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  • 1.
    Abdiu, Avni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Nakamura, Hajime
    Sahaf, Bita
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Yodoi, Junji
    Holmgren, Arne
    Rosén, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Thioredoxin blood level increases after severe burn injury2000In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 707-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the thioredoxin (TRX) levels in severely burned patients and the possible origin of TRX, based on the recent understanding that TRX is a potent antioxidant with cytoprotective functions. Serum and plasma samples from burns patients and healthy blood donors were collected during the first 10 post-bum days and analyzed in a sandwich TRX enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The TRX levels found were correlated to a panel of blood tests. The presence of TRX in platelets was investigated by immunoelectron microscopy and Western blotting. TRX serum levels of the severely burned patients showed a significant increase, with a mean serum TRX concentration on the day of injury of 76.5 ▒ 19.5 ng/ml (mean ▒ SD) and on post-burn day one 122.6 ▒ 66.9 ng/ml, compared to control blood donor levels of 22.7 ▒ 12.2 ng/ml (p = 0.0041 and 0.0117, respectively). A second peak of increase was found on post-burn days 7 to 9 with a four- to five-fold rise in concentration compared to controls. TRX elevation correlated well with increased platelet (p = 0.007) and leukocyte counts (p = 0.002). We also demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy and Western blotting the presence of TRX in platelets. In conclusion, our demonstration of TRX release in burn injuries indicates that the TRX system is involved in a rapid antioxidant defense, coagulation processes, cell growth, and control of the extracellular peroxide tone intimately linked to cytoprotection and wound healing in burns. One of the cell types that delivers TRX promptly and efficiently into the blood may be the platelet.

  • 2. Chlichlia, K.
    et al.
    Los, Marek Jan
    Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, University of Muenster, Roentgenstr. 21, D-48149 Muenster, Germany.
    Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus
    Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, University of Muenster, Roentgenstr. 21, D-48149 Muenster, Germany.
    Gazzolo, L.
    INSERM U412, Ecole Normale S périeure de Lyon, 69367 Lyon, Cedex 07, France.
    Schirrmacher, V.
    Division of Cellular Immunology (G0100), Tumor Immunology Program, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Khazaie, K.
    Division of Cellular Immunology (G0100), Tumor Immunology Program, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D69120 Heidelberg, Germany; 4Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, U.S.A..
    Redox events in HTLV-1 tax-induced apoptotic T-cell death2002In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 471-477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies implicate reactive oxygen intermediates in the induction of DNA damage and apoptosis. Recent studies suggest that the human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) Tax protein induces oxidative stress and apoptotic T-cell death. Activation of the T-cell receptor/CD3 pathway enhances the Tax-mediated oxidative and apoptotic effects. Tax-mediated apoptosis and oxidative stress as well as activation of nuclear factor-kappaB can be potently suppressed by antioxidants. This review focuses on Tax-dependent changes in the intracellular redox status and their role in Tax-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis. The relevance of these observations to HTLV-1 virus-mediated T-cell transformation and leukemogenesis are discussed.

  • 3.
    de Muinck, Ebo
    Dartmouth Medical School.
    Gene and Cell Therapy for Heart Failure2009In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 11, p. 2025-2042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiac gene and cell therapy have both entered clinical trials aimed at ameliorating ventricular dysfunction in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. The transduction of myocardial cells with viral constructs encoding a specific cardiomyocyte Ca2+ pump in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), SRCa2+-ATPase has been shown to correct deficient Ca2+ handling in cardiomyocytes and improvements in contractility in preclinical studies, thus leading to the first clinical trial of gene therapy for heart failure. In cell therapy, it is not clear whether beneficial effects are cell-type specific and how improvements in contractility are brought about. Despite these uncertainties, a number of clinical trials are under way, supported by safety and efficacy data from trials of cell therapy in the setting of myocardial infarction. Safety concerns for gene therapy center on inflammatory and immune responses triggered by viral constructs, and for cell therapy with myoblast cells, the major concern is increased incidence of ventricular arrhythmia after cell transplantation. Principles and mechanisms of action of gene and cell therapy for heart failure are discussed, together with the potential influence of reactive oxygen species on the efficacy of these treatments and the status of myocardial-delivery techniques for viral constructs and cells.

