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  • 1.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Borg, Karin E.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hensing, Gunnel K.E.
    Department of Social Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
    Sickness absence with low-back, shoulder, or neck diagnoses: An 11-year follow-up regarding gender differences in sickness absence and disability pension2005In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 25, no 2, 115-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is very little knowledge on the long-term outcomes of sickness absence. The aim was to investigate sickness absence and disability pensions over 11 years in a cohort of young persons initially long-term sick listed with back, neck, or shoulder diagnoses.

    Method: A prospective population-based cohort study of all 213 individuals in the Municipality of Linköping, Sweden, who in 1985 were aged 25-34 and had at least one new sick-leave spell > 28 days with such diagnoses.

    Main results: More women (61%) than men fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In 1996, 22% of the cohort (14% of the men, 26% of the women) had been granted disability pension; 76% of these individuals with musculoskeletal and the rest with psychiatric diagnoses. Partial disability pension was granted to 59% of the women, 17% of the men. Women were more often granted temporary disability pension than men.

    Conclusions: This proved to be a high-risk group for disability pension. There were large and somewhat unexpected gender differences regarding incidence and type of disability pension. It has been debated how soon physicians should be concerned about the risk of long-term disability regarding these diagnoses; at four or eight weeks of sickness absence - our results support the former, at least for women.

  • 2.
    Arneson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, National Centre for Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, National Centre for Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Measuring empowerment in working life: a review2006In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 26, no 1, 37-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study identifies and describes questionnaires that measure empowerment in working life. Theoretical bases and empirical examination of the questionnaires are also reported. Nine questionnaires emerged from a database search including AMED, CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE and PSYCINFO. The main target groups were employees in general. Most authors share the same theoretical basis. Most of the questionnaires focus on intra- individual issues, while a smaller number deal with the interaction between individual and organization. Control and competence are frequently used dimensions. Cronbach's alpha for complete questionnaires ranged between 0.62 and 0.96. No comparisons with outcome of health were reported. Spreitzer's questionnaire [54] has undergone the most comprehensive investigation. Research is required to achieve better understanding of the interplay between conditions at work and empowerment and health.

  • 3.
    Bendixen, Hans-Jörgen
    et al.
    Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Occupational therapists' job satisfaction in a changing hospital organisation: A time-geography-based study2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 2, 159-171 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate occupational therapists’ job satisfaction under a changing regime by using a timegeographicapproach focusing on the therapists’ everyday working lives.PARTICIPANTS: Nine occupational therapists at the Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.METHOD: A mixed-method design was employed. Occupational therapists kept time-geographic diaries, and the results fromthem were grounded for individual, semi-structured in-depth interviews. Individual reflections on everyday working life wererecorded. Transcribed statements from the interviews were analysed to determine factors influencing job satisfaction.RESULTS: The nine therapists kept diaries for one day a month for a total of 70 preselected days over a period of nine months;six participated in individual interviews. Four factors constraining OT job satisfaction were revealed. Economic concerns, newprofessional paradigms and methods in combination with a new organisational structure for the occupational therapy servicecaused uncertainty. In addition, decreasing possibilities for supervision by colleagues influenced job satisfaction. Opportunitiesfor experiencing autonomy in everyday working life were described as facilitators for job satisfaction.CONCLUSION: The time-geographic and interview methods were useful in focusing on the job satisfaction of occupationaltherapists, who provided individual interpretations of the balance between autonomy and three types of constraints in everydayworking life. The constraints related to organisation, power relations and – not least – how the organisational project of thedepartment fitted in with OTs’ individual projects. Matching of organisational and individual projects is of crucial importance,not only for OTs but for most workplaces where individuals are employed to serve patients in the healthcare sector.

  • 4.
    Berglund, M
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karltun, A
    Jonköping University.
    Towards understanding and managing the learning process in mail sorting2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 41, no 2, 115-126 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This paper was based on case study research at the Swedish Mail Service Division and it addresses learning time to sort mail at new districts and means to support the learning process on an individual as well as organizational level. Participants: The study population consisted of 46 postmen and one team leader in the Swedish Mail Service Division. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Data were collected through measurements of time for mail sorting, interviews and a focus group. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: The study showed that learning to sort mail was a much more complex process and took more time than expected by management. Means to support the learning process included clarification of the relationship between sorting and the topology of the district, a good work environment, increased support from colleagues and management, and a thorough introduction for new postmen. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: The identified means to support the learning process require an integration of human, technological and organizational aspects. The study further showed that increased operations flexibility cannot be reinforced without a systems perspective and thorough knowledge about real work activities and that ergonomists can aid businesses to acquire this knowledge.

