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  • 1.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Anders
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Reichenberg, Frida
    RISE Viktoria, Lindholmen Science Park, Lindholmspiren 3A, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    RISE Viktoria, Lindholmen Science Park, Lindholmspiren 3A, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Viktoria, Lindholmen Science Park, Lindholmspiren 3A, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Testing cooperative intelligent transport systems in distributed simulators2019Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 65, s. 206-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation is often used as a technique to test and evaluate systems, as it provides a cost-efficient and safe alternative for testing and evaluation. A combination of simulators can be used to create high-fidelity and realistic test scenarios, especially when the systems-under-test are complex. An example of such complex systems is Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which include many actors that are connected to each other via wireless communication in order to interact and cooperate. The majority of the actors in the systems are vehicles equipped with wireless communication modules, which can range from fully autonomous vehicles to manually driven vehicles. In order to test and evaluate C-ITS, this paper presents a distributed simulation framework that consists of (a) a moving base driving simulator; (b) a real-time vehicle simulator; and (c) network and traffic simulators. We present our approach for connecting and co-simulating the simulators. We report on limitation and performance that this simulation framework can achieve. Lastly, we discuss potential benefits and feasibility of using the simulation framework for testing of C-ITS.

  • 2.
    Carlo Cacciabue, Pietro
    et al.
    KITE Solut, Italy .
    Enjalbert, Simon
    University of Lille Nordic France, France .
    Soderberg, Hakan
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Unified Driver Model simulation and its application to the automotive, rail and maritime domains2013Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 21, s. 315-327Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the implementation of a model of a driver into a computerised numerical simulation. The model is developed to capture the essential characteristics and common aspects of cognition and behaviour of a human being in control of a "vehicle" in different surface transport systems, namely trains, cars and ships. The main functions of the simulation are discussed as well as the experiments carried out in different types of driving simulators to support the estimation of the parameters utilised in the numerical simulation. The validation processes carried out in the rail and maritime domains are also discussed together with a critical review of capacities and limitations of the proposed approach.

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  • 3.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Habiliteringen: Barn- och ungdomshabiliteringen, LSS Råd och stöd.
    Gregersen, N.P.
    Fixation patterns of learner drivers with and without cerebral palsy (CP) when driving in real traffic environments2001Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 171-185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Among learner drivers with cerebral palsy (CP), driver education is problematic for those failing to fulfil their education as well as for those becoming licensed drivers. A crucial ingredient in the development of driving is the quality of the visual search. Problems increase for CP learners in those parts of training where high demands are set on visual search abilities. The aim of the study was to increase knowledge about search patterns among learners with CP in comparison with learners and experienced drivers without CP. The study was carried out in traffic by measuring eye movements and the duration and distribution of fixation. The results show that search strategies among learners with CP were less flexible than in the control groups. The results suggest a need for better methods for teaching CP learners search strategies and may provide a tool for such development. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 4. Hakamies-Blomqvist, L.
    et al.
    Raitanen, T.
    Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    O'Neill, D.
    Department of Medical Gerontology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Driver ageing does not cause higher accident rates per km2002Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 271-274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on Finnish survey data, older (65+, n=1559) and younger (26-40, n=310) drivers' accident rates were compared. In accordance with earlier studies, the rates were similar per driver (0.1) but there was a non-significant trend towards older drivers having more accidents per distance driven (10.8 vs. 8.3 per 1 million km). However, when the accidents-per-km comparison was made in groups matched for yearly exposure, there is no evidence for higher risk with increasing age. In both age groups, risk per km decreased with increasing yearly driving distance. We suggest that the previous perception of an age-related risk increase of accidents per distance driven arises from a failure to control for low mileage bias at all ages. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Hatakka, Mika
    et al.
    Åbo.
    Keskinen, Esko
    Åbo.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, Socialmedicin och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Glad, Alf
    Oslo.
    From control of the vehicle to personal self-control, broadening the perspectives to driver education2002Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 201-215Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective is to formulate guidelines and goals for future development in the area of driver training and education. The content of this paper is not empirical, but merely an analytical summary or review. A four-level descriptive model is presented in which driver behaviour is conceptualised as a hierarchy, in which the goals and motives of the driver play an essential role. The recent constructivist ideas in mainstream pedagogy and psychology of learning are combined with a hierarchical approach to driver behaviour. A comprehensive framework for goals and contents of driver education (GDE framework) is presented. Two main conclusions can be drawn. Firstly, the conceptual analysis points towards a need to emphasise the motivational aspects in driver education more than it is done at present. Secondly, in order to reach the goals, pedagogical methods should be re-evaluated. For example, active learning methods and use of self-reflection should be promoted in driver education.

