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  • 1.
    Ahmadi, Elena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Arbetshälsovetenskap, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Arbetshälsovetenskap, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Folkhälsovetenskap, Sweden.
    Managers’ and employees’ experiences of how managers’ wellbeing impacts their leadership behaviours in Swedish small businesses2023In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 97-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:There is a growing interest in managers’ wellbeing due to the observed associations between their wellbeing and leadership behaviours, and between leadership behaviours and employees’ wellbeing. However, it is still unclear how managers’ wellbeing influences their practiced leadership across different workplace contexts, which specific behaviours are affected, and how this varies across time.

    OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was therefore to explore managers’ and employees’ experiences and perceptions regarding the consequences of managers’ wellbeing for their leadership behaviours in small businesses.

    METHODS:Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 37 participants (19 managers and 18 employees) working at 12 Swedish small firms, and analysed using content analysis.

    RESULTS:The findings show that managers were more constructive when they felt well, and more passively destructive when unwell. Variations in managers’ wellbeing influenced their mood, energy level, and performance, as well as the company’s working climate. However, these destructive leadership variations did not have a substantial impact, because several protective factors were present.

    CONCLUSION:This study shows that the wellbeing of managers in small businesses has perceptible consequences for their leadership behaviours. The study also shows that sustained leadership behaviours may coexist with temporary variations of these behaviours on a constructive-destructive continuum depending on the leader’s wellbeing. Overall, the findings contribute to a more nuanced and dynamic understanding of how the interaction between managers’ wellbeing and their behaviours unfolds in the particular context of small companies.

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  • 2.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Borg, Karin E.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hensing, Gunnel K.E.
    Department of Social Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
    Sickness absence with low-back, shoulder, or neck diagnoses: An 11-year follow-up regarding gender differences in sickness absence and disability pension2005In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 115-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is very little knowledge on the long-term outcomes of sickness absence. The aim was to investigate sickness absence and disability pensions over 11 years in a cohort of young persons initially long-term sick listed with back, neck, or shoulder diagnoses.

    Method: A prospective population-based cohort study of all 213 individuals in the Municipality of Linköping, Sweden, who in 1985 were aged 25-34 and had at least one new sick-leave spell > 28 days with such diagnoses.

    Main results: More women (61%) than men fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In 1996, 22% of the cohort (14% of the men, 26% of the women) had been granted disability pension; 76% of these individuals with musculoskeletal and the rest with psychiatric diagnoses. Partial disability pension was granted to 59% of the women, 17% of the men. Women were more often granted temporary disability pension than men.

    Conclusions: This proved to be a high-risk group for disability pension. There were large and somewhat unexpected gender differences regarding incidence and type of disability pension. It has been debated how soon physicians should be concerned about the risk of long-term disability regarding these diagnoses; at four or eight weeks of sickness absence - our results support the former, at least for women.

  • 3.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, Linkoping, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Ihlstrom, Jonas
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Threats and violence towards urban bus drivers in Sweden: Drivers experiences and general recommendations to prevent violence and threats2022In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 1279-1287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of Swedish urban bus drivers report having been exposed to threats or violence. As 50% of drivers have voiced concerns about the occurrences, threats and violence also represent contributing factors to driver stress and fatigue. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore bus drivers experience of threats and violence; how threats and violence manifests and how the problem is handled by drivers. Gaining understanding of the circumstances is important to reduce the number of threats and violent incidents to provide healthy and attractive working conditions for drivers. METHODS: This study is based on in-depth interviews with 12 urban bus drivers in the City of Malmo in Sweden. RESULTS: Urban bus drivers experience threats daily from passengers, although physical violence occurs less often. The most common situations resulting in threats involve asking passengers to show valid tickets, denying child carriages onboard and running late to a bus stop. The drivers have not received clear guidelines as to strategic handling of the invalid ticket situation. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations include a clear policy and consensus with regard to handling invalid tickets, providing drivers with guidelines for appropriate procedures for passengers refusing to pay, improving reporting routines and establishing a strategy for the Public Transportation provider and operator to follow with regard to reports, in-vehicle surveillance cameras including informing passengers that they are being video recorded as well as harmonizing the location of alarm buttons on buses.

  • 4.
    Arneson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, National Centre for Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, National Centre for Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Measuring empowerment in working life: a review2006In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study identifies and describes questionnaires that measure empowerment in working life. Theoretical bases and empirical examination of the questionnaires are also reported. Nine questionnaires emerged from a database search including AMED, CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE and PSYCINFO. The main target groups were employees in general. Most authors share the same theoretical basis. Most of the questionnaires focus on intra- individual issues, while a smaller number deal with the interaction between individual and organization. Control and competence are frequently used dimensions. Cronbach's alpha for complete questionnaires ranged between 0.62 and 0.96. No comparisons with outcome of health were reported. Spreitzer's questionnaire [54] has undergone the most comprehensive investigation. Research is required to achieve better understanding of the interplay between conditions at work and empowerment and health.

  • 5.
    Bendixen, Hans-Jörgen
    et al.
    Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Occupational therapists' job satisfaction in a changing hospital organisation: A time-geography-based study2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 159-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate occupational therapists’ job satisfaction under a changing regime by using a timegeographicapproach focusing on the therapists’ everyday working lives.PARTICIPANTS: Nine occupational therapists at the Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.METHOD: A mixed-method design was employed. Occupational therapists kept time-geographic diaries, and the results fromthem were grounded for individual, semi-structured in-depth interviews. Individual reflections on everyday working life wererecorded. Transcribed statements from the interviews were analysed to determine factors influencing job satisfaction.RESULTS: The nine therapists kept diaries for one day a month for a total of 70 preselected days over a period of nine months;six participated in individual interviews. Four factors constraining OT job satisfaction were revealed. Economic concerns, newprofessional paradigms and methods in combination with a new organisational structure for the occupational therapy servicecaused uncertainty. In addition, decreasing possibilities for supervision by colleagues influenced job satisfaction. Opportunitiesfor experiencing autonomy in everyday working life were described as facilitators for job satisfaction.CONCLUSION: The time-geographic and interview methods were useful in focusing on the job satisfaction of occupationaltherapists, who provided individual interpretations of the balance between autonomy and three types of constraints in everydayworking life. The constraints related to organisation, power relations and – not least – how the organisational project of thedepartment fitted in with OTs’ individual projects. Matching of organisational and individual projects is of crucial importance,not only for OTs but for most workplaces where individuals are employed to serve patients in the healthcare sector.

  • 6.
    Berglund, M
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karltun, A
    Jonköping University.
    Towards understanding and managing the learning process in mail sorting2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 115-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This paper was based on case study research at the Swedish Mail Service Division and it addresses learning time to sort mail at new districts and means to support the learning process on an individual as well as organizational level. Participants: The study population consisted of 46 postmen and one team leader in the Swedish Mail Service Division. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Data were collected through measurements of time for mail sorting, interviews and a focus group. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: The study showed that learning to sort mail was a much more complex process and took more time than expected by management. Means to support the learning process included clarification of the relationship between sorting and the topology of the district, a good work environment, increased support from colleagues and management, and a thorough introduction for new postmen. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: The identified means to support the learning process require an integration of human, technological and organizational aspects. The study further showed that increased operations flexibility cannot be reinforced without a systems perspective and thorough knowledge about real work activities and that ergonomists can aid businesses to acquire this knowledge.