  • 5.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    Swerea IVF, Sweden Chalmers, Sweden .
    Gustavsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning in Working Life and Educational Settings. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Safsten, Kristina
    Jonköping University, Sweden .
    New ways of organizing product introductions2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, 4856-4861 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe and reflect on an interactive research approach used to address the challenges on how to improve product introductions, the part of the product realization process associated with the transfer of a product from product development to serial production. In the interactive research approach, research results as well as improvement of practice are given equal importance. The collaboration between researchers and practitioners therefore addresses both the focus and the process of the change. The approach includes four main iterative steps: 1) mapping/diagnosis, 2) feedback of results, 3) participation in development activities, and 4) follow-up/evaluation. The paper reports findings from interactive research in one company within office product industry and one company group, consisting of three company units within the engine industry. Preliminary findings indicate that the participating companies afterwards work in a more structured way with product introductions and that the employees have gained deeper knowledge about product introductions as well as experienced the advantages of working across functional boundaries. Furthermore, the interactive research approach is suitable to run projects from an ergonomics perspective as it focuses on developing both practice and theory, it is human-centered, and it emphasizes broad participation from practitioners.

  • 6.
    Bergman, Peter N.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Ahlberg, Gunnel
    Malardalen University, Sweden .
    Johansson, Gun
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stoetzer, Ulrich
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Aborg, Carl
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Hallsten, Lennart
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Lundberg, Ingvar
    University of Uppsala Hospital, Sweden .
    Do job demands and job control affect problem-solving?2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 42, no 2, 195-203 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The Job Demand Control model presents combinations of working conditions that may facilitate learning, the active learning hypothesis, or have detrimental effects on health, the strain hypothesis. To test the active learning hypothesis, this study analysed the effects of job demands and job control on general problem-solving strategies. Participants: A population-based sample of 4,636 individuals (55% women, 45% men) with the same job characteristics measured at two times with a three year time lag was used. Methods: Main effects of demands, skill discretion, task authority and control, and the combined effects of demands and control were analysed in logistic regressions, on four outcomes representing general problem-solving strategies. Results: Those reporting high on skill discretion, task authority and control, as well as those reporting high demand/high control and low demand/high control job characteristics were more likely to state using problem solving strategies. Conclusions: Results suggest that working conditions including high levels of control may affect how individuals cope with problems and that workplace characteristics may affect behaviour in the non-work domain.

  • 7.
    Brännmark, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hakansson, Malin
    Royal Institute Technology KTH, Sweden .
    Lean production and work-related musculoskeletal disorders: overviews of international and Swedish studies2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, 2321-2328 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aimed at summarizing the knowledge of the relationship between Lean and work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD), and WMSD risk factors, in manufacturing companies. Literature search processes identified 23 publications studying this, in scientific journals. Eight included measurements of WMSD; three were mostly negative, two showed mixed results, one showed no results and two were mostly positive. Eighteen publications included measurements of WMSD risk factors; seven showed mostly negative results, eight snowed mixed results, two showed mostly positive results and one was inconclusive. Three literature reviews were identified, which studied this question; two were mostly negative, while the third was inconclusive. Also, 12 publications of grey literature studying Lean and WMSD risk factors in Swedish organizations were identified; nine showed mixed results, two showed mostly positive results and one showed mostly negative results. Due to the varying quality and study design of the publications, together with the few identified studies, it is difficult to compare them. The context and the implementation also likely affect the results. The general conclusion was that a Lean implementation may increase the risk of WMSD and risk factors for WMSD, if it is not accompanied with an ergonomic intervention.

  • 8.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fan, Chia-Wei
    University of Illinois at Chicago.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Taylor, Renée
    University of Illinois at Chicago.
    Work environment impact scale: Testing the psychometric properties of the Swedish version2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 2, 213-219 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS) is an assessment that focuses on the fit between a person and his or her work environment. It is based on Kielhofner’s Model of Human Occupation and designed to gather information on how clients experience their work environment.

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the WEIS assessment instrument.

    In total, 95 ratings on the 17-item WEIS were obtained from a sample of clients with experience of sick leave due to different medical conditions. Rasch analysis was used to analyze the data. 

    Overall, the WEIS items together cohered to form a single construct of increasingly challenging work environmental factors. The hierarchical ordering of the items along the continuum followed a logical and expected pattern, and the participants were validly measured by the scale. The three occupational therapists serving as raters validly used the scale, but demonstrated a relatively high rater separation index, indicating differences in rater severity.  

    The findings provide evidence that the Swedish version of the WEIS is a psychometrically sound assessment across diagnoses and occupations, which can provide valuable information about experiences of work environment challenges.

  • 9.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Return to work: the predictive value of the Worker Role Interview (WRI) over two years2010In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 35, no 2, 163-172 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worker Role Interview (WRI) is an assessment tool designed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors which influence a persons ability to return to work. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the Worker Role Interview (WRI) can predict return to work over a period of two years. Fifty three long-term sick-listed people were interviewed and rated with the WRI. Differences in ratings and the ability of WRI to correctly predict whether these people would fall into the working or non-working groups at 6, 12 and 24 month follow-ups were tested by Mann-Whitney test and logistic regression respectively. Eight of 17 items in WRI were rated differently between the groups at one or more of the follow-ups. The regression models based on the WRI ratings had an overall correct prediction rate ranging from 81% to 96%. Expectation of job success which concerns the persons belief in abilities in relation to return to work emerged as an important predictive factor for return to work in all statistical analyses. The WRI assessment contains items that could predict return to work. This implies that the WRI could be a useful tool in vocational rehabilitation for identifying individual rehabilitation needs.