  • 6.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ahlstrom, Christer
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nylin, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mengist, Alachew
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tactical steering behaviour under irrevocable visual occlusion2018Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 55, s. 67-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the extent of a drivers mental model with irrevocable visual occlusion and analysing the distance to crash. Background: Drivers have a mental model of the immediate surroundings which allows them to predict their own as well as others travel paths. To navigate safely through traffic, this mental model has to be updated frequently to remain valid. In between information sampling events, the mental model will become outdated over time, as the traffic system is dynamic. Method: A simulator study with 22 participants was conducted to investigate the information decay in the mental model. This was implemented by extending visual occlusion until the driver collided with another vehicle or ran off the road, thus providing an estimate of how long it takes until the mental model becomes obsolete. Results: An analysis of variance with the factors curve direction, curve radius and traffic showed that curve radius did not influence the distance to crash. Without traffic, drivers veered off the road sooner in right curves. Adding traffic eliminated this difference. Traffic ahead led to a shortened distance to crash. Compared to a tangential travel path from the current lateral position at the time of the occlusion, drivers crashed on average 2.6 times later than they would have, had they not had any mental model of the situation. Conclusions: The drivers mental representation of the future situation seems to include information on how to act, to alleviate deviations in yaw angle, including and considering the presence of other road users. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Attentional requirements on cyclists and drivers in urban intersections2020Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 68, s. 105-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though often travelling on the same roads, it has been shown that cyclists and car drivers interpret their environment differently, which can lead to misunderstandings and collisions. Based on the Minimum Required Attention (MiRA) theory and the Salience, Effort, Expectancy, Value (SEEV) model, it is investigated whether the attentional requirements put on drivers and cyclists are different in urban intersections, and how difficult it is to fulfil the requirements for the two road user groups. Additionally, glance data from 23 participants who both cycled and drove along an urban route are compared with respect to information sampling strategies and the fulfilment of attentional requirements depending on its type for three intersections. Generally, more attentional requirements existed for cyclists, and due to where they occur relative to the infrastructure, in combination with the physical aspects of cycling, they are less likely to be fulfilled. This was also corroborated by the empirical data, which showed that requirements clearly visible from the infrastructural design are fulfilled more often than those that are not. Overall, the theoretical evaluation of the infrastructure was confirmed by the empirical data, such that the proposed method can be used as a starting point for a theoretical, human centred evaluation of traffic infrastructure. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ihlstrom, Jonas
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ahlstrom, Christer
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Cyclist efficiency and its dependence on infrastructure and usual speed2018Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 54, s. 148-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bicyclists are a heterogeneous group, with varying abilities, traffic education and experience. While efficiency was identified as an important factor on utility bicycle trips, it might be traded for experienced safety, for example by choosing different pathways in a given situation, or by relinquishing ones right of way. In a semi-controlled study with 41 participants, a grouping was made according to self-reported riding speed in relation to other cyclists. The participants cycled twice along a 3 km inner-city route, passing four intersections with different priority rules. The cyclists were free to choose how to negotiate the intersections. Speed and the traffic surroundings were recorded via gps and cameras on the bike of the participant and of a following experimenter. For each cyclist, the base speed on undisturbed segments was determined as reference. Based on this, the efficiency in different types of intersections was computed per cyclist group. It turned out that infrastructural aspects, cyclist group and the presence and behaviour of interacting traffic influenced cyclist efficiency. Faster cyclists were delayed more when the infrastructure required a stop regardless of the traffic situation, like at a red traffic light or a stop sign. The members of the so-called comfort cyclists group were delayed the most in a roundabout with mixed traffic, where many chose to get off their bike and walk. In a society working for equality of access to the transport system, it is recommended to develop solutions that consider and accommodate the behaviours of different cyclist groups when planning bicycling infrastructure. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Speed perception affected by field of view: Energy-based versus rhythm-based processing2019Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 65, s. 227-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments were carried out to test speed perception dependency on field of view (FoV), virtual road markings (VRMs), and presentation orders. The primary purpose was to examine how the extent of the optic flow (foremost peripherally-vertically) informs the driver about egospeed. A second purpose was to examine different task demands and stimulus characteristics supporting rhythm-based versus energy-based processing. A third purpose was to examine speed changes indicative of changes in motion sensitivity. Participants were tested in a car simulator, with FoV resembling low front-door windows, and with VRMs inside the car. Three main results were found. Larger FoV, both horizontally and peripherally-vertically, significantly reduced participants speed, as did VRMs. Delineator posts and road center lines were used for participants rhythm-based processing, when the task was to drive at target speeds. Rich motion-flow cues presented initially resulted in lower egospeed in subsequent conditions with relatively less motion-flow cues. The practical implication is that non-iconic, naturalistic and intuitive interfaces can effectively instill spontaneous speed adaptation in drivers. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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  • 10.
    Lundberg, C.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, 14186 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hakamies-Blomqvist, L.
    Driving tests with older patients: Effect of unfamiliar versus familiar vehicle2003Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 163-173Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to study the effect, for older license holders, of taking a driving test with an unfamiliar vehicle, as compared to their own cars. The study population consisted of licensed patients 65-85 years referred to the Traffic Medicine Centre (TrMC), Huddinge University Hospital, for an evaluation of their medical and cognitive fitness to drive. In the clinical practice of TrMC, driving tests have been used since 1997, with inspectors from the Swedish National Road Administration (SNRA) acting as evaluators. Initially, patients were allowed to use their own cars. From the beginning of the year 2000, however, dual brakes were made mandatory and most evaluations were then made with SNRA cars. When comparing the outcomes of driving tests from the period prior to 2000 (n=96) and after 2000 (n=69), it was found that the number of drivers who failed the test increased by 16%. Also, those who passed the test after more than one trial decreased by 20%. The potential of the neuropsychological assessment to correctly classify drivers in outcome groups was considerably reduced in the period after 2000. These results support the view that, for older drivers with cognitive deterioration, the need to adapt to an unfamiliar vehicle represents a supplementary cognitive load that may compromise their driving ability and the validity of the assessment. A measure aimed only at increasing the safety of examiners and examinees thus had an unintended side-effect that is detrimental to older clinical populations. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Rike, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Sunnaas Rehabil Hospital, Norway.
    Johansen, Hans J.
    Stavern Rehabil Hospital, Norway.
    Ulleberg, Pal
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Lundqvist, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Rehabiliteringsmedicinska kliniken.
    Schanke, Anne-Kristine
    Sunnaas Rehabil Hospital, Norway; University of Oslo, Norway.
    Exploring associations between self-reported executive functions, impulsive personality traits, driving self-efficacy, and functional abilities in driver behaviour after brain injury2015Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 29, s. 34-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The assessment of self-awareness and self-efficacy as they relate to driving after stroke and TBI is lacking in the literature where the focus has tended to be on neuropsychological testing of underlying component of cognition in predicting driving outcome. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the associations between self-rating of higher-level functions and post-injury driving behaviour. Methods: The present one-year follow-up study included twenty-four adults with stroke and ten adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) deemed suitable for driving after a comprehensive driving evaluation according to Norwegian regulations. In addition, but not part of the decision making, baseline measurements included self-rating of executive functions (Behaviour Rating of Executive Function (BRIEF-A)), impulsive personality traits (UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale), driving self-efficacy (Adelaide Driving Self-Efficacy Scale (ADSES)), and functional abilities (Awareness Questionnaire (AQ)). Follow-up measurements twelve months after baseline were collected, the ADSES, AQ and Swedish Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (Swedish DBQ). Results: Perceived driving self-efficacy and functional abilities did not change from baseline to follow-up. Baseline perceived executive functions and impulsive personality traits were significantly associated with driving self-efficacy at follow-up. Lower self-efficacy and functional abilities were associated with lower driving mileage and increased use of compensatory driving strategies, whereas lower self-efficacy beliefs were associated with driver mistakes and inattention. Driver violations and inattention were associated with minor accidents. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that higher-level functions such as executive functions, impulsive personality traits, driving self-efficacy and functional abilities, influence post-injury accident involvement mediated through proximal driving factors such as driver inattention. Further evidence is warranted to explore self-rating measures compared to performance-based methods as predictors of risky driver behaviour, crashes, and near misses.