  • 7.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    Swerea IVF, Sweden Chalmers, Sweden .
    Gustavsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning in Working Life and Educational Settings. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Safsten, Kristina
    Jonköping University, Sweden .
    New ways of organizing product introductions2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, p. 4856-4861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe and reflect on an interactive research approach used to address the challenges on how to improve product introductions, the part of the product realization process associated with the transfer of a product from product development to serial production. In the interactive research approach, research results as well as improvement of practice are given equal importance. The collaboration between researchers and practitioners therefore addresses both the focus and the process of the change. The approach includes four main iterative steps: 1) mapping/diagnosis, 2) feedback of results, 3) participation in development activities, and 4) follow-up/evaluation. The paper reports findings from interactive research in one company within office product industry and one company group, consisting of three company units within the engine industry. Preliminary findings indicate that the participating companies afterwards work in a more structured way with product introductions and that the employees have gained deeper knowledge about product introductions as well as experienced the advantages of working across functional boundaries. Furthermore, the interactive research approach is suitable to run projects from an ergonomics perspective as it focuses on developing both practice and theory, it is human-centered, and it emphasizes broad participation from practitioners.

  • 8.
    Bergman, Peter N.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Ahlberg, Gunnel
    Malardalen University, Sweden .
    Johansson, Gun
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stoetzer, Ulrich
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Aborg, Carl
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Hallsten, Lennart
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Lundberg, Ingvar
    University of Uppsala Hospital, Sweden .
    Do job demands and job control affect problem-solving?2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 195-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The Job Demand Control model presents combinations of working conditions that may facilitate learning, the active learning hypothesis, or have detrimental effects on health, the strain hypothesis. To test the active learning hypothesis, this study analysed the effects of job demands and job control on general problem-solving strategies. Participants: A population-based sample of 4,636 individuals (55% women, 45% men) with the same job characteristics measured at two times with a three year time lag was used. Methods: Main effects of demands, skill discretion, task authority and control, and the combined effects of demands and control were analysed in logistic regressions, on four outcomes representing general problem-solving strategies. Results: Those reporting high on skill discretion, task authority and control, as well as those reporting high demand/high control and low demand/high control job characteristics were more likely to state using problem solving strategies. Conclusions: Results suggest that working conditions including high levels of control may affect how individuals cope with problems and that workplace characteristics may affect behaviour in the non-work domain.

  • 9.
    Bernfort, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Persson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Linderoth, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Supervisor ratings of productivity loss associated with presenteeism and sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders and common mental disorders in Sweden2021In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 1091-1100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health problems due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and common mental disorders (CMD) result in costs due to lost productivity. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to increase knowledge of employers productivity loss due to employees presenteeism and sickness absence. METHODS: A web questionnaire was sent to employers of workers who were sick-listed for more than 30 days due to MSD or CMD, response rate: 50%, n = 198. Presenteeism and the impact on productivity before and after sick leave, and the performance of work tasks by replacement workers during sick leave, were measured using supervisors ratings. RESULTS: The average loss of productivity per sick-leave case amounted to almost 10 weeks, 53% of productivity loss was attributable to presenteeism and 47% to lower productivity by replacement workers. Employees with a CMD diagnosis had significantly higher presenteeism-related productivity loss than those with MSD. CONCLUSIONS: Employers experienced substantial productivity loss associated with employees presenteeism and sick leave. Whether the supervisory rating of presenteeism is preferable to employee self-rating needs to be studied further. The long duration of presenteeism is counter-productive to resource-efficient organisations and indicates the need for improved supervisory skills to identify workers with poor health, both before and after sick leave.

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  • 10.
    Borg, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    Department of Social Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, SwedenDepartment of Social Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
    Alexandersson, Kristina
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Prediction of future low levels of sickness absence among young persons sick listed with low-back, neck, or shoulder diagnoses2004In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 159-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years sickness absence has increased in most Western countries. Risk factors for sickness absence and disability pension have been emphasised in studies, while focus on factors predicting low sickness absence is very rare. This paper is an attempt to apply such a perspective in an 11-year prospective cohort study of young persons n = 213) who in 1985 were sick listed ≥ 28 days with back, neck, or shoulder diagnoses. Having had no sick-leave spells > 14 days in 1992-1996 was used as the outcome measure. Sixty-nine persons (34%) had no such spells, with an unexpected similar proportion of men and women. Data on prior sick leave and demographic variables were analysed using univariate and multiple logistic regression. Factors that predicted low sickness absence were having prior low sickness absence, being a white-collar worker, and being married. We concluded that individuals with a history of low sickness absence have an increased odds for remaining in the work force after a single long sick-leave spell, and might need less attention in rehabilitation compared to persons with a history of high sickness absence. Focusing on low sickness absence led to different results than those discussed in previous studies on risk factors for disability pension.

  • 11.
    Brännmark, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hakansson, Malin
    Royal Institute Technology KTH, Sweden .
    Lean production and work-related musculoskeletal disorders: overviews of international and Swedish studies2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, p. 2321-2328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aimed at summarizing the knowledge of the relationship between Lean and work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD), and WMSD risk factors, in manufacturing companies. Literature search processes identified 23 publications studying this, in scientific journals. Eight included measurements of WMSD; three were mostly negative, two showed mixed results, one showed no results and two were mostly positive. Eighteen publications included measurements of WMSD risk factors; seven showed mostly negative results, eight snowed mixed results, two showed mostly positive results and one was inconclusive. Three literature reviews were identified, which studied this question; two were mostly negative, while the third was inconclusive. Also, 12 publications of grey literature studying Lean and WMSD risk factors in Swedish organizations were identified; nine showed mixed results, two showed mostly positive results and one showed mostly negative results. Due to the varying quality and study design of the publications, together with the few identified studies, it is difficult to compare them. The context and the implementation also likely affect the results. The general conclusion was that a Lean implementation may increase the risk of WMSD and risk factors for WMSD, if it is not accompanied with an ergonomic intervention.

  • 12.
    Ehn, Mattias
    et al.
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Sweden; Orebro Univ, Sweden; Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Wahlqvist, Moa
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Sweden; Orebro Univ, Sweden; Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Danermark, Berth
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Sweden; Orebro Univ, Sweden; Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Moller, Claes
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Sweden; Orebro Univ, Sweden; Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Health, work, social trust, and financial situation in persons with Usher syndrome type 12018In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 209-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated that persons with Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) have significantly poorer physical and psychological health compared to a reference group. PURPOSE: To explore the relation between work, health, social trust, and financial situation in USH1 compared to a reference group. MATERIAL: Sixty-six persons (18-65 y) from the Swedish Usher database received a questionnaire and 47 were included, 23 working and 24 non-working. The reference group comprised 3,049 working and 198 non-working persons. METHODS: The Swedish Health on Equal Terms questionnaire was used and statistical analysis with multiple logistic regression was conducted. RESULTS: The USH1 non-work group had a higher Odds ratio (95% CI) in poor psychological and physical health, social trust, and financial situation compared to the USH1 work group and reference groups. Age, gender, hearing, and vision impairment did not explain the differences. The relation between the USH1 work and non-work groups showed the same pattern as the reference groups, but the magnitude of problems was significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: Both disability and unemployment increased the risk of poor health, social trust and financial situation in persons with USH1, but having an employment seemed to counteract the risks related to disability.

