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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrlöf, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bayesian State Estimation of a Flexible Industrial Robot2012In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 1220-1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sensor fusion method for state estimation of a flexible industrial robot is developed. By measuring the acceleration at the end-effector, the accuracy of the arm angular position, as well as the estimated position of the end-effector are improved. The problem is formulated in a Bayesian estimation framework and two solutions are proposed; the extended Kalman filter and the particle filter. In a simulation study on a realistic flexible industrial robot, the angular position performance is shown to be close to the fundamental Cramér-Rao lower bound. The technique is also verified in experiments on an ABB robot, where the dynamic performance of the position for the end-effector is significantly improved.

  • 2. Düstegör, Dilek
    et al.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Coquempot, Vincent
    Krysander, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Staroswiecki, Marcel
    Structural Analysis of Fault Isolability in the DAMADICS benchmark2006In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 597-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural analysis is a powerful tool for early determination of fault detectability/fault isolability possibilities. It is shown how different levels of knowledge about faults can be incorporated in a structural fault isolability analysis and how they result in different isolability properties. The results are evaluated on the DAMADICS valve benchmark model. It is also shown how to determine which faults in the benchmark that need further modelling to get desired isolability properties of the diagnosis system.

  • 3.
    Eidehall, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pohl, Jochen
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Joint Road Geometry Estimation and Vehicle Tracking2007In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 15, no 12, p. 1484-1494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection and tracking of other vehicles and estimation of lane geometry will be required for many intelligent driver assistance systems in the future. By combining the processing of these two features into a single filter, better utilisation of the available information can be achieved. For instance, it is demonstrated that it is possible to improve the road shape estimate by including information about the lateral movement of leading vehicles. Statistical evaluation is done by comparing the estimated parameters to true values in varying road and weather conditions. The performance is also related to typical requirements of active safety applications such as adaptive cruise control and a new safety function called emergency lane assist.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nielsen, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ionization Current Interpretation for Ignition Control in Internal Combustion Engines1997In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 1107-1113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spark advance setting in spark-ignited engines is used to place the in-cylinder pressure curve relative to the top dead center. A feedback scheme, not a calibration scheme, based on ionization current is proposed here. It is thus related to pressure sensor feedback schemes, that have reported good results, but have not yet been proved cost effective, due to the cost of the pressure sensor. The method proposed here is very cost-effective, since it uses exactly the same hardware and instrumentation (already used in production cars) that is used to utilize the spark plug as a sensor to detect misfire and as a sensor for knock control. A key idea in the method is to use parameterized functions to describe the ionization current. These parameterized functions are used to separate out the different phases of the ionization current. Special emphasis is laid on getting a correct description of the pressure development. The results are validated on a SAAB 2.3 l production engine by direct comparison with an in-cylinder pressure sensor (used only for validation, not for control), but also by using a physical model relating the ionization current to the pressure.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rizzo, Gianfranco
    University of Salerno, Italy.
    Chamaillard, Yann
    University of Orleans, France.
    Editorial Material: Editorial: Special Issue Section on Automotive Control in CONTROL ENGINEERING PRACTICE, vol 61, issue , pp 183-1852017In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 61, p. 183-185Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thomasson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekberg, Kristoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reig, Alberto
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Spain.
    Eifert, Mark
    Ford Res and Innovat Ctr, Germany.
    Donatantonio, Fabrizio
    Univ Salerno, Italy.
    DAmato, Antonio
    Univ Salerno, Italy.
    Arsie, Ivan
    Univ Salerno, Italy.
    Pianese, Cesare
    Univ Salerno, Italy.
    Otta, Pavel
    Czech Tech Univ, Czech Republic.
    Held, Manne
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Voegele, Ulrich
    TH Ingolstadt, Germany.
    Endisch, Christian
    TH Ingolstadt, Germany.
    Look-ahead controls of heavy duty trucks on open roads - six benchmark solutions2019In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 83, p. 45-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A benchmark problem for fuel efficient control of a truck on a given road profile has been formulated and solved. Six different solution strategies utilizing varying degrees of off-line and on-line computations are described and compared. A vehicle model is used to benchmark the solutions on different driving missions. The vehicle model was presented at the IFAC AAC2016 symposium and is compiled from model components validated in previous research projects. The driving scenario is provided as a road slope profile and a desired trip time. The problem to solve is a combination of engine-, driveline- and vehicle-control while fulfilling demands on emissions, driving time, legislative speed, and engine protections. The strength of this publication is the collection of all six different solutions in one paper. This paper is intended to provide a starting point for practicing engineers or researchers who work with optimal and/or model based vehicle control.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-11-07 15:14
  • 7.
    Garulli, Andrea
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione Universita' degli Studi di Siena, Italy.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khoshfetrat Pakazad, Sina
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Masi, Alfio
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione Universita' degli Studi di Siena, Italy.
    Wallin, Ragnar
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robust finite-frequency H2 analysis of uncertain systems with application to flight comfort analysis2013In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 887-897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many applications, design or analysis is performed over a finite-frequency range of interest. The importance of the H2 norm highlights the necessity of computing this norm accordingly. This paper provides different methods for computing upper bounds of the robust finite-frequency H2 norm for systems with structured uncertainties. An application of the robust finite-frequency H2 norm for a comfort analysis problem of an aero-elastic model of an aircraft is also presented.