  • 4.
    De Muinck, Ebo D.
    et al.
    Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA.
    Nagy, Norbert
    Tirziu, Daniela
    Murakami, Masahiro
    Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA.
    Gurusamy, Narasimman
    Goswami, Shyamal K.
    Ghatpande, Satish
    Engelman, Richard M.
    Simons, Michael
    Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA.
    Das, Dipak K.
    University of Connecticut, USA.
    Protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by the angiogenic masterswitch protein PR 39 gene therapy: the roles of HIF1 alpha stabilization and FGFR1 signaling2007In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 437-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PR-39, a proline-arginine-rich angiogenic response peptide, has been implicated in myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. The present study examined the cardioprotective abilities of PR39 gene therapy. Male C5713146 mice were randomized to intramyocardial injecton of 10(9) p.f.u. adenovirus encoding PR39 (PR39), FGFR1 dominant negative signaling construct (FGFR1-dn), empty vector (EV), or PR39 adenovirus plus 4 mu g of plasmid endcoding a HIF1 alpha dominant negative construct (PR39 + HIF1 alpha-dn). Seven days later, hearts were subjected to 20 min of ischemia (1) and 2 h. reperfusion (R) ex vivo and aortic and coronary flow, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), and LVdp/dt were measured. Myocardial infarct (MI) size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were measured by TTC staining and TUNEL, respectively. PR39 expression was robust up to 14 days after gene transfer and was absent after EV and FGFR1-dn. Hemodynamics showed no differences at baseline, and heart rate remained unchanged in all groups throughout the experiment. After I-R, hemodynamics remained unchanged in PR39 hearts, but deteriorated significantly in the other groups, except for aortic flow, which remained significantly higher in FGFR1-dn than in EV and PR39 + HIF1 alpha-dn (p less than 0.05), although it was lower than in PR39 (p less than 0.05). MI was 8.7 +/- 0.9 % in PR39, 23.8 +/- 1.1 % in FGFR1-dn, 29.9 +/- 2.2% in EV, and 30.8 +/- 2.7 % in PR39 + HIF1 alpha-dn (PR39 vs. other groups: p less than 0.05; FGFR1-dn vs. EV and PR39 + HIF1 alpha-dn: p less than 0.05). In PR39, HIF-1 alpha protein was higher than in FGFR1-dn and EV. Importantly, cotransfection of HlF1 alpha-dn with PR39 completely abolished cardioprotection by PR39. Cardioprotection by PR39 is likely conveyed by protective metabolic and survival responses through HIF1-alpha stabilization and not by angiogenesis, because baseline coronary How was the same in all groups. Abrogation of FGFR1 signaling conveyed an intermediate degree of cardioprotection.

  • 5.
    Halvarsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rörby, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eliasson, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lang, Stefan
    Lund Stem Cell Center, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Soneji, Shamit
    Lund Stem Cell Center, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Jan-Ingvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Putative Role of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B But Not Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α in Hypoxia-Dependent Regulation of Oxidative Stress in Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells2019In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 211-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Adaptation to low oxygen of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow has been demonstrated to depend on the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α as well as the limited production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we aimed at determining whether HIF-1α is involved in protecting HSCs from ROS.

    Results: Oxidative stress was induced by DL-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO)-treatment, which increases the mitochondrial ROS level. Hypoxia rescued Lineage-Sca-1+c-kit+ (LSK) cells from BSO-induced apoptosis, whereas cells succumbed to apoptosis in normoxia. Apoptosis in normoxia was inhibited with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or by overexpression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2. Moreover, stabilized expression of oxygen-insensitive HIFs could not protect LSK cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis at normoxia, neither could short hairpin RNA to Hif-1α inhibit the protective effects by hypoxia in LSK cells. Likewise, BSO treatment of LSK cells from Hif-1α knockout mice did not suppress the effects seen in hypoxia. Microarray analysis identified the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway as a pathway induced by hypoxia. By using NF-κB lentiviral construct and DNA-binding assay, we found increased NF-κB activity in cells cultured in hypoxia compared with normoxia. Using an inhibitor against NF-κB activation, we could confirm the involvement of NF-κB signaling as BSO-mediated cell death was significantly increased in hypoxia after adding the inhibitor.