  • 10.
    Hillborg, Helene
    et al.
    University of Örebro, Sweden .
    Danermark, Berth
    University of Örebro, Sweden .
    Svensson, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Professionals perceptions of and views about vocational rehabilitation for people with psychiatric disabilities2013In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 44, no 4, 471-480 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: One of the challenges agencies and professionals face is to enable people on sick leave to be successful in their vocational rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to explore and analyze some professionals perceptions of and views about vocational rehabilitation among people with psychiatric disabilities. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanPARTICIPANTS: Eight professionals from four different agencies (social services, the employment service, the social insurance office, and a psychiatric outpatient setting) working in the area of vocational rehabilitation for people with psychiatric disabilities. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMETHODS: Eight in-depth interviews were conducted. The data collected was analyzed using qualitative content analysis together with an interpretive approach. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS: The results suggested the respondents were in consensus regarding that which they considered to facilitate or enable successful vocational rehabilitation. Intensive support over a long period of time and a holistic view that takes into account the habits and routines of daily life outside of work as well as the social and psychological aspects of individuals during their rehabilitation processes were considered to be just as crucial to the vocational rehabilitation process as training in the workplace. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCONCLUSIONS: These professionals dealt with a complex vocational rehabilitation system; they felt that their organizations directives and inability to collaborate successfully with other authorities restricted their scope of action and hindered their exercise of good practice.

  • 11.
    Hjalmarsson Österholm, Johannes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Department of Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönkïping, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Factors of importance for maintaining work as perceived by men with arthritis2013In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 45, no 4, 439-448 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Employment rates are significantly lower among individuals with arthritis compared to a general population. There is, however, limited research about how men with arthritis perceive their ability to maintain working. The aim of this study was thus to explore their perception of this.

    PARTICIPANTS: Nine employed men with arthritis were purposively sampled.

    METHODS: Interviews were performed and were informed by the central concepts of the Model of Human Occupation. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method was modified and used to analyze and interpret collected data.

    RESULTS: The findings showed that men with arthritis perceived a desire to work, adjusted their activity pattern, were aware of their own capabilities, had good work conditions, had environmental support and used effective medication to maintain their ability to work.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that health care professionals can help men with arthritis to find strategies and a balance between recreation and work. Ultimately, this knowledge could guide health care professionals to target men needing interventions to prevent sick leave.

  • 12.
    Ihlstrom, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Goran
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Anund, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine. Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Split-shift work in relation to stress, health and psychosocial work factors among bus drivers2017In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 56, no 4, 531-538 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Shift work has been associated with poor health, sleep and fatigue problems and low satisfaction with working hours. However, one type of shift working, namely split shifts, have received little attention. OBJECTIVE: This study examined stress, health and psychosocial aspects of split-shift schedules among bus drivers in urban transport. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to drivers working more than 70% of full time which 235 drivers in total answered. RESULTS: In general, drivers working split-shift schedules (n = 146) did not differ from drivers not working such shifts (n = 83) as regards any of the outcome variables that were studied. However, when individual perceptions towards split-shift schedules were taken into account, a different picture appeared. Bus drivers who reported problems working split shifts (36%) reported poorer health, higher perceived stress, working hours interfering with social life, lower sleep quality, more persistent fatigue and lower general work satisfaction than those who did not view split shifts as a problem. Moreover, drivers who reported problems with split shifts also perceived lower possibilities to influence working hours, indicating lower work time control. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that split shifts were not associated with increased stress, poorer health and adverse psychosocial work factors for the entire study sample. However, the results showed that individual differences were important and approximately one third of the drivers reported problems with split shifts, which in turn was associated with stress, poor health and negative psychosocial work conditions. More research is needed to understand the individual and organizational determinants of tolerance to split shifts.

  • 13.
    Karlsson, Nadine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Borg, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carstensen, John
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    Department of Social Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Risk of disability pension in relation to gender and age in a Swedish county: A 12-year population based, prospective cohort study2006In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 27, no 2, 173-179 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residents of the county of Östergötland, Sweden, who were 16-64 years of age in December 1984 and not pensioned (n=229,864), were followed in a prospective, cohort, study of data collected between 1985 and 1996. Using survival methods as the method of analysis, the likelihood of being granted a disability pension was 14% for women, 11% for men, and increased with age. Women less than 54 years of age were at higher risk than men (P<0.001), 69% of disability pensions granted were full-time and 31% were part-time, more women received part-time pensions (P<0.001). Whether the differences observed are due to gender bias in social insurance practices, to disease patterns, to occupational and work-related factors, or to a cohort effect has yet to be determined.

  • 14. Kielhofner, Gary
    et al.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy.
    Hedlund, M
    Psychometric properties of the work environment impact scale: a cross-cultural study.1999In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 12, 71-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Liedberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Avd. för rehabilitering, HHJ, Hälsohögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Symptoms of subordinated importance in fibromyalgia when differentiating working from non-working women2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 48, no 2, 155-164 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to identify differences in self-reported symptoms among working (W) and non-working (NW)women, and to determine the most important biopsychosocial variables in differentiating one group from the other.

