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  • 1.
    Bessa Ferreira, Vitor Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Guesdon, Vanessa
    JUNIA, France.
    Calandreau, Ludovic
    Univ Tours, France.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. AVIAN Behavioural Genomics and Physiology Group.
    White Leghorn and Red Junglefowl female chicks use distal and local cues similarly, but differ in persistency behaviors, during a spatial orientation task2022In: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 200, article id 104669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is evidence to suggest that animal domestication acts as a modulator of spatial orientation, little is known on how domesticated animals, compared to their wild counterparts, orientate themselves when confronted to different environmental cues. Here, using domesticated White Leghorn chicks, and their ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), our main objective was to investigate how bird domestication influences the use of distal and local cues, during an orientation task. We also investigated the memory retention of these cues over time, and how persistent/flexible individuals from both breeds were at pecking at unreachable mealworms. Our results showed that the breeds did not differ in their use of distal or local cues, with both showing a marked preference for the use of local cues over distal ones. Over time, individual performance declined, but this was not influenced by the type of cue present during the tests, nor by the breed. Domesticated chicks showed greater signs of persistency compared to their wild conspecifics. In conclusion, domestication did not seem to alter how birds orientate spatially, but may have caused more subtle changes, such as an increase in behavioral persistency, a feature that may be adaptative in human-controlled and homogenous environments.

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  • 2.
    Bosshard, Tiffany Claire
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. German Primate Ctr, Germany.
    Salazar, Laura Teresa Hernandez
    Univ Veracruzana, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Numerical cognition in black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)2022In: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 201, article id 104734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed two aspects of numerical cognition in a group of nine captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Petri dishes with varying amounts of food were used to assess relative quantity discrimination, and boxes fitted with dotted cards were used to assess discrete number discrimination with equally-sized dots and various-sized dots, respectively. We found that all animals succeeded in all three tasks and, as a group, reached the learning criterion of 70% correct responses within 110 trials in the quantity discrimination task, 160 trials in the numerosity task with equally-sized dots, and 30 trials in the numerosity task with various-sized dots. In all three tasks, the an-imals displayed a significant correlation between performance in terms of success rate and task difficulty in terms of numerical similarity of the stimuli and thus a ratio effect. The spider monkeys performed clearly better compared to strepsirrhine, catarrhine, and other platyrrhine primates tested previously on both types of nu-merical cognition tasks and at the same level as chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans. Our results support the notion that ecological traits such as a high degree of frugivory and/or social traits such as a high degree of fission-fusion dynamics may underlie between-species differences in cognitive abilities.

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  • 3.
    Campler, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jöngren, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fearfulness in red junglefowl and domesticated White Leghorn chickens2009In: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 39-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It may be hypothesised that reduced fearfulness has been a major target of selection during domestication. We tested 20 domesticated White Leghorn (WL) chickens and their ancestors, red junglefowl (RJF), in four different fear tests (Open Field, Novel Object. Aerial Predator, and Fear for Humans). The tests were designed to measure reactions to different types of potentially fearful stimuli. The correlations between durations of the same four variables from each of the tests (Stand/sit alert, Locomotion, Fly/jump, and Vocalisation) were analysed with principal components analysis (PCA). In the PCA, 33.5% of the variation in responses was explained by a single factor, interpreted as a general fear factor. Higher scores on this were related to stronger fear reactions. Red jungle fowl scored significantly higher than White Leghorns wet on this factor, and also had a longer latency to feed in the Fear of Humans-test, used as an independent measure of fear in the same tests. The results suggest that selection for low fearfulness has been an important element of domestication.

  • 4.
    Eklund, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Domestication effects on behavioural synchronization and individual distances in chickens ( Gallus gallus)2011In: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 250-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioural synchrony (allelomimetic behaviour), and inter-individual distances are aspects of social and anti-predator strategies which may have been affected by domestication. Chickens are known to adjust synchronization and inter-individual distances depending on behaviour. We hypothesized that White Leghorn (WL) chickens would show less synchronized behaviour than the ancestor, the red jungle fowl (RJF). Sixty birds, 15 female and 15 male WL and the same number of RJF (28 weeks old) were studied in groups of three in furnished pens (1 m × 2 m) for 24 consecutive hours per group, following 24 h of habituation. Video tapes covering 4 h per group (dawn, 9–10 am, 1–2 pm and dusk) were analysed. Red junglefowl perched significantly more, but there were no breed effects on the frequency or daily rhythm of any other activities, or on average inter-individual distances. Red junglefowl were more synchronized during perching and a tendency for the same was found for social behaviour. After performance of the two most synchronized behaviours, perching and comfort behaviour, individual distance increased more for RJF than WL. According to this study domestication of chickens appears not to have significantly altered the relative frequencies of different activities or average inter-individual distances, but have caused some changes in behavioural synchronization and maintenance of activity-specific inter-individual distances in chickens. The changes may indicate an adaptive response to captivity and domestication.

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  • 5.
    Gjöen, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jean-Joseph, Hillary
    Univ Vienna, Austria; Univ Vet Med, Austria.
    Kotrschal, Kurt
    Univ Vienna, Austria.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Domestication and social environment modulate fear responses in young chickens2023In: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 210, article id 104906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domesticated species differ from their wild ancestors in a mosaic of traits. Classical domestication theories agree that reactivity to fear and stress is one of the main traits affected. Domesticated species are expected to be less fear and stress prone to than their wild counterparts. To test this hypothesis, we compared the behavioural responses of White Leghorn (WL) chicks to their wild counterparts, Red Junglefowl (RJF) chicks in risk-taking situations. In order to obtain food, the chicks faced an unknown and potentially harmful object at the presence or absence of a social partner. We found that according to our predictions, RJF were more stressed and fearful of the object than the WL. Still, RJF were more explorative than WL. Additionally, the presence of a social partner reduced the fear response in both, but had a stronger effect on RJF. Finally, WL were more food orientated than the RJF. Our results confirmed classical domestication hypotheses of downregulation of the stress system and importance of the social partner in domesticated farm chicken.