  • 13.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fan, Chia-Wei
    University of Illinois at Chicago.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Taylor, Renée
    University of Illinois at Chicago.
    Work environment impact scale: Testing the psychometric properties of the Swedish version2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 213-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS) is an assessment that focuses on the fit between a person and his or her work environment. It is based on Kielhofner’s Model of Human Occupation and designed to gather information on how clients experience their work environment.

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the WEIS assessment instrument.

    In total, 95 ratings on the 17-item WEIS were obtained from a sample of clients with experience of sick leave due to different medical conditions. Rasch analysis was used to analyze the data. 

    Overall, the WEIS items together cohered to form a single construct of increasingly challenging work environmental factors. The hierarchical ordering of the items along the continuum followed a logical and expected pattern, and the participants were validly measured by the scale. The three occupational therapists serving as raters validly used the scale, but demonstrated a relatively high rater separation index, indicating differences in rater severity.  

    The findings provide evidence that the Swedish version of the WEIS is a psychometrically sound assessment across diagnoses and occupations, which can provide valuable information about experiences of work environment challenges.

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  • 14.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Perceptions of the work environment among people with experience of long term sick leave2010In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 125-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aims were to describe and analyze how people with experience of long term sick leave perceive that factors in their work environment support or interfere with work performance, satisfaction, and well-being. Method: The 53 participants were interviewed with the Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS). The WEIS ratings and belonging notes were analyzed by descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis respectively. Differences in WEIS ratings between; women and men; participants with somatic and mental diseases; and participants working and on full-time sick leave were tested. Results: The most supportive factors concerned social interactions at work, and the value and meaning of work. The factors perceived as most interfering concerned work demands and rewards. The social relations at work were perceived as more supportive by the working group than by those on full-time sick leave. The participants with somatic diseases perceived physical work factors as more interfering than did participants with mental diseases, who in turn perceived the value and meaning of work as more interfering. Conclusion: Knowledge about the interaction between the worker and the work environment could reveal useful information about the complex phenomenon of reducing sick leave. The WEIS seems useful in providing information about how alterations and accommodations in the work environment could support individual workers.

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  • 15.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Return to work: the predictive value of the Worker Role Interview (WRI) over two years2010In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 163-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worker Role Interview (WRI) is an assessment tool designed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors which influence a persons ability to return to work. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the Worker Role Interview (WRI) can predict return to work over a period of two years. Fifty three long-term sick-listed people were interviewed and rated with the WRI. Differences in ratings and the ability of WRI to correctly predict whether these people would fall into the working or non-working groups at 6, 12 and 24 month follow-ups were tested by Mann-Whitney test and logistic regression respectively. Eight of 17 items in WRI were rated differently between the groups at one or more of the follow-ups. The regression models based on the WRI ratings had an overall correct prediction rate ranging from 81% to 96%. Expectation of job success which concerns the persons belief in abilities in relation to return to work emerged as an important predictive factor for return to work in all statistical analyses. The WRI assessment contains items that could predict return to work. This implies that the WRI could be a useful tool in vocational rehabilitation for identifying individual rehabilitation needs.

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  • 16.
    Forsyth, Kirsty
    et al.
    Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
    Braveman, Brent
    University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kielhofner, Gary
    University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fenger, Kristjana
    Occupational Therapy Program, University of Akureyi, Akureyi, Iceland.
    Keller, Jessica
    Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
    Psychometric properties of the Worker Role Interview2006In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 313-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. This study examined the psychometric properties of the rating scale of the Worker Role Interview (WRI). The study also asked whether the scale's items formed a valid measure of the construct, psychosocial capacity for work, and whether they were targeted to and could effectively discriminate between persons at different levels of psychosocial ability for work.

    Method of study. Data were collected from 21 raters on 440 participants from the United States, Sweden and Iceland. A many-faceted Rasch model was used to analyze the data.

    Results. Most items of the scale worked effectively to measure the underlying construct for which the WRI was designed. In addition, the items were ordered from least to more of the underlying construct as expected. The scale validly measured 90.23% of the participants, who varied by nationality, culture, age and diagnostic status. The scale's items distinguished participants into approximately three different strata and were appropriately targeted to the participants. Seventeen of the 21 raters used scale in a valid manner.

    Conclusions. The WRI scale and items are valid across ages, diagnoses, and culture and effectively measure a wide range of persons.

  • 17.
    Hagberg, Jan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Vaez, Marjan
    Karolinska Institute.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Methods for analysing individual changes in sick-leave diagnoses over time2010In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 283-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several methodological challenges arise when attempting to analyse individual data on changes of sick-leave diagnoses over several years. Sick-leave spells for a person can recur, have different sick-leave diagnoses, and both these aspects are dependent of previous episodes, the numbers of repeated periods vary across subjects, and standard statistical methods are not valid for variables on nominal scales, e. g. sick-leave diagnoses. Objective: Our aim was to ascertain whether the number and pattern of changes in sick-leave diagnoses are associated with future disability pension (DP) and to test methods for analysis of repeated measurements on nominal data. Participants: Data from a 12-year prospective cohort study of the 8000 sick-leave periods of the 213 persons aged 25-34 who, in 1985, had a new sick-leave spell andgt;= 28 days with back diagnoses were used. Methods: We used entropies, uncertainty coefficients adjusted for repeated measurements, and transition matrices to examine the changes in sick-leave diagnoses that occurred during follow up. Results: In the 12 years 22% were granted DP and they had changed sick-leave diagnosis less frequently and more often had new sick-leave periods with musculoskeletal diagnoses than the others. The variation in diagnoses and the degree of dependence between consecutive diagnoses were associated with DP. Conclusions: Many tools in statistics are based on linear methods that require numerical variables, but such methods are not valid for repeated measurements on discrete variables on nominal scales, as for sick-leave diagnosis. In such cases, it can be beneficial to use tools that are applied in statistical information theory.

  • 18.
    Hallqvist, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Learning in occupational transitions: a study of the process following job loss2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 331-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This article examines how workers supported by outplacement services engage with an occupational transition through problem solving and learning.

    Participants: The participants were 23 mid-life redundant white collar workers with at least eight years in their sector, organization or occupation. The selected interviewees either participated in training to broaden their professional competence or did not make any such ‘expansive’ efforts.

    Methods: The study was based on narrative interviews, which enabled a detailed cross case examination of individuals’ actions and choices and how the process unfolds over time.

    Results: The results showed that people treat their job loss as a practical problem to be solved using various strategies. This problemsolving process is structured, with people passing similar crossroads defining particular challenges and opportunities giving people limited sets of choices.

    Conclusion: The results point to the significance of creativity and learning in occupational transitions.

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  • 19.
    Hillborg, Helene
    et al.
    University of Örebro, Sweden .
    Danermark, Berth
    University of Örebro, Sweden .
    Svensson, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Professionals perceptions of and views about vocational rehabilitation for people with psychiatric disabilities2013In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 471-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: One of the challenges agencies and professionals face is to enable people on sick leave to be successful in their vocational rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to explore and analyze some professionals perceptions of and views about vocational rehabilitation among people with psychiatric disabilities. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanPARTICIPANTS: Eight professionals from four different agencies (social services, the employment service, the social insurance office, and a psychiatric outpatient setting) working in the area of vocational rehabilitation for people with psychiatric disabilities. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMETHODS: Eight in-depth interviews were conducted. The data collected was analyzed using qualitative content analysis together with an interpretive approach. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS: The results suggested the respondents were in consensus regarding that which they considered to facilitate or enable successful vocational rehabilitation. Intensive support over a long period of time and a holistic view that takes into account the habits and routines of daily life outside of work as well as the social and psychological aspects of individuals during their rehabilitation processes were considered to be just as crucial to the vocational rehabilitation process as training in the workplace. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCONCLUSIONS: These professionals dealt with a complex vocational rehabilitation system; they felt that their organizations directives and inability to collaborate successfully with other authorities restricted their scope of action and hindered their exercise of good practice.