    METHOD: A questionnaire was mailed to 524 members of a local chapter of the Swedish Rheumatology Association. A total of 362 persons responded (69%); 96% of which were women. Women older than 64 years and all men were excluded. The final study group consisted of 95 W, and 227 NW women. The questionnaire included data on demographics, employment, support, exercise, daily activities and symptoms. Data were analysed using univariate statistics and a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA).

    RESULTS: The results showed that 41% of the W and 42% of the NW women were/had been employed in service,care or business. The NW women reported a significantly higher severity of symptoms compared with the W women. The most important variable when differentiating the W from the NW women wassocial support from colleagues and employers.

    CONCLUSION: To change prevailing attitudes and values towards persons with a work disability, a process of active intervention involving staff is needed. Educating employers as to how a disability may influence a work situation, and the importance of social support, can be improved.

  • 16.
    Lindfors, Sara
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boman, John
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strategies used to handle stress by academic physicians at a university hospital2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 43, no 2, 183-193 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Research is limited regarding occupational stress and coping strategies among academic physicians; professionals whose work situation includes the three areas of clinical practice, research, and teaching. The aim was to gain knowledge of stress-coping strategies used by academic physicians.

    Participants: 17 academic physicians employed at the University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.

    Methods: Qualitative analyses were conducted of data from five focus-group interviews.

    Results: We identified eight different categories of coping strategies, e.g. self-awareness, time management, to cut corners, and to be in control. We also attempted to fit the dimensions of coping strategies into the models proposed by Folkman & Lazarus and Beehr & McGrath, respectively. The strategies were predominantly used to prevent stress from occurring, to manage anticipated stress, or to handle stress when occurring. Furthermore, the majority of the strategies identified could be placed in the problem-focused category, which we divided in a behavioural and a cognitive sub-category and in a new cognitive problem-focused and emotion-focused category.

    Conclusion: The study contributes to a wider understanding of the stress coping strategies academic physicians use. Further studies are needed to determine the consequences of these findings in order to enable the design of measures to reduce and prevent stress among academic physicians.

  • 17.
    Lindh Falk, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Liedberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Euro-Education: Employability for all (EEE4all) Design and implementation of an international course for future health-care professionals2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no 4, 433-438 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Employment is a priority in the European Union, and it is essential to address the needs of individuals disadvantaged at the labour market on grounds such as ethnicity, age, gender or disability, to increase the opportunities for these groups to gain employment. The Council of the European Union recognize the important role of national organisations in increasing gender equality and the need to integrate a gender perspective in all policies. Gender equality perspectives should also, according to the EU Plan of Action and Gender Equality be integrated in education. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjectives: To equip students in higher education with knowledge, about gender, age, disability and ethnicity in relation to employability, a European group initiated a project; Euro-Education: Employability for all (EEE4all). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanApproach: The project, funded by the European Lifelong Learning Programme, was aimed to develop and implement four course modules, each relating to employability with different focus: gender, age, disability or ethnicity. In this paper design, implementation, and evaluation of the course focused on gender, provided by the Occupational Therapy Programme at Linkoping University, is described. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: The students highlighted the importance of awareness and knowledge about gender theory and its application in relation to employability and client-centred approach.

  • 18.
    Lindqvist, Kent
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Schelp, Å
    Schelp, L
    Åhlgren, M
    Åhlgren, M
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Evaluation of an inter-organizational program for prevention of work-related injuries in a WHO Safe Community.1999In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 13, 89-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Lundberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Musculoskeletal signs in female homecare personnel: A longitudinal epidemiological study2017In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 58, no 2, 135-147 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In Sweden, homecare services take care of elderly and disabled people, work that often requires heavy lifting and forward bending, resulting in high prevalences of pain and work accidents. OBJECTIVE: Using an eight-year follow-up, this study determines the prognostic importance of certain musculoskeletal signs reported in earlier studies [1, 2] with respect to aspects of pain and perceived disability. METHODS: Baseline data has been reported in earlier studies of 607 women [1-3]. This study uses a postal questionnaire survey and reports the results of eight years post initial study. RESULTS: Segmental pain at L4-L5 and/or L5-S1 levels was associated with higher low back pain intensity and disability at the eight-year follow-up. A decrease in low back pain intensity over eight years was larger for those with segmental pain. The important signs in the longitudinal analyses of pain aspects and disability were lumbar spinal mobility and segmental pain at L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels, but the explained variations were low. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of low lumbar segmental pain provocation and mobility should be considered in routine clinical assessments, as this type of evaluation provides prognostic pain and disability information over time.

  • 20.
    Medin, Jennie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, National Centre for Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, National Centre for Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Nordlund, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, National Centre for Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Centre for Studies of Humans, Technology and Organization. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organisational change, job strain and increased risk of stroke?: a pilot study2008In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 31, no 4, 443-449 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The objective of this pilot study was to explore whether organisational change and work-related stress, as measured by the Job Content Questionnaire, were associated with first-ever stroke among working people aged 30–65.

