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  • 1.
    Friberg, Urban
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Section of Animal Ecology, Umeå University, Umeå , Sweden.
    Genetic variation in male and female reproductive characters associated with sexual conflict in Drosophila melanogaster2005Inngår i: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 455-462Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that elevated mating, courtship and seminal substances affect female fitness negatively in Drosophila melanogaster. It has also been shown that males vary with respect to these characters and that male harm to females correlates positively with components of male fitness. These results suggest that there is sexual conflict over the effect of such male characters. An important component of this scenario is that females have evolved counteradaptations to male harm, but so far there is limited evidence for this. Here I define female resistance as the ability to withstand an increased exposure to males. Across 10 genetically differentiated lines of D. melanogaster, I found genetic variation among females in the reduction of lifespan that followed from exposure to males of different durations. There was also genetic variation among males with regards to the degree to which they decrease the lifespan of their mates. These results suggest that genetic variation for female ability to endure male sexually antagonistic adaptations exists and may play an important role in male–female coevolution.

  • 2.
    Friend, A
    et al.
    Colorado University at Boulder, USA.
    DeFries, J. C
    Colorado University at Boulder, USA.
    Olson, R. K
    Colorado University at Boulder, USA.
    Pennington, B
    Colorado University, USA.
    Harlaar, N
    King's College London, UK.
    Byrne, B
    University of New England, Australia.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Willcutt, E
    Colorado University at Boulder, USA.
    Wadsworth, S
    Colorado University at Boulder, USA.
    Corley, R
    Colorado University at Boulder, USA.
    Heritability of high reading ability and its interaction with parental education2009Inngår i: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 39, s. 427-436Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Moderation of the level of genetic influence on children’s high reading ability by environmental influences associated with parental education was explored in two independent samples of identical and fraternal twins from the United States and Great Britain. For both samples, the heritability of high reading performance increased significantly with lower levels of parental education. Thus, resilience (high reading ability despite lower environmental support) is more strongly influenced by genotype than is high reading ability with higher environmental support. This result provides a coherent account when considered alongside results of previous research showing that heritability for low reading ability decreased with lower levels of parental education.

  • 3.
    McGowan, Dipti
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Little, Callie W
    New England University, Australia.
    Coventry, William L
    New England University, Australia.
    Corley, Robin
    University of Colorado Boulder, USA.
    Olson, Richard K
    University of Colorado Boulder, USA.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Byrne, Brian
    New England University, Australia.
    Differential influences of genes and environment across the distribution of reading ability2019Inngår i: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 49, s. 425-431Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Nätt, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Leif
    Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics Uppsala Biomedical Center, Sweden.
    Kerje, Susanne
    Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics Uppsala Biomedical Center, Sweden.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Plumage Color and Feather Pecking-Behavioral Differences Associated with PMEL17 Genotypes in Chicken (Gallus gallus)2007Inngår i: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 399-407Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

       An F 5 generation of an advanced inter-cross between red junglefowl (wild-type) and White Leghorn (domesticated) was used to investigate earlier findings suggesting that a mutation in the plumage color gene PMEL17 protects against victimization to feather pecking (FP). F 4 parents were selected according to genotype to produce PMEL17 homozygous offspring (i/i and I/I respectively). Birds were raised and their behavior recorded in groups of either two wild-type i/i (dark colored) and one white I/I, or two I/I and one i/i. In addition each bird was tested for feather preference, reaction to novelty, open-field activity, fear for humans, and tonic-immobility. In the home-pens, i/i birds were more feather pecked and had poorer feather condition than I/I birds. No pecking preference for immobile dark colored feathers was observed. In the open-field test i/i birds vocalized more and earlier than I/I birds, and in the fear-for-human test I/I birds had higher activity at 21 weeks of age. No other behavior differences were observed, but clearly, genotypes of PMEL17 affected some aspects of behavior. Such behavioral differences might be important aspects of the mechanism which predispose i/i individuals for being victims of FP.

  • 5.
    Schutz, K
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Sect Ethol, S-53223 Skara, Sweden Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala Biomed Ctr, SE-75124 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kerje, S
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Sect Ethol, S-53223 Skara, Sweden Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala Biomed Ctr, SE-75124 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Carlborg, O
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Sect Ethol, S-53223 Skara, Sweden Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala Biomed Ctr, SE-75124 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, L
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Sect Ethol, S-53223 Skara, Sweden Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala Biomed Ctr, SE-75124 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, L
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Sect Ethol, S-53223 Skara, Sweden Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala Biomed Ctr, SE-75124 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jensen, P
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Sect Ethol, S-53223 Skara, Sweden Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala Biomed Ctr, SE-75124 Uppsala, Sweden.
    QTL analysis of a red junglefowl x white leghorn intercross reveals trade-off in resource allocation between behavior and production traits2002Inngår i: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 32, nr 6, s. 423-433Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Behaviors with high energetic costs may decrease in frequency in domestic animals as a response to selection for increased production. The aim of this study was to quantify production traits, foraging behavior, and social motivation in F-2 progeny from a White Leghorn x red jungle-fowl intercross (n = 751-1046) and to perform QTL analyses on the behavioral traits. A foraging-social maze was used for behavioral testing, which consisted of four identical arms and a central box. In two arms there was ad libitum access to the birds' usual food, and in the other two there was novel food (sunflower seeds) mixed with cat litter. In one arm with each of the two food sources, social stimuli were simulated by the presence of a mirror. Each bird could therefore feed on novel or well known food either alone or in the perceived company of a conspecific. Egg production, sexual maturity (females), food intake, and growth were measured individually, and residual food intake and metabolic body weight were estimated using standard methods. A genome scan using 104 microsatellite markers was carried out to identify QTLs affecting behavioral traits. Phenotypic growth rates at different ages showed weak associations in both sexes. Sexual maturity and egg weight were not strongly correlated to growth, indicating that these traits are not genetically linked. Time spent in each arm and in the central part of the maze was analyzed using principal component analyses. Four principal components (PC) were extracted, each reflecting a pattern of behavior in the maze. Females with early onset of sexual maturity scored higher on the PC I reflecting preference for free food without social stimuli, and females with higher egg production scored higher on the PC2 reflecting exploration. Males with an overall higher growth rate and higher residual food intake scored higher on the PC3, which possibly reflected fear of the test situation, and tended to score higher on the PC4 reflecting low contrafreeloading. Significant QTLs were found for PC1 and PC4 scores on chromosomes 27 and 7, respectively. The location of the QTLs coincided with known QTLs for growth rate and body weight. The results suggest a trade-off between energy-demanding behavior and high production and that some of this may be caused by genetic linkage or pleiotropic gene effects.