  • 20.
    Hjalmarsson Österholm, Johannes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Department of Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönkïping, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Factors of importance for maintaining work as perceived by men with arthritis2013In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 439-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Employment rates are significantly lower among individuals with arthritis compared to a general population. There is, however, limited research about how men with arthritis perceive their ability to maintain working. The aim of this study was thus to explore their perception of this.

    PARTICIPANTS: Nine employed men with arthritis were purposively sampled.

    METHODS: Interviews were performed and were informed by the central concepts of the Model of Human Occupation. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method was modified and used to analyze and interpret collected data.

    RESULTS: The findings showed that men with arthritis perceived a desire to work, adjusted their activity pattern, were aware of their own capabilities, had good work conditions, had environmental support and used effective medication to maintain their ability to work.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that health care professionals can help men with arthritis to find strategies and a balance between recreation and work. Ultimately, this knowledge could guide health care professionals to target men needing interventions to prevent sick leave.

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  • 21.
    Honore, Helene
    et al.
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Pallesen, Hanne
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nielsen, Jorgen Feldbaek
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Mind the gap. How job task distributions of health professional developers constitute evidence-based practice2021In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 223-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Development of clinical practice at a Danish neurorehabilitation centre was delegated to a group of health professional developers. Their job function lacked conceptual foundation, and it was unclear how their working tasks contributed to evidence-based practice. OBJECTIVE: Conceptual clarification of the job function and pattern analysis of activity distributions for health professional developers. METHODS: Health professional developers kept continuous time geographical diaries for two weeks. Meaningful categories were subtracted through content analysis. Patterns were analysed within activity distributions with regards to evidence-based practice. RESULTS: A total of 213 diaries were collected from 21 health professional developers of three professions (physiotherapists, occupational therapists and nurses). Each participant reported 6-13 workdays (median 10 days). Eleven main categories of work tasks emerged with 42 subcategories. Overall, 7% of total time reported was spent on external knowledge, with minimal variation between professions and contractual time allocation. CONCLUSION: Conceptual clarification of work tasks was established for health professional developers. Their work activity distributions contributed mainly to maintenance of existing level of professional knowledge rather than to implementation of new knowledge, which did not fulfil the intended responsibility for development of evidence-based practice. Educational competence boost and data-driven change of organisation structure was recommended.

  • 22.
    Ihlstrom, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Goran
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Anund, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine. Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Split-shift work in relation to stress, health and psychosocial work factors among bus drivers2017In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 531-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Shift work has been associated with poor health, sleep and fatigue problems and low satisfaction with working hours. However, one type of shift working, namely split shifts, have received little attention. OBJECTIVE: This study examined stress, health and psychosocial aspects of split-shift schedules among bus drivers in urban transport. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to drivers working more than 70% of full time which 235 drivers in total answered. RESULTS: In general, drivers working split-shift schedules (n = 146) did not differ from drivers not working such shifts (n = 83) as regards any of the outcome variables that were studied. However, when individual perceptions towards split-shift schedules were taken into account, a different picture appeared. Bus drivers who reported problems working split shifts (36%) reported poorer health, higher perceived stress, working hours interfering with social life, lower sleep quality, more persistent fatigue and lower general work satisfaction than those who did not view split shifts as a problem. Moreover, drivers who reported problems with split shifts also perceived lower possibilities to influence working hours, indicating lower work time control. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that split shifts were not associated with increased stress, poorer health and adverse psychosocial work factors for the entire study sample. However, the results showed that individual differences were important and approximately one third of the drivers reported problems with split shifts, which in turn was associated with stress, poor health and negative psychosocial work conditions. More research is needed to understand the individual and organizational determinants of tolerance to split shifts.

  • 23.
    Karlsson, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Seing, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ståhl, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Social validity of work ability evaluations and official decisions within the sickness insurance system: a client perspective2021In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 109-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Studies of the social validity of work ability evaluations are rare, although the concept can provide valuable information about the acceptability, comprehensibility and importance of procedures. 

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore clients’ perceptions of social validity of work ability evaluations and the following official decisions concerning sickness benefits within the Swedish sickness insurance system.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a longitudinal qualitative study based on interviews with 30 clients on sick leave, analyzed through deductive content analysis. 

    RESULTS: Clients’ understanding of the evaluation was dependent on whether the specific tests were perceived as clearly related to the clients’ situation and what information they received. For a fair description of their work ability, clients state that the strict structure in the evaluation is not relevant to everyone. 

    CONCLUSION: The work ability evaluations indicate low acceptability due to lack of individual adaptation, the comprehensibility varied depending on the applicability of the evaluation and information provided, while the dimension ‘importance’ indicated as higher degree of social validity. The official decision about sickness benefits however was considered unrelated to the evaluation results, lacking solid arguments and sometimes contradictory to other stakeholders’ recommendations indicating poor social validity.

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  • 24.
    Karlsson, Nadine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Borg, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carstensen, John
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    Department of Social Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Risk of disability pension in relation to gender and age in a Swedish county: A 12-year population based, prospective cohort study2006In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 173-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residents of the county of Östergötland, Sweden, who were 16-64 years of age in December 1984 and not pensioned (n=229,864), were followed in a prospective, cohort, study of data collected between 1985 and 1996. Using survival methods as the method of analysis, the likelihood of being granted a disability pension was 14% for women, 11% for men, and increased with age. Women less than 54 years of age were at higher risk than men (P<0.001), 69% of disability pensions granted were full-time and 31% were part-time, more women received part-time pensions (P<0.001). Whether the differences observed are due to gender bias in social insurance practices, to disease patterns, to occupational and work-related factors, or to a cohort effect has yet to be determined.

  • 25. Kielhofner, Gary
    et al.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy.
    Hedlund, M
    Psychometric properties of the work environment impact scale: a cross-cultural study.1999In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 12, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Klanghed Müssener, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alexandersson, Kristina
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Positive encounters with rehabilitation professionals reported by persons with experience of sickness absence2004In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 247-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More knowledge is needed on different factors that can promote return to work among sick-listed persons. One such factor might be by their interactions with the rehabilitation professionals they encounter. The aim of the present study was to identify and analyze statements about positive encounters with rehabilitation staff, reported by persons who had been absent from work with back, neck, or shoulder diagnoses. A descriptive and explorative qualitative approach was used to analyze data from five focus-group interviews. There were few statements on positive encounters, and they were frequently attributed to sheer luck. Experiences of positive encounters were assigned to two major categories: respectful treatment and supportive treatment. Receiving adequate medical examination or treatment was also mentioned as being positive. Further efforts are needed to study and develop methods for investigating interactions with rehabilitation professionals that laypersons experience as positive and that may contribute to empowerment and influence return to work when sickness absent.