    Methods: In a case-control study a total of 65 consecutive cases, aged 30–65 years of age, with first-ever stroke were recruited from four hospitals in Sweden during 2000–2002. During the same period, 103 random population controls in the same age interval were recruited. Data on job-related stress and traditional medical risk factors were collected by a questionnaire.

    Results: In the multivariate analyses, organisational change (OR 3.38) increased the likelihood of stroke, while experiencing an active job (OR 0.37) decreased the likelihood of stroke. Regarding risk factors outside work, age (OR 1.11), low physical activity (OR 5.21), low education (OR 2.48) and family history of stroke (OR 2.59) were associated with increased likelihood of stroke.

    Conclusion: This study suggests an association between organisational change, work-related stress and stroke. The likelihood of stroke was lower for people in active job situations.

  • 21.
    Müssener, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ståhl, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderberg, Elsy
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Does the quality of encounters affect return to work? Lay people describe their experiences of meeting various professionals during their rehabilitation process2015In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 52, no 2, 447-455 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Among the many aspects of the rehabilitation process that may be relevant for its outcome, the impact of encounters with various professionals has received little attention. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to gain a deeper understanding of how individuals with experiences of being on sick leave perceive their encounters with professionals, and how such encounters affected their ability to return to work, as well as their attitudes towards the sickness insurance system. METHODS: An inductive qualitative approach was used to analyze data from 20 interviews with men and women, aged 33-59, in Sweden who had experience of being on sick leave for at least 28 days. RESULTS: The study shows how interviewees encounters with professionals affected their self-confidence and perception of their ability to return to work. Professionals treatment of people on sick leave seems to be affected by the structural prerequisites for offering support, where sickness insurance regulations are suggested to have a large impact. CONCLUSIONS: An encouraging and supportive attitude on the part of the professionals is essential for empowering people to handle obstacles during the rehabilitation process; whereas feeling rejected and belittled in the return to work process may lead to disempowerment, and/or delays in measures and longer periods on sick leave.

  • 22.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Employability and work ability: returning to the labour market after long-term absence2013In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 44, no 4, 449-457 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse how people who return to the labour market after long-term sickness absenteeism and subsequent job loss differ in employability, work ability, health, educational level, age, and gender, compared to those who do not.

    PARTICIPANTS: The cohort consisted of 191 individuals, 20 men and 171 women, whose employment was terminated because they had not been able to return to their regular work after taking a long-term sick leave and rehabilitation measures.

    METHODS: This study is based on a postal questionnaire sent out to a cohort of previous employees in a Swedish municipality in 2008.

    RESULTS: At the time of the survey, 39% of the respondents had returned to the labour market and the remaining 61% had not. Return to the labour market after a long-term sick leave was positively associated with male gender, young age, and work ability, i.e. the ability to work with respect to health and work-related demands. Employability, educational level, and health were not significantly associated with a return to the labour market.

    CONCLUSIONS: In the discourse on employability, work ability is often neglected even though it is a central aspect of an individual's ability to obtain new employment.

  • 23.
    Norman, Kerstin
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Department for Work and Health, Stockholm.
    Floderus, Birgitta
    National Institute for Working Life, Department for Work and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagman, Maud
    National Institute for Working Life, Department for Work and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Toomingas, Allan
    National Institute for Working Life, Department for Work and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    National Institute for Working Life, Department for Work and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Musculoskeletal symptoms in relation to work exposures at call centre companies in Sweden2008In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 30, no 2, 201-214 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Call centres (CCs) are one of the most rapidly growing types of workplaces in Sweden. The purpose of the study was to assess associations between exposures at CC work and symptoms in the Neck/shoulders and Arm/hand. Comparisons were made between internal and external CCs. An internal CC is a department or separate unit within a larger company with another main core business, while an external CC is a free-standing company.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study of a selected sample of CCs was conducted. A questionnaire, covering characteristics of work and management, physical and psychosocial exposures and symptoms during the last month, was answered by 1183 operators from 28 CCs.

    Results: Three out of four operators reported pain or aches in one or more of the requested body regions, with no major difference between internal and external CC operators. Comfort of the work environment, showed the strongest association with symptoms in the Neck/shoulder and Arm/hand, in both types of CCs. Other exposures associated with symptoms in the Neck/shoulder or Arm/hand in either type of CC were: low complexity of work, long total time of customer calls per day, continuous computer work without a break, high psychological demands, low decision latitude, lack of social support from colleagues and supervisor.

    Conclusions: The study is unique in that there are no previous studies focusing on a large variety of exposures specific to CC work, based on a large number of workers from different types of CCs. The study confirms previously suggested associations between unfavourable work characteristics and management, a poor physical and psychosocial environment, and musculoskeletal symptoms in computer-telephone interactive tasks. The nature of calls during work were related to symptoms of persons working in internal CCs, whereas the time spent seated and continuous computer work were related to symptoms of those in external CCs.

  • 24.
    Palmer, Kristy
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Associations between exposure to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and reported discomfort among adolescents2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 48, no 2, 165-173 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are common among adolescents in their daily activities.Exposure to ICT has been associated with discomfort and musculoskeletal disorders in adults, with growing concern about the potential risks to children and adolescents' physical health.

