in comparison with learners and experienced drivers without CP. The study was carried out in traffic by measuring eye movements and the duration and distribution of fixation. The results show that search strategies among learners with CP were less flexible than in the control groups. The results suggest a need for better methods for teaching CP learners search strategies and may provide a tool for such development. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 3. Hakamies-Blomqvist, L.
    et al.
    Raitanen, T.
    Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    O'Neill, D.
    Department of Medical Gerontology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Driver ageing does not cause higher accident rates per km2002In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 271-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on Finnish survey data, older (65+, n=1559) and younger (26-40, n=310) drivers' accident rates were compared. In accordance with earlier studies, the rates were similar per driver (0.1) but there was a non-significant trend towards older drivers having more accidents per distance driven (10.8 vs. 8.3 per 1 million km). However, when the accidents-per-km comparison was made in groups matched for yearly exposure, there is no evidence for higher risk with increasing age. In both age groups, risk per km decreased with increasing yearly driving distance. We suggest that the previous perception of an age-related risk increase of accidents per distance driven arises from a failure to control for low mileage bias at all ages. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Hatakka, Mika
    et al.
    Åbo.
    Keskinen, Esko
    Åbo.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Glad, Alf
    Oslo.
    From control of the vehicle to personal self-control, broadening the perspectives to driver education2002In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 201-215Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective is to formulate guidelines and goals for future development in the area of driver training and education. The content of this paper is not empirical, but merely an analytical summary or review. A four-level descriptive model is presented in which driver behaviour is conceptualised as a hierarchy, in which the goals and motives of the driver play an essential role. The recent constructivist ideas in mainstream pedagogy and psychology of learning are combined with a hierarchical approach to driver behaviour. A comprehensive framework for goals and contents of driver education (GDE framework) is presented. Two main conclusions can be drawn. Firstly, the conceptual analysis points towards a need to emphasise the motivational aspects in driver education more than it is done at present. Secondly, in order to reach the goals, pedagogical methods should be re-evaluated. For example, active learning methods and use of self-reflection should be promoted in driver education.

  • 5.
    Lundberg, C.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, 14186 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hakamies-Blomqvist, L.
    Driving tests with older patients: Effect of unfamiliar versus familiar vehicle2003In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 163-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to study the effect, for older license holders, of taking a driving test with an unfamiliar vehicle, as compared to their own cars. The study population consisted of licensed patients 65-85 years referred to the Traffic Medicine Centre (TrMC), Huddinge University Hospital, for an evaluation of their medical and cognitive fitness to drive. In the clinical practice of TrMC, driving tests have been used since 1997, with inspectors from the Swedish National Road Administration (SNRA) acting as evaluators. Initially, patients were allowed to use their own cars. From the beginning of the year 2000, however, dual brakes were made mandatory and most evaluations were then made with SNRA cars. When comparing the outcomes of driving tests from the period prior to 2000 (n=96) and after 2000 (n=69), it was found that the number of drivers who failed the test increased by 16%. Also, those who passed the test after more than one trial decreased by 20%. The potential of the neuropsychological assessment to correctly classify drivers in outcome groups was considerably reduced in the period after 2000. These results support the view that, for older drivers with cognitive deterioration, the need to adapt to an unfamiliar vehicle represents a supplementary cognitive load that may compromise their driving ability and the validity of the assessment. A measure aimed only at increasing the safety of examiners and examinees thus had an unintended side-effect that is detrimental to older clinical populations. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Rike, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Sunnaas Rehabil Hospital, Norway.
    Johansen, Hans J.
    Stavern Rehabil Hospital, Norway.
    Ulleberg, Pal
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Lundqvist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Schanke, Anne-Kristine
    Sunnaas Rehabil Hospital, Norway; University of Oslo, Norway.
    Exploring associations between self-reported executive functions, impulsive personality traits, driving self-efficacy, and functional abilities in driver behaviour after brain injury2015In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 29, p. 34-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The assessment of self-awareness and self-efficacy as they relate to driving after stroke and TBI is lacking in the literature where the focus has tended to be on neuropsychological testing of underlying component of cognition in predicting driving outcome. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the associations between self-rating of higher-level functions and post-injury driving behaviour. Methods: The present one-year follow-up study included twenty-four adults with stroke and ten adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) deemed suitable for driving after a comprehensive driving evaluation according to Norwegian regulations. In addition, but not part of the decision making, baseline measurements included self-rating of executive functions (Behaviour Rating of Executive Function (BRIEF-A)), impulsive personality traits (UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale), driving self-efficacy (Adelaide Driving Self-Efficacy Scale (ADSES)), and functional abilities (Awareness Questionnaire (AQ)). Follow-up measurements twelve months after baseline were collected, the ADSES, AQ and Swedish Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (Swedish DBQ). Results: Perceived driving self-efficacy and functional abilities did not change from baseline to follow-up. Baseline perceived executive functions and impulsive personality traits were significantly associated with driving self-efficacy at follow-up. Lower self-efficacy and functional abilities were associated with lower driving mileage and increased use of compensatory driving strategies, whereas lower self-efficacy beliefs were associated with driver mistakes and inattention. Driver violations and inattention were associated with minor accidents. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that higher-level functions such as executive functions, impulsive personality traits, driving self-efficacy and functional abilities, influence post-injury accident involvement mediated through proximal driving factors such as driver inattention. Further evidence is warranted to explore self-rating measures compared to performance-based methods as predictors of risky driver behaviour, crashes, and near misses.