  • 8.
    Guardiola, C
    et al.
    University of Politecn Valencia, Spain .
    Pla, B
    University of Politecn Valencia, Spain .
    Blanco-Rodriguez, D
    University of Politecn Valencia, Spain .
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A computationally efficient Kalman filter based estimator for updating look-up tables applied to NOx estimation in diesel engines2013In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 1455-1468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    No-x estimation in diesel engines is an up-to-date problem but still some issues need to be solved. Raw sensor signals are not fast enough for real-time use while control-oriented models suffer from drift and aging. A control-oriented gray box model based on engine maps and calibrated off-line is used as benchmark model for No-x estimation. Calibration effort is important and engine data-dependent. This motivates the use of adaptive look-up tables. In addition to, look-up tables are often used in automotive control systems and there is a need for systematic methods that can estimate or update them on-line. For that purpose, Kalman filter (KF) based methods are explored as having the interesting property of tracking estimation error in a covariance matrix. Nevertheless, when coping with large systems, the computational burden is high, in terms of time and memory, compromising its implementation in commercial electronic control units. However look-up table estimation has a structure, that is here exploited to develop a memory and computationally efficient approximation to the KF, named Simplified Kalman filter (SKF). Convergence and robustness is evaluated in simulation and compared to both a full KF and a minimal steady-state version, that neglects the variance information. SKF is used for the online calibration of an adaptive model for No-x estimation in dynamic engine cycles. Prediction results are compared with the ones of the benchmark model and of the other methods. Furthermore, actual online estimation of No-x is solved by means of the proposed adaptive structure. Results on dynamic tests with a diesel engine and the computational study demonstrate the feasibility and capabilities of the method for an implementation in engine control units.

  • 9.
    Gunnarsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Control Theory Aspects of Power Control in UMTS2003In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 1113-1125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global communication systems critically rely on control algorithms of various kinds. In universal mobile telephony system (UMTS)-the third generation mobile telephony system just being launched-power control algorithms play an important role for efficient resource utilization. This survey article describes and discusses relevant aspects of UMTS power control with emphasis on practical issues, using an automatic control framework. Generally, power control of each connection is distributedly implemented as cascade control, with an inner loop to compensate for fast variations and an outer loop focusing on longer term statistics. These control loops are interrelated via complex connections, which affect important issues such as capacity, load and stability. Therefore, both local and global properties are important. The concepts and algorithms are illustrated by simple examples and simulations.