    OBJECTIVE:

    The objectives of this study were to (i) quantify self-reported discomfort and exposure to ICT among adolescents; and (ii) determine if associations exist between discomfort and levels of exposure.PARTICIPANTS: The participant group comprised 33 Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years.

    METHODS:

    The study used self-reports by participants for a one week period. Intensity and location of discomfort was reported via a written discomfort log. ICT exposure and physical activity were reported through an electronic time-use diary.

    RESULTS:

    The most common ICT types reported by participants were television, mobile phones and desktop and laptop computers. Discomfort was reported by 86% of participants. The most frequently reported areas were the legs, head/neck, back and shoulders. There was no statistical association found between ICT exposure and discomfort. The majority of participants exceeded the recommended 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity.CONCLUSIONS: High exposure to ICT and high prevalence of low level discomfort was reported by the participants. Participating in regular physical activity may have some protective effect against ICT-related discomfort.

  • 25.
    Regardt, Malin
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Welin Henriksson, Elisabet
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    Lundberg, Ingrid E.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schult, Marie-Louise
    Danderyd Hospital, Sweden.
    Work ability in patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis: An explorative and descriptive study2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 53, no 2, 265-277 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) are rare, chronic inflammatory diseases leading to muscle weakness and low muscle endurance. The muscle weakness may lead to restrictions in daily activities and low health-related quality of life. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the work situation, work ability, work-related risk factors, and influence of the physical and psycho-social work environment in patients with PM and DM. METHODS: Patients with PM/DM were assessed using the Work Ability Index (WAI), and the Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS). RESULTS: Forty-eight patients (PM n = 25 and DM n = 23) participated (women/men: 29/19) with a mean age of 54 years (range 28-67 years, SD. 10) and mean disease duration of nine years (SD. 9). Forty-four percent worked full-time, 31% part-time and 25% were on full-time sick leave. More than 50% self-rated work ability as "poor" or "lessgood". Physically strenuous work components were present "quite to very often" in 23-79% and more in patients on sick leave = 2 years. For those working, the interfering factors in the work environment concerned task and time demands. Supporting factors concerned meaning of work, interactions with co-workers and others. Self-rated work ability correlated moderately-highly positive with percentage of full-time employment, work-related risk factors and opportunities and constraints in the work environment. CONCLUSIONS: Poor self-rated work ability is common in patients with PM/DM indicating a need to identify interfering risk factors and support patients to enhance work performance.

  • 26.
    Rolander, Bo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bellner, Anna-Lena
    University College of Health Sciences.
    Experience of musculo-skeletal disorders,intensity of pain, and general conditions in work: The case of employees in non-private dental clinics in a county in southern Sweden.2001In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 17, 65-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: (1) To identify perceived musculo-skeletal disorders and intensity of pain among the employees in the nonprivate dental clinics; (2) To assess perceived psychosocial and physical work conditions on the localization and intensity of musculo-skeletal disorders and pain. Study design: A questionnaire, comprising four sections (demographic, self-reported psychosocial and physical work conditions, self-reported disorders from the musculo-skeletal system, self-reported intensity of pain on nine different localization on the body) was mailed to 391 employees. Of these, 338 reported musculo-skeletal disorders. In this latter group, 239 reported work as the cause. These employees completed the questionnaire. Results: The greatest amount of pain was reported for the cervico-brachial region. Among all participants, a response pattern was found where the physical work demands were very high, the psychosocial work demands fairly high, the work climate supportive, and the control over work moderate. At an occupational group level, theoretical inconsistencies were identified in terms of a lack of anticipated relationships, especially for the dentist groups. Conclusions: For a scientific and social purpose, more research, which identifies relationships between workrelated musculo-skeletal pain and dos-response [8], effortreward [16], and demand-control [12] aspects of the working conditions, is clearly needed.

  • 27.
    Rolander, Bo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karsznia, Alek
    School of Health Sciences Jönköping university.
    Jonker, Dirk
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation.
    Öberg, Tommy
    School of Health Sciences Jönköping University.
    Bellner, Anna-Lena
    School of Health Sciences Jönköping University.
    Perceived contra observed physical work load in Swedish dentists.2005In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 25, 253-262 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an earlier questionnaire study, dentists reported high experienced physical work load in their profession, but low to moderate complaints from their musculoskeletal system. The correlation between reported physical work load and pain from the musculoskeletal system was weak. This discrepancy could not be satisfactorily explained. Therefore, a second study was undertaken, in which the same 27 dentists who reported musculoskeletal problems were video recorded during one hour of clinical work, and the records were later analyzed using PEO (Portable Ergonomic Observation). PEO is a frequency analysis method which allows observation of work in real time using a portable computer or video recordings. PEO can be adjusted for registration of single or multiple work operations. Output data are presented as frequency, duration, and sequence of the various work operations. The aim of the present study was to investigate if there was a relation between observed work load recorded with PEO, and subjectively estimated work load and musculoskeletal complaints recorded with a questionnaire based on Visual Analogue Scales. Sitting and standing postures, and head, trunk and arm movements were analyzed. The PEO observations showed that dentists generally perform their clinical work in a sitting position, with the head bent forward almost half of the time. Only weak to moderate correlations (r = 0.0-0.6) were found between observed physical work load and subjective estimations of experienced physical work load and musculoskeletal complaints. These findings support the results in our previous study, but they do not explain the large difference between the observed low work load and the subjectively experienced high work load. The study will be followed up by EMG measurements and free interviews, where both muscular load and psychosocial factors will be evaluated.