  • 27.
    Ladegaard, Yun
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark; Fdn Mental Hlth, Denmark.
    Skakon, Janne
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Dalgaard, Vita Ligaya
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Ståhl, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Thomsen, Soren Therkil Slot
    Ascent Consulting Grp, Denmark.
    Netterstrom, Bo
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Denmark.
    Employees with mental disorders seeking support from the workers compensation system - experiences from Denmark2023In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 1361-1377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In Europe it is commonly accepted that psychosocial hazards may influence the mental health of employees. However, mental disorders such as depression are generally not acknowledged as an occupational disease covered by the workers compensation system. Studies indicate that workers compensation claim processes may affect employees health negatively due to a demanding case process. If filing a workers compensation claim can harm the employees health, it is highly relevant to pay attention to employees with mental health claims, as they are most likely vulnerable and face a very low chance of compensation. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates how employees with work-related mental disorders experience the process of seeking workers compensation from the Danish Workers Compensation System. METHOD: Interview (N= 13) and questionnaire (N = 436) data from claimants were analysed. RESULTS: Analysis showed that even though many employees wished for the claim to influence the conditions at the workplace, there seemed to be a lack of preventive health and safety initiatives in the workplaces. Central stakeholders such as health and safety representatives were often not involved. Management involvement was often experienced negatively, and the DanishWorking Environment Authority rarely conducted workplace inspections. Employees experienced inadequate information about the workers compensation process and experienced a lack of coordination between stakeholders. CONCLUSION: A more supportive and coordinated approach in the Workers Compensation System is recommendable. The processes in the system could be evaluated using the Social Insurance Literacy concept, to ensure sufficient support of the claimants and reduce potential harmful aspects of the process.

  • 28.
    Liedberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Avd. för rehabilitering, HHJ, Hälsohögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Symptoms of subordinated importance in fibromyalgia when differentiating working from non-working women2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 155-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to identify differences in self-reported symptoms among working (W) and non-working (NW)women, and to determine the most important biopsychosocial variables in differentiating one group from the other.

    METHOD: A questionnaire was mailed to 524 members of a local chapter of the Swedish Rheumatology Association. A total of 362 persons responded (69%); 96% of which were women. Women older than 64 years and all men were excluded. The final study group consisted of 95 W, and 227 NW women. The questionnaire included data on demographics, employment, support, exercise, daily activities and symptoms. Data were analysed using univariate statistics and a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA).

    RESULTS: The results showed that 41% of the W and 42% of the NW women were/had been employed in service,care or business. The NW women reported a significantly higher severity of symptoms compared with the W women. The most important variable when differentiating the W from the NW women wassocial support from colleagues and employers.

    CONCLUSION: To change prevailing attitudes and values towards persons with a work disability, a process of active intervention involving staff is needed. Educating employers as to how a disability may influence a work situation, and the importance of social support, can be improved.

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  • 29.
    Liljegren, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The Associations between Perceived Distributive, Procedural, and Interactional Organizational Justice, Self-rated Health and Burnout2009In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 43-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sectional and 2-year longitudinal associations between perceived organizational justice, self-rated health and burnout. Metods: The study used questionnaire data from 428 Swedish employment officers and the data was analyzed with Structural Equation Modeling, SEM. Two different models were tested: a global organizational justice model (with and without correlated measurement errors) and a differentiated (distributive, procedural and interactional organizational justice) justice model (with and without correlated measurement errors). Results: The global justice model with autocorrelations had the most satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices. Global justice showed statistically significant (p andlt; 0.01) cross-sectional (0.80 andlt;= mle andlt;= 0.84) and longitudinal positive associations (0.76 andlt;= mle andlt;= 0.82) between organizational justice and self-rated health, and significant (p andlt; 0.01) negative associations between organizational justice and burnout (cross-sectional: mle = -0.85, longitudinal -0.83 andgt;= mle andgt;= -0.84). Conclusion: The global justice construct showed better goodness-of-fit indices than the threefold justice construct but a differentiated organizational justice concept could give valuable information about health related risk factors: if they are structural (distributive justice), procedural (procedural justice) or inter-personal (interactional justice). The two approaches to study organizational justice should therefore be regarded as complementary rather than exclusive.

  • 30.
    Lindfors, Sara
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boman, John
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strategies used to handle stress by academic physicians at a university hospital2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 183-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Research is limited regarding occupational stress and coping strategies among academic physicians; professionals whose work situation includes the three areas of clinical practice, research, and teaching. The aim was to gain knowledge of stress-coping strategies used by academic physicians.

    Participants: 17 academic physicians employed at the University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.

    Methods: Qualitative analyses were conducted of data from five focus-group interviews.

    Results: We identified eight different categories of coping strategies, e.g. self-awareness, time management, to cut corners, and to be in control. We also attempted to fit the dimensions of coping strategies into the models proposed by Folkman & Lazarus and Beehr & McGrath, respectively. The strategies were predominantly used to prevent stress from occurring, to manage anticipated stress, or to handle stress when occurring. Furthermore, the majority of the strategies identified could be placed in the problem-focused category, which we divided in a behavioural and a cognitive sub-category and in a new cognitive problem-focused and emotion-focused category.

    Conclusion: The study contributes to a wider understanding of the stress coping strategies academic physicians use. Further studies are needed to determine the consequences of these findings in order to enable the design of measures to reduce and prevent stress among academic physicians.

  • 31.
    Lindfors, Sara
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Eintrei, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Stress factors affecting academic physicians at a university hospital.2009In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 305-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research is limited regarding occupational stress in academic physicians; professionals whose work situation includes the three areas of clinical practice, research, and teaching. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of factors experienced as stressful by academic physicians employed by a university hospital. A questionnaire assessing the frequency and intensity of 36 potentially stressful factors was sent to all 157 academic physicians who were employed at the Linköping University Hospital, Sweden. The response rate was 77%. Both a high frequency and intensity of stress was experienced by 66% of the academic physicians in relation to "time pressure" and by almost 50% in connection with both "find time for research" and having "conflict of interest between different work assignments". Moreover, physicians in the higher age group and those who had attained a higher academic position experienced less stress. The female participants experienced more stress than the males due to gender-related problems and to variables associated with relationships at work. More knowledge is needed to determine the consequences of this finding and to identify coping strategies used for handling such stress.

  • 32.
    Lindh Falk, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Liedberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Euro-Education: Employability for all (EEE4all) Design and implementation of an international course for future health-care professionals2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 433-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Employment is a priority in the European Union, and it is essential to address the needs of individuals disadvantaged at the labour market on grounds such as ethnicity, age, gender or disability, to increase the opportunities for these groups to gain employment. The Council of the European Union recognize the important role of national organisations in increasing gender equality and the need to integrate a gender perspective in all policies. Gender equality perspectives should also, according to the EU Plan of Action and Gender Equality be integrated in education. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjectives: To equip students in higher education with knowledge, about gender, age, disability and ethnicity in relation to employability, a European group initiated a project; Euro-Education: Employability for all (EEE4all). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanApproach: The project, funded by the European Lifelong Learning Programme, was aimed to develop and implement four course modules, each relating to employability with different focus: gender, age, disability or ethnicity. In this paper design, implementation, and evaluation of the course focused on gender, provided by the Occupational Therapy Programme at Linkoping University, is described. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: The students highlighted the importance of awareness and knowledge about gender theory and its application in relation to employability and client-centred approach.