    Innovation: HIF-1α is not involved in protecting HSCs and progenitors to elevated levels of ROS on glutathione depletion during hypoxic conditions.

    Conclusion: The study proposes a putative role of NF-κB signaling as a hypoxia-induced regulator in early hematopoietic cells.

  • 6.
    Kurz, Tino
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Pharmacology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eaton, John W.
    University of Louisville.
    Brunk, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Pharmacology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Redox Activity Within the Lysosomal Compartment: Implications for Aging and Apoptosis2010In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 511-523Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lysosome is a redox-active compartment containing low-mass iron and copper liberated by autophagic degradation of metalloproteins. The acidic milieu and high concentration of thiols within lysosomes will keep iron in a reduced ( ferrous) state, which can react with endogenous or exogenous hydrogen peroxide. Consequent intralysosomal Fenton reactions may give rise to the formation of lipofuscin or "age pigment that accumulates in long-lived postmitotic cells that cannot dilute it by division. Extensive accumulation of lipofuscin seems to hinder normal autophagy and may be an important factor behind aging and age-related pathologies. Enhanced oxidative stress causes lysosomal membrane permeabilization, with ensuing relocation to the cytosol of iron and lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes, with resulting apoptosis or necrosis. Lysosomal copper is normally not redox active because it will form non-redox-active complexes with various thiols. However, if cells are exposed to lysosomotropic chelators that do not bind all the copper coordinates, highly redox-active complexes may form, with ensuing extensive lysosomal Fenton-type reactions and loss of lysosomal stability. Because many malignancies seem to have increased amounts of copper-containing macromolecules that are turned over by autophagy, it is conceivable that lysosomotropic copper chelators may be used in the future in ROS-based anticancer therapies.

  • 7.
    Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio
    et al.
    Department of Biosciences at Novum, Center for Biotechnology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Damdimopoulos, Anastasios E.
    Department of Biosciences at Novum, Center for Biotechnology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Spyrou, Giannis
    Department of Biosciences at Novum, Center for Biotechnology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    The mitochondrial thioredoxin system2000In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 801-810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human possess a mitochondrial thioredoxin system composed of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, similar to the cytosolic thioredoxin system that exists in the same cells. Yeast and mammalian mitochondrial thioredoxins are monomers of approximately 12 kDa and contain the typical conserved active site WCGPC. However, there are important differences between yeast and mammalian mitochondrial thioredoxin reductases that resemble the differences between their cytosolic counterparts. Mammalian mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase is a selenoprotein that forms a homodimer of 55 kDa/subunit; while yeast mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase is a homodimer of 37 kDa/subunit and does not contain selenocysteine. A function of the mitochondrial thioredoxin system is as electron donor for a mitochondrial peroxiredoxin, an enzyme that detoxifies the hydrogen peroxide generated by the mitochondrial metabolism. Experiments with yeast mutants lacking both the mitochondrial thioredoxin system as well as the mitochondrial peroxiredoxin system suggest an important role for mitochondrial thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and peroxiredoxin in the protection against oxidative stress.