  • 28.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gullberg, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Henriksson, Chris
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Construct validity of the Assessment of Work Performance (AWP)2009In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 32, no 2, 211-218 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The instrument Assessment of Work Performance (AWP 1.1) can be used to assess an individuals skills during work performance-how efficient and appropriate a client performs a work task. The instrument is currently used by over 300 assessors working in a variety of work rehabilitation settings in Sweden, and it has been used with over 10,000 clients. In this study, the construct validity of the AWP 1.1 was tested with 364 assessments of clients with a variety of various work-related problems assessed by six occupational therapists in a Social Insurance Office in Sweden between 2004 and 2005. Principal Component Analysis shows construct validity of the AWP 1.1. Further, the findings indicate that the instrument is sensitive and discriminates between clients, and no gender related patterns were identified.

  • 29.
    Stoetzer, Ulrich
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Aborg, Carl
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Johansson, Gun
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Organization, relational justice and absenteeism2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 4, 521-529 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for more knowledge on how to manage companies towards healthier and more prosperous organizations with low levels of absenteeism. Relational Justice can be a useful concept when managing such organizations. OBJECTIVE: Organizational factors can help to explain why some companies have relatively low absenteeism rates, even though they are equal to other companies in many other aspects. Previous studies suggest that management may be one important factor. Efficient management may depend on good relations between the leaders and the employees. The concept of Relational Justice is designed to capture these relations. Consequently, a Relational Justice framework may be used to understand why some companies have a low incidence of absenteeism. PARTICIPANTS: Managers from a representative body of Swedish companies. METHODS: Interviews were analyzed to explore whether the items representing the concept of Relational Justice can be used to further understand the strategies, procedures and structures that characterize organizations and management in companies with a low incidence of absenteeism. RESULTS: Strategies, procedures or principles related to Relational Justice were common and highlighted in companies with an incidence of absenteeism. The most frequently occurring factors were; to be treated with kindness and consideration, personal viewpoint considered and to be treated impartially. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that a Relational Justice framework could be used to increase understanding of the organizational and managerial factors typical for companies with a low incidence of absenteeism. A Relational Justice approach to organizational management may be used to successfully lower absenteeism, change organizations and promote healthy and prosperous companies.

  • 30.
    Stoetzer, Ulrich
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Bergman, Peter
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Aborg, Carl
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Johansson, Gun
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ahlberg, Gunnel
    Malardalen University, Sweden .
    Parmsund, Marianne
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Organizational factors related to low levels of sickness absence in a representative set of Swedish companies2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 2, 193-205 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this qualitative study was to identify manageable organizational factors that could explain why some companies have low levels of sickness absence. There may be factors at company level that can be managed to influence levels of sickness absence, and promote health and a prosperous organization. PARTICIPANTS: 38 representative Swedish companies. METHODS: The study included a total of 204 semi-structured interviews at 38 representative Swedish companies. Qualitative thematic analysis was applied to the interviews, primarily with managers, to indicate the organizational factors that characterize companies with low levels of sickness absence. RESULTS: The factors that were found to characterize companies with low levels of sickness absence concerned strategies and procedures for managing leadership, employee development, communication, employee participation and involvement, corporate values and visions, and employee health. CONCLUSIONS: The results may be useful in finding strategies and procedures to reduce levels of sickness absence and promote health. There is research at individual level on the reasons for sickness absence. This study tries to elevate the issue to an organizational level. The findings suggest that explicit strategies for managing certain organizational factors can reduce sickness absence and help companies to develop more health-promoting strategies.

  • 31.
    Tengland, Per-Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, National Centre for Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Malmö University, Sweden .
    A qualitative approach to assessing work ability2013In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 44, no 4, 393-404 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PROBLEM: We often need to be able to assess the extent to which individuals have or lack work ability. For this we need instruments. Most of the instruments available have flaws. They either lack validity or they use roundabout methods when collecting information about the individuals work ability. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanOBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to present a conceptual model for constructing a questionnaire that can be used for assessing work ability. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMETHODS: The methods used are philosophical, i.e. analytical and deductive. A conceptual theory is provided, and based on the resulting definition of the concept of "work ability" conclusions are drawn regarding how to assess work ability. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS: When constructing quantitative instruments, we can increase validity through using a more strict definition of work ability. However, such an approach will only solve some of the problems noted above. The proposal is, instead, to create a qualitative questionnaire, founded on a definition of "work ability", which focuses on the concrete problems concerning the work ability of the individual. Finally, a sketch of such an instrument is provided, with questions covering all the relevant aspects of work ability. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCONCLUSION: The qualitative questionnaire proposed is believed to be superior to more traditional (quantitative) instruments for assessing a persons work ability, as well as for finding solutions to her problems concerning work ability.