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  • 33.
    Lindqvist, Kent
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Schelp, Å
    Schelp, L
    Åhlgren, M
    Åhlgren, M
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Evaluation of an inter-organizational program for prevention of work-related injuries in a WHO Safe Community.1999In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 13, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Lundberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Musculoskeletal signs in female homecare personnel: A longitudinal epidemiological study2017In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 135-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In Sweden, homecare services take care of elderly and disabled people, work that often requires heavy lifting and forward bending, resulting in high prevalences of pain and work accidents. OBJECTIVE: Using an eight-year follow-up, this study determines the prognostic importance of certain musculoskeletal signs reported in earlier studies [1, 2] with respect to aspects of pain and perceived disability. METHODS: Baseline data has been reported in earlier studies of 607 women [1-3]. This study uses a postal questionnaire survey and reports the results of eight years post initial study. RESULTS: Segmental pain at L4-L5 and/or L5-S1 levels was associated with higher low back pain intensity and disability at the eight-year follow-up. A decrease in low back pain intensity over eight years was larger for those with segmental pain. The important signs in the longitudinal analyses of pain aspects and disability were lumbar spinal mobility and segmental pain at L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels, but the explained variations were low. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of low lumbar segmental pain provocation and mobility should be considered in routine clinical assessments, as this type of evaluation provides prognostic pain and disability information over time.

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  • 35.
    Lundqvist, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Psychosocial work environment and health when entering or leaving a managerial position2022In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 505-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recruiting and retaining managers has become increasingly difficult in recent years, primarily because of a pressured work situation. A better understanding of managers’ work situation is required, and of the support they need. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to increase the understanding of managers’ psychosocial work environment and health by investigating individuals as they enter or leave a managerial position. METHODS: Longitudinal questionnaire data from 1971 individuals distributed across four groups were used: individuals who 1) entered or 2) left a managerial position between measuring points, and those who remained employed as 3) managers or 4) non-managers at both measuring points. RESULTS: Demands increased between the measuring points for those who entered a managerial position. Their resources and health were, however, rated higher than non-managers already before the transition. Demands decreased for those who left a managerial position, while their resources remained higher than non-managers. Health did not change by changing position. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to knowledge of what happens when someone enters or leaves a managerial position and increases the understanding of differences between managers and non-managers. Organizations should develop supportive strategies through talent management programs to help build resources in employees and future managers. Support should also aim to reduce the increased level of demands in newly hired managers. 

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  • 36.
    Lundqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fogelberg Eriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Exploring the relationship between managers’ leadership and their health.2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 419-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore the relationship between managers' leadership and their health, by investigating what psychosocial conditions in the workplace managers experience as being important to their health, and how their health influences their leadership.

    Participants and methods: Semi-structured interviews with forty-two managers at different managerial levels in a large Swedish industrial production company.

    Results: Most managers felt their health was good, but many perceived their work as stressful. They said it was important to their health that they did a good job and achieved results as expected, that conditions in the workplace enabled this achievement, and that their performance was acknowledged. In comparison to the other managerial levels, the first-line managers' work and health were especially dependent on such enabling conditions. The results also showed that the managers' health influenced their leadership, the quality of their work and the quality of their relationship with subordinates.

    Conclusion: Managers' leadership, health and their work conditions are reciprocally related to each other. A productive and healthy workplace is facilitated by focusing on managers' conditions for leadership, their health and their work conditions.

  • 37.
    Lundqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Fogelberg Eriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Managers social support: Facilitators and hindrances for seeking support at work2018In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 351-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that social support is important for health and performance at work, but there is a lack of research regarding managers social support at work, and if it needs to be improved. OBJECTIVE: To investigate managers perception of work-related social support, and facilitators and hindrances that influence their seeking of social support at work. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with sixty-two managers in two Swedish organizations. RESULTS: Work-related support, which strengthened their managerial image of being competent, was sought from sources within the workplace. Sensitive and personal support, where there was a risk of jeopardizing their image of being competent, was sought from sources outside the workplace. Access to arenas for support (location of the workplace, meetings, and vocational courses) and the managerial role could facilitate their support-seeking, but could also act as hindrances. Because attending different arenas for support were demanding, they refrained from seeking support if the demands were perceived as too high. CONCLUSIONS: Different supportive sources are distinguished based on what supportive function they have and in which arenas they are found, in order to preserve the confidence of the closest organization and to maintain the image of being a competent and performing manager.

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  • 38.
    Lundqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Wallo, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Reineholm, Cathrine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Leadership and well-being of employees in the Nordic countries: A literature review2023In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 1331-1352Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for more knowledge regarding the importance of managerial leadership for fostering well-being in the workplace and how context has been accounted for in previous research.

    OBJECTIVE: To carry out a literature review of previous research that empirically examines the importance of leadership for well-being in a Nordic working life context.

    METHODS: A rapid literature review was conducted with narrative analysis in 5 steps; establish focus, research questions, and inclusion criteria; literature search; relevance screening; quality assessment; data analysis. The search identified 4566 unique studies where 35 quantitative and five qualitative met the relevance and quality criteria.

    RESULTS: Findings from quantitative and qualitative studies are presented. Transformational and supportive leadership are recurrently associated with employee well-being, although the qualitative studies also highlight adaptive leadership and leaders being available and providing space. Some connections are made to the Nordic context in the reviewed studies, but these connections are not fully elaborated.

    CONCLUSION: Leadership is related to employee well-being, although this relationship seems to be indirect, mediated by other factors in the working environment. The review identifies the need for more well-designed studies addressing the contextual factors of this relationship, and how leadership should be exercised in practice.

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  • 39.
    Medin, Jennie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, National Centre for Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, National Centre for Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Nordlund, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, National Centre for Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Centre for Studies of Humans, Technology and Organization. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organisational change, job strain and increased risk of stroke?: a pilot study2008In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 443-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The objective of this pilot study was to explore whether organisational change and work-related stress, as measured by the Job Content Questionnaire, were associated with first-ever stroke among working people aged 30–65.

    Methods: In a case-control study a total of 65 consecutive cases, aged 30–65 years of age, with first-ever stroke were recruited from four hospitals in Sweden during 2000–2002. During the same period, 103 random population controls in the same age interval were recruited. Data on job-related stress and traditional medical risk factors were collected by a questionnaire.

    Results: In the multivariate analyses, organisational change (OR 3.38) increased the likelihood of stroke, while experiencing an active job (OR 0.37) decreased the likelihood of stroke. Regarding risk factors outside work, age (OR 1.11), low physical activity (OR 5.21), low education (OR 2.48) and family history of stroke (OR 2.59) were associated with increased likelihood of stroke.

    Conclusion: This study suggests an association between organisational change, work-related stress and stroke. The likelihood of stroke was lower for people in active job situations.

  • 40.
    Müssener, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ståhl, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderberg, Elsy
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Does the quality of encounters affect return to work? Lay people describe their experiences of meeting various professionals during their rehabilitation process2015In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 447-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Among the many aspects of the rehabilitation process that may be relevant for its outcome, the impact of encounters with various professionals has received little attention. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to gain a deeper understanding of how individuals with experiences of being on sick leave perceive their encounters with professionals, and how such encounters affected their ability to return to work, as well as their attitudes towards the sickness insurance system. METHODS: An inductive qualitative approach was used to analyze data from 20 interviews with men and women, aged 33-59, in Sweden who had experience of being on sick leave for at least 28 days. RESULTS: The study shows how interviewees encounters with professionals affected their self-confidence and perception of their ability to return to work. Professionals treatment of people on sick leave seems to be affected by the structural prerequisites for offering support, where sickness insurance regulations are suggested to have a large impact. CONCLUSIONS: An encouraging and supportive attitude on the part of the professionals is essential for empowering people to handle obstacles during the rehabilitation process; whereas feeling rejected and belittled in the return to work process may lead to disempowerment, and/or delays in measures and longer periods on sick leave.