  • 10.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Collignon, Vincent
    Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium.
    Rousseaux, Olivier
    Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium.
    Tuning of a Decoupling Controller for a 2×2 System using Iterative Feedback Tuning2003In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 1035-1041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iterative feedback tuning is used to tune a decoupling controller for a 2 × 2 multivariable system. The tuning is carried out in two steps. In the first step the coefficients of two proportional decoupling controllers are tuned, and in the second step two PD-controllers are tuned. The approach is evaluated on a nonlinear simulation model of a two-link manipulator. The evaluation is carried out using two different reference trajectories and also in the presence of friction. The resulting closed loop systems show satisfactory behavior in all three cases.

  • 11.
    Hellström, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivarsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åslund, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nielsen, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Look-ahead control for heavy trucks to minimize trip time and fuel consumption2009In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 245-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scenario studied is a drive mission for a heavy diesel truck. With aid of an on board road slope database in combination with a GPS unit, information about the road geometry ahead is extracted. This look-ahead information is used in an optimization of the velocity trajectory with respect to a criterion formulation that weighs trip time and fuel consumption. A dynamic programming algorithm is devised and used in a predictive control scheme by constantly feeding the conventional cruise controller with new set points. The algorithm is evaluated with a real truck on a highway, and the experimental results show that the fuel consumption is significantly reduced.

  • 12.
    Hellström, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åslund, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nielsen, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design of an efficient algorithm for fuel-optimal look-ahead control2010In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 1318-1327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fuel-optimal control algorithm is developed for a heavy diesel truck that utilizes information about the road topography ahead of the vehicle when the route is known. A prediction model is formulated where special attention is given to properly include gear shifting. The aim is an algorithm with sufficiently low computational complexity. To this end, a dynamic programming algorithm is tailored, and complexity and numerical errors are analyzed. It is shown that it is beneficial to formulate the problem in terms of kinetic energy in order to avoid oscillating solutions and to reduce linear interpolation errors. A residual cost is derived from engine and driveline characteristics. The result is an on-board controller for an optimal velocity profile and gear selection.

  • 13.
    Höckerdal, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson , Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Observer design and model augmentation for bias compensation with a truck engine application2009In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 408-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic design method for reducing bias in observers is developed. The method utilizes an observable default model of the system together with measurement data from the real system and estimates a model augmentation. The augmented model is then used to design an observer which reduces the estimation bias compared to an observer based on the default model. Three main results are a characterization of possible augmentations from observability perspectives, a parameterization of the augmentations from the method, and a robustness analysis of the proposed augmentation estimation method. The method is applied to a truck engine where the resulting augmented observer reduces the estimation bias by 50% in a European transient cycle.

  • 14.
    Höckerdal, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    EKF-Based Adaptation of Look-Up Tables with an Air Mass-Flow Sensor Application2011In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 442-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for bias compensation and online map adaptation using extended Kalman filters isdeveloped. Key properties of the approach include the methods of handling component aging, varyingmeasurement quality including operating-point-dependent reliability and occasional outliers, andoperating-point-dependent model quality. Theoretical results about local and global observability,specifically adapted to the map adaptation problem, are proven. In addition, a method is presented tohandle covariance growth of locally unobservable modes, which is inherent in the map adaptationproblem. The approach is also applicable to the offline calibration of maps, in which case the onlyrequirement of the data is that the entire operating region of the system is covered, i.e., no specialcalibration cycles are required. The approach is applied to a truck engine in which an air mass-flowsensor adaptation map is estimated during a European transient cycle. It is demonstrated that themethod manages to find a map describing the sensor error in the presence of model errors on ameasurement sequence not specifically designed for adaptation. It is also demonstrated that themethod integrates well with traditional engineering tools, allowing prior knowledge about specificmodel errors to be incorporated and handled.