  • 32.
    Umans, Timurs
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Broberg, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Schmidt, Manuela
    Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden,.
    Nilsson, Sofie
    Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden,.
    Olsson, Emma
    Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden,.
    Feeling well by being together: Study of swedish auditors.2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 54, no 1, 79-86 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As guardians of the public interest, auditors represent a unique occupational group. The group that has shown to experience high level of stress and overload often being associated with environmentally imposed responsibility as well as organizationally imposed performance demands. It is the later aspects, represented by the concept of organizational culture, that is being highlighted in this papers and its relationship to auditors well-beingOBJECTIVES:The paper aims to explore organizational culture as an antecedent of auditors' well-being, which is assumed to have important consequences for the quality of auditors' work.

    METHODS: This study is based on a survey of 207 Swedish auditors. Using established and validated instruments measuring aspects of organizational culture and personal well-being, the study employed correlations and multiple regression analysis in testing the relationship between the two.

    RESULTS: The results of the study suggest that increasing the degree of collectivistic organizational culture has a positive relationship with three aspects of well-being: Job satisfaction, life balance and life satisfaction.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first attempt to explore well-being of auditors and its antecedents represented by organizational culture. Contrary to the expectation that auditors take an individualistic approach to their work, this study establishes that auditors feel best in a work environment characterized by a collectivist organizational culture.

  • 33.
    Vaez, Marjan
    et al.
    Institutionen för klinisk neurovetenskap Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, National Centre for Work and Rehabilitation.
    Laflamme, Lucie
    Institutionen för folkhälsa Karolinska Institutet.
    Ratings of health and quality of life by young working people: Are there occupational or education-based differences?2004In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 23, no 3, 193-198 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines differences in self-rated health and perceived quality of life (QoL) among young working people according to occupation and education level. Subjects were extracted from a cross-sectional data set, covering questionnaire responses of people aged 20-74 years from the Swedish region of Östergötland, and addressing individual environmental and health conditions. The emphasis was on males and females in paid employment aged 20-34 (n = 863). Differences in self-rated health items and in perceived QoL were subjected to a series of t-tests. Two measures of individual socioeconomic position were considered - occupation and education. No education-based differences were found, and there were few differences based on occupation. Among males, manual workers reported significantly higher scores with regard to pain and physical function than did non-manual workers. Male and female manual workers scored significantly lower on current perceived QoL than non-manual workers. In the case of females, the differences between manual and non-manual workers also applied to former perceived QoL. Yet, after applying the Bonferroni correction, none of the differences observed remained significant. In line with some earlier studies, it appears that - among young working adults - the manners in which health status and QoL are perceived are not strongly conditional on socioeconomic position. © 2004 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Wästberg, Birgitta A.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Mona
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The Work Environment Impact Scale - Self-Rating (WEIS-SR) evaluated in primary health care in Sweden2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 42, no 3, 447-457 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To develop a self-report alternative to the Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS). Participants: First the novel instrument was used and evaluated by ten occupational therapists and 45 clients in primary health care. Then the instrument was used by 26 clients who participated in a rehabilitation programme in another primary health care district. Methods: The instrument was investigated in two steps. First content validity and utility were investigated through a questionnaire addressed to occupational therapists and their clients respectively. The response distribution was calculated by frequencies. Internal consistency was investigated. In the second step, a revised version of the instrument was investigated for test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The test-retest reliability was calculated by weighted kappa. The internal consistency of the WEIS-SR was calculated by means of Cronbachs alpha. Results: In step one the content validity was good to moderately good, the utility was good, and the internal consistency was satisfactory (0.72). In step two the internal consistency was good (0.88/0.89) and the test-retest reliability was mostly good to moderate (0.35-0.78, median 0.61). Conclusions: The instrument will be further investigated in other populations and take into consideration additional psychometric properties such as sensitivity to change, predictive validity, and concurrent validity.

  • 35.
    Ydreborg, Berit
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson , Kerstin
    University of Gothenburg.
    Swedish social insurance officers experience of their working conditions when dealing with applications for disability pension2008In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 31, no 4, 451-459 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe how Swedish social insurance officers experienced their working conditions, when dealing with applications for disability pensions (DPs). A qualitative research design was selected to describe their experiences. Open-ended interviews with ten social insurance officers were analyzed with inductive content analysis. This analysis showed that the working conditions were influenced by rules and regulations and the social insurance officers competence. The social insurance officers powerful positions and how their discretion was implemented made them feel responsible for performing their work well. They felt that the large number of clients hampered them from being able to offer the clients the activities they were entitled to, and from paying each client sufficient attention. There was a need for time to reflect and to improve management, in order to better develop the way in which DPs were handled. There was a difference in culture between the older social insurance officers, who had experience-based training, and the younger social insurance officers, who had academic qualifications. The results from this study could be used to better develop the organisation of work in the social insurance agency, and in further educational activities.

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