  • 6. Schutz, KE
    et al.
    Kerje, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Jacobsson, L
    Forkman, B
    Carlborg, O
    Andersson, L
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi.
    Major growth QTLs in fowl are related to fearful behavior: possible genetic links between fear responses and production traits in a red junglefowl x White Leghorn intercross2004Inngår i: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 121-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to study fear responses and their relation to production traits in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus spp.), White Leghorn (Gallus domesticus), and their F-2-progeny. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses were performed for behavioral traits to gain information about possible genetic links between fear-related behaviors and production. Four behavioral tests were performed that induce different levels of acute fear (open field [OF], exposure to a novel object, tonic immobility, and restraint). Production traits, that is, egg production, sexual maturity (in females), food intake, and growth, were measured individually. A genome scan using 105 microsatellite markers was carried out to identify QTLs controlling the traits studied. In the OF and novel object tests (NO), Leghorns showed less fear behavior than junglefowl, whereas junglefowl behaved less fearfully in the tonic immobility test (TI) and were more active in the restraint test. In the F-2 progeny, only weak phenotypic associations were found between production traits and fear behavior. A significant QTL for TI duration was found on chromosome 1 that coincided with a QTL for egg weight and growth in the same animals. Another QTL for NO in males coincided with another major growth QTL. These two known growth QTLs affected a wide range of reactions in different tests. Several other significant and suggestive QTLs for behavioral traits related to fear were found. These QTLs did not coincide with QTLs for production traits, indicating that these fear variables may not be genetically linked to the production traits we measured here. The results show that loci affecting important production traits are located in the same chromosomal region as loci affecting different fear-related behaviors.

  • 7.
    Wirén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A growth QTL affects emotionality and sociality in chickens2010Inngår i: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 40, nr 6, s. 819-819Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestic animals have long been selected for preferable physiolog-ical traits such as high body weight, fast growth rate, high milk yieldetc. Whether intentional or not, this intense selection has also had sideeffects on the behaviour of animals. Such side effects may be due to pleiotropy of production related genes, or close linkage with genes affecting behaviour. In this study we aimed at investigating the genetic factors responsible for changes in production traits and their correlation to behaviour by comparing birds from an advanced intercross between domestic White Leghorn laying hens and their wild ancestor, the red junglefowl. Social behaviour and emotional reactivity of chickens homozygous for a White Leghorn allele of agrowth QTL (‘‘WL genotype’’) was compared to that of chickens homozygous for the red junglefowl allele (‘‘RJF genotype’’). Young WL genotype birds reacted in a more passive manner to a simulated predator attack and interacted more with their mirror image. When adult, WL genotype birds required more induction attempts before entering tonic immobility than RJF genotype birds. These results suggest that the growth QTL affects a number of domestication related behavioural traits, and may have been a primary target of selection. The QTL contains a multitude of genes, several of which have been linked to social behaviour in other species. Future studies aimed at making a higher resolution phenotypic characterization of the QTL should give more information about which of these genes may be considered candidates for bringing about the behavioural changes associated with animal domestication.

  • 8.
    Wirén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Growth QTL on Chicken Chromosome 1 Affects Emotionality and Sociality2011Inngår i: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 303-311Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication of animals, regardless of species, is often accompanied by simultaneous changes in several physiological and behavioral traits (e.g. growth rate and fearfulness). In this study we compared the social behavior and emotional reactivity, as measured in a battery of behavioral tests, of two groups of chickens selected from a common genetic background, an advanced intercross line between the ancestral red junglefowl ("RJF") and the domesticated White Leghorn layer ("WL"). The birds were selected for homozygosity for alternative alleles at one locus (a microsatellite marker), centrally positioned in a previously identified pleiotropic growth QTL on chromosome 1, closely linked to one major candidate gene (AVPR1a) for certain aspects of social behavior. Birds homozygous for the WL allele ("WL genotype") had a modified pattern of social and emotional reactions than birds homozygous for the RJF allele ("RJF genotype"), shown by different scores in a principal components analysis. These results suggest that the growth QTL affects a number of domestication related behavioral traits, and may have been a primary target of selection during domestication. The QTL contains a multitude of genes, several of which have been linked to social behavior (for example the vasotocin receptor AVPR1a targeted in this experiment). Future studies aimed at making a higher resolution genotypic characterization of the QTL should give more information about which of these genes may be considered the strongest candidates for bringing about the behavioral changes associated with animal domestication.

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