  • 8.
    Olejnicka, Beata
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Andersson, A.
    Tyrberg, B.
    Dalen, H.
    Brunk, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Beta cells, oxidative stress, lysosomal stability and apoptotic/neurotic cell death.1999In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 1, p. 305-315Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Sahaf, Bita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rosén, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Secretion of 10-kDa and 12-kDa Thioredoxin Species from Blood Monocytes and Transformed Leukocytes2000In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 717-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thioredoxins (TRX) are ubiquitous, small redox-active proteins with multiple functions, including antioxidant, cytoprotective, and chemoattractant activities. In addition to a 12-kDa intracellular form, extracellular 10-kDa and 12-kDa TRX have been defined. The biological activities of the 10-kDa TRX were previously measured as eosinophil cytotoxicity enhancing activity or B-cell stimulatory activity. Cytotrophoblastic cell lines also release a 10-kDa TRX form. To study the biological role of 10-kDa TRX, we established two highly sensitive enzyme-linked immuno-spot assays (ELISPOT), which detect secreted truncated 10-kDa and full-length 12-kDa TRX at the single cell level. TRX secretion was investigated in several cell lines including the T-helper cell hybridoma MP6, the Jurkat T-cell leukemia, the U-937 myelomonocytic leukemia, and the 3B6, EBV-transformed, lymphoblastoid B-cell line. The highest number of secreting cells was found in 3B6 cultures, median = 34 (quartiles, 27–39) per well (105 cells). Peripheral blood monocytes isolated from healthy donors secreted significantly more TRX after stimulation with ionomycin, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), fMLP, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), compared to unstimulated cells. Oxidative stress induced by thioloxidant diamide also induced the secretion of both truncated and full-length TRX measured in ELISPOT (p = 0.047 and p = 0.031, respectively). The biological activity of the truncated and full-length forms was tested in a cell migration assay. Truncated TRX was devoid of protein disulfide reductase activity, but retained strong chemoattractant activity for human monocytes, in the same range as full-length TRX, as previously reported.

  • 10.
    Söderberg, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Akter, Hossain
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rosén, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A protein disulfide isomerase/thioredoxin-1 complex is physically attached to exofacial membrane TNF-receptors: overexpression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia2012In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 363-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The 3D structures and functions of cysteine-rich receptors such as tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs) are redox-modulated by dithiol–disulfide exchange. TNFR superfamily members participate in growth regulation in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and tissue stromal cells interact with leukemia cells, profoundly affecting their viability via release of redox-active components, including cysteine, thioredoxin-1 (Trx1), and Trx reductase. Trx1 was previously shown to enhance release of TNF, which acts as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor in CLL. The nature of the mechanism is not known, however. Here, we investigated whether Trx1 and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), a chaperone and Trx-family member, may interact with TNFRs. Results: We found direct physical association between PDI and TNFR1 or TNFR2 by coclustering and affinity isolation. PDI (57 kDa) formed covalent/reduction-sensitive 69-kDa complexes with Trx1 (12 kDa) in a majority of CLL cell samples, detected at low levels only in control B-cells. Functionally, the TNF/TNFR signaling via the nuclear factor kappa B-driven autocrine loop was disrupted in a dose-dependent fashion by PDI-inhibitors bacitracin, anti-PDI, or anti-Trx1 antibodies, resulting in reduced viability. PDI was significantly overexpressed in immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (IGHV) unmutated versus mutated CLL (p=0.0102), and amplified TNF release was observed in the former group. Innovation: This study points out a previously unrecognized physical and functional association of TNFRs with the redox-active proteins PDI and Trx1. Conclusion: We describe here a new level of TNF regulation, in which membrane TNFRs are redox controlled at the exofacial surface by PDI/Trx1. These findings shed new light on the observed survival benefit in CLL B-cells exerted by TNFR-superfamily ligands and point at potential therapeutic strategies