  • 12.
    Rimmo, P.-A.
    et al.
    Rimmö, P.-A., Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Box 2125, SE-75142 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hakamies-Blomqvist, L.
    Older drivers' aberrant driving behaviour, impaired activity, and health as reasons for self-imposed driving limitations2002Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 345-360Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study used a mail survey addressed to Swedish drivers aged between 55 and 92 years (n = 939) to study the relationship between driving exposure, health, and four types of self-reported aberrant driving behaviour as measured with a Swedish version of the driver behaviour questionnaire. Age and gender were the most important predictors of the tendency to sometimes avoid driving. However, even after accounting for age and gender, reports of own erroneous driving behaviour because of inattention (e.g., failure to notice a signal) and inexperience errors (viz., handling the car), as well as impaired health, were related to self-imposed driving limitations, whereas the violations and mistakes factors were not. Problems with activities of daily living were only marginally associated with self-imposed driving limitations, mediated through inattention and inexperience errors. The results support the notion that older drivers adjust their driving in response to their health and to the problems they experience while driving. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Siren, A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 9, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning.
    Private car as the grand equaliser? Demographic factors and mobility in Finnish men and women aged 65+2004Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 107-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the association between selected demographic variables and community-related mobility of Finnish elderly citizens. A mail survey was sent to 2500 Finnish citizens aged 65 and over. The overall response rate was 62%. Mobility was measured in two dimensions: overt travel behaviour and unfulfilled travel needs. Several demographic variables had a clear association with both dimensions of mobility. Sub-groups with reduced mobility included women, rural residents, the oldest old, and those without a driver license. When the interactions of single demographic variables were controlled for, significant predictors for hindered mobility were absence of driver license and rural-type residing. The results indicate that the level of mobility varies among the elderly, and there are certain sub-groups with limited mobility, often those with less overall resources. The possibility to drive a private car is, at present, crucial for older persons' mobility, which has important implications both for further research and policy discussion. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Peters, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Cognitive workload and driving behavior in persons with hearing loss2013Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 21, s. 113-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To compare the effect of cognitive workload in individuals with and without hearing loss, respectively, in driving situations with varying degree of complexity.