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  • 6.
    Lindqvist, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Domestication and stress effects on contrafreeloading and spatial learning performance in red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and White Leghorn layers2009In: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 80-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    White Leghorn layers (WL) show modified foraging strategies. compared to their ancestor, the red jungle fowl (RJF). Birds selected for high production may invest more resources into production traits and less in other biological Processes. This may affect the capacity to adapt to new or variable environments.

    Thirty birds of each of RJF and WL were raised in a stressful environment (unpredictable light:dark schedule) and 30 control animals of each breed in similar pens, but on a 12:12 h light:dark schedule. We studied the differences between breed and treatment with respect to contrafreeloading (CFL), spatial learning ability and the birds behaviour in a T-maze.

    WL showed less CFL, were less cautious in the test arena and showed an impaired spatial learning ability Compared with RJF in both test situations. Stress impaired spatial learning in both breeds, but stressed RJF showed a more active response to the test situation than non-stressed RJF, by starting to eat faster, while stressed WL prolonged their time to start eating compared to non-stressed WL. Our results may reflect different adaptive Strategies, where RJF appear better adapted to an unpredictable environment.

  • 7.
    Lundgren, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Garnham, Laura
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kreshchenko, Anastasia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Manchester, England.
    Ryding, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Manchester, England.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Manipulating monoamines reduces exploration and boldness of Mediterranean field crickets2021In: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 183, article id 104298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the prevalence and research interest of animal personality, its underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Due to the essential role of monoamines in modulating behaviour, we manipulated the monoaminergic systems of Mediterranean field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) to explore whether this altered behavioural responses commonly used to describe animal personality. Previous work has shown that both serotonin and dopamine manipulations can alter cricket behaviour, although results differ depending on the drug in focus. Here, we investigate the effect of Fluphenazine, a dopamine antagonist which also interacts with serotonin receptors, on activity, exploration, boldness, and aggression. These results are compared with those of our earlier work that investigated the effect of drugs that more specifically target serotonin or dopamine systems (Fluoxetine and Ropinirole, respectively). Due to limited research on dose-effects of Fluphenazine, we created dose-response curves with concentrations ranging from those measured in surface waters up to human therapeutic doses. We show that compared to control animals, Fluphenazine manipulation resulted in lower levels of both exploration and boldness, but did not affect activity nor aggression. The effect on explorative behaviour contradicts our previous results of serotonin and dopamine manipulations. These results together confirm the causal role of monoamines in explaining variation in behaviour often used to describe animal personality, effects that can be both doseand behaviour-dependent. Further, our results suggest that previous results assigned specifically to the dopaminergic system, may at least partly be explained by effects of the serotonergic system. Thus, future studies should continue to investigate the explicit underlying roles of specific monoamines in explaining behavioural variation.

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  • 8.
    Pereira, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Salazar, Laura Teresa Hernandez
    Univ Veracruzana, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Taste-induced facial responses in black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)2021In: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 188, article id 104417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taste-induced facial expressions are thought to reflect the hedonic valence of an animals gustatory experience. We therefore assessed taste-induced facial responses in six black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) to water, sucrose, caffeine, citric acid and aspartame, representing the taste qualities sweet, bitter, and sour, respectively. We decided not to include salty-tasting substances as the concentrations of such tastants found in the fruits consumed by spider monkeys are below their taste preference threshold. We found that the monkeys displayed significant differences in their facial responses between substances, with significantly higher frequencies of licking, sucking, closed eyes, tongue protruding, mouth gaping and lip smacking in response to sucrose, a presumably pleasant stimulus. The response to caffeine and citric acid, in contrast, yielded the lowest frequencies of these behaviors, but the highest frequency of withdrawals from the stimulus, suggesting these substances are perceived as unpleasant. Lip stretching, a newly described behavior, was performed significantly more often in response to caffeine than to any other substance, suggesting an association with the response to bitter taste. The facial response to the artificial sweetener aspartame was generally similar to the response to water, corroborating the notion that Platyrrhines may be unable to detect its sweetness. Overall, the present study supports the idea of similarity of taste-induced facial responses in non-hominoid primates and humans, suggesting these displays to be evolutionarily conserved across the primate order.

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  • 9.
    Zidar, Josefina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sorato, Enrico
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Malmqvist, Ann-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jansson, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosher, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Favati, Anna
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Early experience affects adult personality in the red junglefowl: a role for cognitive stimulation?2017In: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 134, p. 78-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite intense research efforts, biologists are still puzzled by the existence of animal personality. While recent studies support a link between cognition and personality, the directionality of this relationship still needs to be clarified. Early-life experiences can affect adult behaviour, and among these, cognitive stimulation has been suggested theoretically to influence personality. Yet, the influence of early cognitive stimulation has rarely been explored in empirical investigations of animal behaviour and personality. We investigated the effect of early cognitive stimulation on adult personality in the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). To this end, we assessed adult behaviour across a number of personality assays and compared behaviour of individuals previously exposed to a series of learning tasks as chicks, with that of control individuals lacking this experience. We found that individuals exposed to early stimulation as adults were more vigilant and performed fewer escape attempts in personality assays. Other behaviours describing personality traits in the fowl were not affected. We conclude that our results support the hypothesis that early stimulation can affect aspects of adult behaviour and personality, suggesting a hitherto underappreciated causality link between cognition and personality. Future research should aim to confirm these findings and resolve their underlying dynamics and proximate mechanisms.

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