  • 11.
    Terman, Alexei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology.
    Brunk, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology.
    Oxidative stress, accumulation of biological 'garbage', and aging2006In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 8, no 1-2, p. 197-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Normal metabolism is associated with unavoidable mild oxidative stress resulting in biomolecular damage that cannot be totally repaired or removed by cellular degradative systems, including lysosomes, proteasomes, and cytosolic and mitochondrial proteases. Consequently, irreversibly damaged and functionally defective structures (biological 'garbage') accumulate within long-lived postmitotic cells, such as cardiac myocytes and neurons, leading to progressive loss of adaptability and increased probability of death and characterizing a process called aging, or senescence. Intralysosomal 'garbage' is represented by lipofuscin (age pigment), an undegradable autophagocytosed material, while extralysosomal 'garbage' involves oxidatively modified cytosolic proteins, altered biomembranes, defective mitochondria and other organelles. In aged postmitotic cells, heavily lipofuscin-loaded lysosomes perform poorly, resulting in the enhanced accumulation of defective mitochondria, which in turn produce more reactive oxygen species causing additional damage (the mitochondrial- lysosomal axis theory). Potential anti-aging strategies may involve not only overall reduction of oxidative stress, but also the use of intralysosomal iron chelators hampering Fenton-type chemistry as well as the stimulation of cellular degradative systems. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  • 12.
    Terman, Alexei
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Pathology and Cytology, Karolinska University Hospital in Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Kurz, Tino
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lysosomal iron, iron chelation, and cell death2013In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 888-898Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significance: Lysosomes are acidic organelles containing more than fifty hydrolases that provide for the degradation of intracellular and endocytosed materials by autophagy and heterophagy, respectively. They digest a variety of macromolecules, as well as all organelles, and their integrity is crucial. As a result of the degradation of iron-containing macromolecules (e.g., ferritin and mitochondrial components) or endocytosed erythrocytes (by macrophages), lysosomes can accumulate large amounts of iron. This iron occurs often as Fe(II) due to the acidic and reducing lysosomal environment. Fe(II) is known to catalyze Fenton reactions, yielding extremely reactive hydroxyl radicals that may jeopardize lysosomal membrane integrity during oxidative stress. This results in the release of hydrolases and redox-active iron into the cytosol with ensuing damage or cell death. Lysosomes play key roles not only in apoptosis and necrosis but also in neurodegeneration, aging, and atherosclerosis. Recent Advances: The damaging effect of intralysosomal iron can be hampered by endogenous or exogenous iron chelators that enter the lysosomal compartment by membrane permeation, endocytosis, or autophagy. Critical Issues: Cellular sensitivity to oxidative stress is enhanced by lysosomal redox-active iron or by lysosomal-targeted copper chelators binding copper (from degradation of copper-containing macromolecules) in redox-active complexes. Probably due to higher copper levels, lysosomes of malignant cells may be specifically sensitized by such chelators. Future Directions: By increasing lysosomal redox-active iron or exposing cells to lysosomal-targeted copper chelators, it should be possible to enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to radiation-induced oxidative stress or treatment with cytostatics that induce such stress.

  • 13.
    Terman, Alexei
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Kurz, Tino
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Navratil, Marian
    University of Minnesota.
    Arriaga, Edgar A
    University of Minnesota.
    Brunk, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mitochondrial Turnover and Aging of Long-Lived Postmitotic Cells: The Mitochondrial-Lysosomal Axis Theory of Aging2010In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 503-535Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is now generally accepted that aging and eventual death of multicellular organisms is to a large extent related to macromolecular damage by mitochondrially produced reactive oxygen species, mostly affecting long-lived postmitotic cells, such as neurons and cardiac myocytes. These cells are rarely or not at all replaced during life and can be as old as the whole organism. The inherent inability of autophagy and other cellular-degradation mechanisms to remove damaged structures completely results in the progressive accumulation of garbage, including cytosolic protein aggregates, defective mitochondria, and lipofuscin, an intralysosomal indigestible material. In this review, we stress the importance of crosstalk between mitochondria and lysosomes in aging. The slow accumulation of lipofuscin within lysosomes seems to depress autophagy, resulting in reduced turnover of effective mitochondria. The latter not only are functionally deficient but also produce increased amounts of reactive oxygen species, prompting lipofuscinogenesis. Moreover, defective and enlarged mitochondria are poorly autophagocytosed and constitute a growing population of badly functioning organelles that do not fuse and exchange their contents with normal mitochondria. The progress of these changes seems to result in enhanced oxidative stress, decreased ATP production, and collapse of the cellular catabolic machinery, which eventually is incompatible with survival.

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