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  • 41.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Employability and work ability: returning to the labour market after long-term absence2013In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 449-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse how people who return to the labour market after long-term sickness absenteeism and subsequent job loss differ in employability, work ability, health, educational level, age, and gender, compared to those who do not.

    PARTICIPANTS: The cohort consisted of 191 individuals, 20 men and 171 women, whose employment was terminated because they had not been able to return to their regular work after taking a long-term sick leave and rehabilitation measures.

    METHODS: This study is based on a postal questionnaire sent out to a cohort of previous employees in a Swedish municipality in 2008.

    RESULTS: At the time of the survey, 39% of the respondents had returned to the labour market and the remaining 61% had not. Return to the labour market after a long-term sick leave was positively associated with male gender, young age, and work ability, i.e. the ability to work with respect to health and work-related demands. Employability, educational level, and health were not significantly associated with a return to the labour market.

    CONCLUSIONS: In the discourse on employability, work ability is often neglected even though it is a central aspect of an individual's ability to obtain new employment.

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  • 42.
    Norman, Kerstin
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Department for Work and Health, Stockholm.
    Floderus, Birgitta
    National Institute for Working Life, Department for Work and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagman, Maud
    National Institute for Working Life, Department for Work and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Toomingas, Allan
    National Institute for Working Life, Department for Work and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    National Institute for Working Life, Department for Work and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Musculoskeletal symptoms in relation to work exposures at call centre companies in Sweden2008In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 201-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Call centres (CCs) are one of the most rapidly growing types of workplaces in Sweden. The purpose of the study was to assess associations between exposures at CC work and symptoms in the Neck/shoulders and Arm/hand. Comparisons were made between internal and external CCs. An internal CC is a department or separate unit within a larger company with another main core business, while an external CC is a free-standing company.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study of a selected sample of CCs was conducted. A questionnaire, covering characteristics of work and management, physical and psychosocial exposures and symptoms during the last month, was answered by 1183 operators from 28 CCs.

    Results: Three out of four operators reported pain or aches in one or more of the requested body regions, with no major difference between internal and external CC operators. Comfort of the work environment, showed the strongest association with symptoms in the Neck/shoulder and Arm/hand, in both types of CCs. Other exposures associated with symptoms in the Neck/shoulder or Arm/hand in either type of CC were: low complexity of work, long total time of customer calls per day, continuous computer work without a break, high psychological demands, low decision latitude, lack of social support from colleagues and supervisor.

    Conclusions: The study is unique in that there are no previous studies focusing on a large variety of exposures specific to CC work, based on a large number of workers from different types of CCs. The study confirms previously suggested associations between unfavourable work characteristics and management, a poor physical and psychosocial environment, and musculoskeletal symptoms in computer-telephone interactive tasks. The nature of calls during work were related to symptoms of persons working in internal CCs, whereas the time spent seated and continuous computer work were related to symptoms of those in external CCs.

  • 43.
    Nyman, Jennie Ingrid Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Metropolia Univ Appl Sci, Finland.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Johansson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Department of Internal Medicine in Norrköping.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Feasibility of a new homebased ballistocardiographic tool for sleep-assessment in a real-life context among workers2023In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 1353-1360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for simple and suitable tools for assessing sleep in a natural home environment. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the feasibility in terms of implementation and acceptability of a new homebased ballistocardiographic (BCG) tool for objective sleep-assessment in a real-life context. METHODS: The participants included thirty-nine workers, taking part in two seven nights sleep-assessment periods. Objective data regarding sleep was collected with BCG. Subjective data regarding sleep was collected with a sleep diary. Implementation was analysed by determining the number of nights with usable signal quality and comparing with the total number of potential nights and by exploring associations between objective and subjective sleep data. Acceptability was analysed by categorizing the participants experiences of how the BCG tool impacted the sleep. RESULTS: In terms of implementation, usableBCGdata increased from 40% at assessment phase 1 to 70% during assessment phase 2. Moreover, in assessment phase 2, there was a significant moderate correlation between the `time in bed assessed by the BCG and in sleep diary by participants in the first five nights. In terms of acceptability, almost one third of the participants did not experience any impact of the BCG on the sleep. Two participants experienced a major negative impact on the sleep. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the novel BCG tool could be feasible for objective assessing of sleep in workers natural home-environment in the future, but there is still a need for development of the BCG both regarding technology and implementation process.

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  • 44.
    Palmer, Kristy
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Associations between exposure to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and reported discomfort among adolescents2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 165-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are common among adolescents in their daily activities.Exposure to ICT has been associated with discomfort and musculoskeletal disorders in adults, with growing concern about the potential risks to children and adolescents' physical health.

    OBJECTIVE:

    The objectives of this study were to (i) quantify self-reported discomfort and exposure to ICT among adolescents; and (ii) determine if associations exist between discomfort and levels of exposure.PARTICIPANTS: The participant group comprised 33 Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years.

    METHODS:

    The study used self-reports by participants for a one week period. Intensity and location of discomfort was reported via a written discomfort log. ICT exposure and physical activity were reported through an electronic time-use diary.

    RESULTS:

    The most common ICT types reported by participants were television, mobile phones and desktop and laptop computers. Discomfort was reported by 86% of participants. The most frequently reported areas were the legs, head/neck, back and shoulders. There was no statistical association found between ICT exposure and discomfort. The majority of participants exceeded the recommended 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity.CONCLUSIONS: High exposure to ICT and high prevalence of low level discomfort was reported by the participants. Participating in regular physical activity may have some protective effect against ICT-related discomfort.

  • 45.
    Regardt, Malin
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Welin Henriksson, Elisabet
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    Lundberg, Ingrid E.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schult, Marie-Louise
    Danderyd Hospital, Sweden.
    Work ability in patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis: An explorative and descriptive study2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 265-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) are rare, chronic inflammatory diseases leading to muscle weakness and low muscle endurance. The muscle weakness may lead to restrictions in daily activities and low health-related quality of life. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the work situation, work ability, work-related risk factors, and influence of the physical and psycho-social work environment in patients with PM and DM. METHODS: Patients with PM/DM were assessed using the Work Ability Index (WAI), and the Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS). RESULTS: Forty-eight patients (PM n = 25 and DM n = 23) participated (women/men: 29/19) with a mean age of 54 years (range 28-67 years, SD. 10) and mean disease duration of nine years (SD. 9). Forty-four percent worked full-time, 31% part-time and 25% were on full-time sick leave. More than 50% self-rated work ability as "poor" or "lessgood". Physically strenuous work components were present "quite to very often" in 23-79% and more in patients on sick leave = 2 years. For those working, the interfering factors in the work environment concerned task and time demands. Supporting factors concerned meaning of work, interactions with co-workers and others. Self-rated work ability correlated moderately-highly positive with percentage of full-time employment, work-related risk factors and opportunities and constraints in the work environment. CONCLUSIONS: Poor self-rated work ability is common in patients with PM/DM indicating a need to identify interfering risk factors and support patients to enhance work performance.