  • 7.
    Rimmo, P.-A.
    et al.
    Rimmö, P.-A., Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Box 2125, SE-75142 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hakamies-Blomqvist, L.
    Older drivers' aberrant driving behaviour, impaired activity, and health as reasons for self-imposed driving limitations2002In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 345-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study used a mail survey addressed to Swedish drivers aged between 55 and 92 years (n = 939) to study the relationship between driving exposure, health, and four types of self-reported aberrant driving behaviour as measured with a Swedish version of the driver behaviour questionnaire. Age and gender were the most important predictors of the tendency to sometimes avoid driving. However, even after accounting for age and gender, reports of own erroneous driving behaviour because of inattention (e.g., failure to notice a signal) and inexperience errors (viz., handling the car), as well as impaired health, were related to self-imposed driving limitations, whereas the violations and mistakes factors were not. Problems with activities of daily living were only marginally associated with self-imposed driving limitations, mediated through inattention and inexperience errors. The results support the notion that older drivers adjust their driving in response to their health and to the problems they experience while driving. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Siren, A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 9, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Private car as the grand equaliser? Demographic factors and mobility in Finnish men and women aged 65+2004In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 107-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the association between selected demographic variables and community-related mobility of Finnish elderly citizens. A mail survey was sent to 2500 Finnish citizens aged 65 and over. The overall response rate was 62%. Mobility was measured in two dimensions: overt travel behaviour and unfulfilled travel needs. Several demographic variables had a clear association with both dimensions of mobility. Sub-groups with reduced mobility included women, rural residents, the oldest old, and those without a driver license. When the interactions of single demographic variables were controlled for, significant predictors for hindered mobility were absence of driver license and rural-type residing. The results indicate that the level of mobility varies among the elderly, and there are certain sub-groups with limited mobility, often those with less overall resources. The possibility to drive a private car is, at present, crucial for older persons' mobility, which has important implications both for further research and policy discussion. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Peters, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Cognitive workload and driving behavior in persons with hearing loss2013In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 21, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To compare the effect of cognitive workload in individuals with and without hearing loss, respectively, in driving situations with varying degree of complexity.

    Methods

    24 participants with moderate hearing loss (HL) and 24 with normal hearing (NH) experienced three different driving conditions: Baseline driving; Critical events with a need to act fast; and a Parked car event with the possibility to adapt the workload to the situation. Additionally, a Secondary task (observation and recalling of 4 visually displayed letters) was present during the drive, with two levels of difficulty in terms of load on the phonological loop. A tactile signal, presented by means of a vibration in the seat, was used to announce the Secondary task and thereby simultaneously evaluated in terms of effectiveness when calling for driver attention. Objective driver behavior measures (M and SD of driving speed, M and SD of lateral position, time to line crossing) were accompanied by subjective ratings during and after the test drive.

    Results

    HL had no effect on driving behavior at Baseline driving, where no events occurred. Both during Secondary task and at the Parked car event HL was associated with decreased mean driving speed compared to baseline driving. The effect of HL on the Secondary task performance, both at Baseline driving and at the lower Difficulty Level at Critical events, was more skipped letters and fewer correctly recalled letters. At Critical events, task difficulty affected participants with HL more. Participants were generally positive to use vibrations in the seat as a means for announcing the Secondary task.

    Conclusions

    Differences in terms of driving behavior and task performance related to HL appear when the driving complexity exceeds Baseline driving either in the driving task, Secondary task or a combination of both. This leads to a more cautious driving behavior with a decreased mean driving speed and less focus on the Secondary task, which could be a way of compensating for the increasing driving complexity. Seat vibration was found to be a feasible way to alert drivers with or without HL.

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