    Methods

    24 participants with moderate hearing loss (HL) and 24 with normal hearing (NH) experienced three different driving conditions: Baseline driving; Critical events with a need to act fast; and a Parked car event with the possibility to adapt the workload to the situation. Additionally, a Secondary task (observation and recalling of 4 visually displayed letters) was present during the drive, with two levels of difficulty in terms of load on the phonological loop. A tactile signal, presented by means of a vibration in the seat, was used to announce the Secondary task and thereby simultaneously evaluated in terms of effectiveness when calling for driver attention. Objective driver behavior measures (M and SD of driving speed, M and SD of lateral position, time to line crossing) were accompanied by subjective ratings during and after the test drive.

    Results

    HL had no effect on driving behavior at Baseline driving, where no events occurred. Both during Secondary task and at the Parked car event HL was associated with decreased mean driving speed compared to baseline driving. The effect of HL on the Secondary task performance, both at Baseline driving and at the lower Difficulty Level at Critical events, was more skipped letters and fewer correctly recalled letters. At Critical events, task difficulty affected participants with HL more. Participants were generally positive to use vibrations in the seat as a means for announcing the Secondary task.

    Conclusions

    Differences in terms of driving behavior and task performance related to HL appear when the driving complexity exceeds Baseline driving either in the driving task, Secondary task or a combination of both. This leads to a more cautious driving behavior with a decreased mean driving speed and less focus on the Secondary task, which could be a way of compensating for the increasing driving complexity. Seat vibration was found to be a feasible way to alert drivers with or without HL.

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