  • 46.
    Reineholm, Cathrine
    et al.
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Maria
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning in Working Life and Educational Settings. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Work and Working Life.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Evaluation of job stress models for predicting health at work2011In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Few workplace health promotion (WHP) interventions are designed to improve work conditions. Methods for measurement of work conditions are often developed from a risk factor perspective rather than a WHP perspective. More knowledge is needed on the work conditions that promote health in order to develop a good work environment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if the Demand Control Support model, the Effort Reward Imbalance model and the Job Characteristic Inventory are correlated, if the subscales predict health and to analyze which combination of subscales is the most useful predictor of health longitudinally. <br> <br>Participants: The study used questionnaire data from 662 civil servants at baseline and at follow-up 2 years later. <br> <br>Method: The data were analysed by multiple regressions. <br> <br>Results: A new model; effort, reward, and variety, was found having a higher predictive power to predict health than the original models. <br> <br>Conclusions: To promote health at work, social relations and health-mediating work conditions are important because these conditions may buffer health. Health can be assumed to be a resource that is created in everyday activities and interactions in workplaces, and there is a need to develop health measure instruments based on holistic health theories.

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  • 47.
    Reineholm, Cathrine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Lundqvist, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Wallo, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Change competence: An integrative literature review2024In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Organizations are in a state of continual evolution, driven by the relentless shifts in their external environments. Numerous theories have been proposed to understand the essential skills and capabilities for successful organizational change. Yet, there remains a gap in capturing a holistic view necessary to fully comprehend the dynamics of competence in today’s rapidly changing landscape.

    OBJECTIVE: This research aims to explore and consolidate the concept of 'competence' in the context of organizational change processes. 

    METHODS: Employing an integrative literature review approach, a total of 3,230 studies were screened. Out of these, 32 studies were selected based on strict relevance and quality criteria, providing a robust foundation for the analysis.

    RESULTS: The findings reveal a multi-layered nature of organizational change, highlighting that the nature and prerequisites of change vary significantly across different organizational levels. By applying a competence lens, we discern how required competence during change are not uniform but rather vary depending on whether they are applied in an operational or strategic context. This demonstrates a nuanced, level-dependent variability in change competence across the organizational hierarchy. 

    CONCLUSION: We conceptualize 'change competence' as a dual-faceted construct. It encompasses both the capacity to leverage existing organizational competence and the adeptness to develop new competence, thereby meeting the evolving demands imposed by both internal and external drivers of change. This comprehensive understanding paves the way for more effective strategies in managing organizational change.

  • 48.
    Rolander, Bo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bellner, Anna-Lena
    University College of Health Sciences.
    Experience of musculo-skeletal disorders,intensity of pain, and general conditions in work: The case of employees in non-private dental clinics in a county in southern Sweden.2001In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 17, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: (1) To identify perceived musculo-skeletal disorders and intensity of pain among the employees in the nonprivate dental clinics; (2) To assess perceived psychosocial and physical work conditions on the localization and intensity of musculo-skeletal disorders and pain. Study design: A questionnaire, comprising four sections (demographic, self-reported psychosocial and physical work conditions, self-reported disorders from the musculo-skeletal system, self-reported intensity of pain on nine different localization on the body) was mailed to 391 employees. Of these, 338 reported musculo-skeletal disorders. In this latter group, 239 reported work as the cause. These employees completed the questionnaire. Results: The greatest amount of pain was reported for the cervico-brachial region. Among all participants, a response pattern was found where the physical work demands were very high, the psychosocial work demands fairly high, the work climate supportive, and the control over work moderate. At an occupational group level, theoretical inconsistencies were identified in terms of a lack of anticipated relationships, especially for the dentist groups. Conclusions: For a scientific and social purpose, more research, which identifies relationships between workrelated musculo-skeletal pain and dos-response [8], effortreward [16], and demand-control [12] aspects of the working conditions, is clearly needed.

  • 49.
    Rolander, Bo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karsznia, Alek
    School of Health Sciences Jönköping university.
    Jonker, Dirk
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation.
    Öberg, Tommy
    School of Health Sciences Jönköping University.
    Bellner, Anna-Lena
    School of Health Sciences Jönköping University.
    Perceived contra observed physical work load in Swedish dentists.2005In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 25, p. 253-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an earlier questionnaire study, dentists reported high experienced physical work load in their profession, but low to moderate complaints from their musculoskeletal system. The correlation between reported physical work load and pain from the musculoskeletal system was weak. This discrepancy could not be satisfactorily explained. Therefore, a second study was undertaken, in which the same 27 dentists who reported musculoskeletal problems were video recorded during one hour of clinical work, and the records were later analyzed using PEO (Portable Ergonomic Observation). PEO is a frequency analysis method which allows observation of work in real time using a portable computer or video recordings. PEO can be adjusted for registration of single or multiple work operations. Output data are presented as frequency, duration, and sequence of the various work operations. The aim of the present study was to investigate if there was a relation between observed work load recorded with PEO, and subjectively estimated work load and musculoskeletal complaints recorded with a questionnaire based on Visual Analogue Scales. Sitting and standing postures, and head, trunk and arm movements were analyzed. The PEO observations showed that dentists generally perform their clinical work in a sitting position, with the head bent forward almost half of the time. Only weak to moderate correlations (r = 0.0-0.6) were found between observed physical work load and subjective estimations of experienced physical work load and musculoskeletal complaints. These findings support the results in our previous study, but they do not explain the large difference between the observed low work load and the subjectively experienced high work load. The study will be followed up by EMG measurements and free interviews, where both muscular load and psychosocial factors will be evaluated.

  • 50.
    Rolander, Bo
    et al.
    Occupational Safety and Health Centre, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping.
    Karsznia, Alek
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping.
    Jonker, Dirk
    Occupational Safety and Health Centre, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping.
    Öberg, Tommy
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping.
    Bellner, Anna-Lena
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping.
    Perceived contra observed physical workload in Swedish dentists.2005In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 25, p. 253-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an earlier questionnaire study, dentists reported high experienced physical work load in their profession, but low to moderate complaints from their musculoskeletal system. The correlation between reported physical work load and pain from the musculoskeletal system was weak. This discrepancy could not be satisfactorily explained. Therefore, a second study was undertaken, in which the same 27 dentists who reported musculoskeletal problems were video recorded during one hour of clinical work, and the records were later analyzed using PEO (Portable Ergonomic Observation). PEO is a frequency analysis method which allows observation of work in real time using a portable computer or video recordings. PEO can be adjusted for registration of single or multiple work operations. Output data are presented as frequency, duration, and sequence of the various work operations. The aim of the present study was to investigate if there was a relation between observed work load recorded with PEO, and subjectively estimated work load and musculoskeletal complaints recorded with a questionnaire based on Visual Analogue Scales. Sitting and standing postures, and head, trunk and arm movements were analyzed. The PEO observations showed that dentists generally perform their clinical work in a sitting position, with the head bent forward almost half of the time. Only weak to moderate correlations (r = 0.0–0.6) were found between observed physical work load and subjective estimations of experienced physical work load and musculoskeletal complaints. These findings support the results in our previous study, but

     

     

    they do not explain the large difference between the observed low work load and the subjectively experienced high work load. The study will be followed up by EMG measurements and free interviews, where both muscular load and psychosocial factors will be evaluated.

     

     

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