  • 15.
    Jung, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krysander, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of misfire detection algorithm using quantitative FDI performance analysis2015In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 34, p. 49-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model-based misfire detection algorithm is proposed. The algorithm is able to detect misfires and identify the failing cylinder during different conditions, such as cylinder-to-cylinder variations, cold starts, and different engine behavior in different operating points. Also, a method is proposed for automatic tuning of the algorithm based on training data. The misfire detection algorithm is evaluated using data from several vehicles on the road and the results show that a low misclassification rate is achieved even during difficult conditions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Jung, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krysander, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A flywheel error compensation algorithm for engine misfire detection2016In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 47, p. 37-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A commonly used signal for engine misfire detection is the crankshaft angular velocity measured at the flywheel. However, flywheel manufacturing errors result in vehicle-to-vehicle variations in the measurements and have a negative impact on the misfire detection performance, where the negative impact is quantified for a number of vehicles. A misfire detection algorithm is proposed with flywheel error adaptation in order to increase robustness and reduce the number of mis-classifications. Since the available computational power is limited in a vehicle, a filter with low computational load, a Constant Gain Extended Kalman Filter, is proposed to estimate the flywheel errors. Evaluations using measurements from vehicles on the road show that the number of mis-classifications is significantly reduced when taking the estimated flywheel errors into consideration.

  • 17.
    Jung, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ng, Kok Yew
    School of Engineering, Ulster University, Newtownabbey, UK; Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krysander, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Combining model-based diagnosis and data-driven anomaly classifiers for fault isolation2018In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 80, p. 146-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning can be used to automatically process sensor data and create data-driven models for prediction and classification. However, in applications such as fault diagnosis, faults are rare events and learning models for fault classification is complicated because of lack of relevant training data. This paper proposes a hybrid diagnosis system design which combines model-based residuals with incremental anomaly classifiers. The proposed method is able to identify unknown faults and also classify multiple-faults using only single-fault training data. The proposed method is verified using a physical model and data collected from an internal combustion engine.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-09-09 11:37
  • 18.
    Klein, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Åslund, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Compression ratio estimation based on cylinder pressure data2006In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 14, no 3 SPEC. ISS., p. 197-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four methods for compression ratio estimation based on cylinder pressure traces are developed and evaluated for both simulated and experimental cycles. The first three methods rely upon a model of polytropic compression for the cylinder pressure. It is shown that they give a good estimate of the compression ratio at low compression ratios, although the estimates are biased. A method based on a variable projection algorithm with a logarithmic norm of the cylinder pressure yields the smallest confidence intervals and shortest computational time for these three methods. This method is recommended when computational time is an important issue. The polytropic pressure model lacks information about heat transfer and therefore the estimation bias increases with the compression ratio. The fourth method includes heat transfer, crevice effects, and a commonly used heat release model for firing cycles. This method is able to estimate the compression ratio more accurately in terms of bias and variance. The method is more computationally demanding and is therefore recommended when estimation accuracy is the most important property. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Krysander, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leakage Detection In a Fuel Evaporative System2009In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 17, no 11, p. 1273-1279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-board diagnostic (OBD) regulations require that the fuel system in personal vehicles must be supervised for leakages. Legislative requirement on the smallest leakage size that has to be detected is decreasing and at the same time the requirement on the number of leakage checks is increasing. A consequence is that detection must be performed under more and more diverse operating conditions. This paper describes a vacuum-decay based approach for evaporative leak detection. The approach requires no additional hardware such as pumps or pressure regulators, it only utilizes the pressure sensor that is mounted in the fuel tank. A detection algorithm is proposed that detects small leakages under different operating conditions. The method is based on a first principles physical model of the pressure in the fuel tank. Careful statistical analysis of the model and measurement data together with statistical maximum-likelihood estimation methods, results in a systematic design procedure that is easily tuned with few and intuitive parameters. The approach has been successfully evaluated on a production engine and fuel system setup in a laboratory environment.

  • 20.
    Leufvén, Oskar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A surge and choke capable compressor flow model: Validation and extrapolation capability2013In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 1871-1883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasingly stringent emissions legislation combined with consumer performance demand, have created the need for complex automotive engines. The control of these complex system rely heavily on control oriented models. Models capable of describing all operating modes of the systems are beneficial, and the models should be easily parametrized and enable extrapolation. A large database of automotive compressor maps is characterized, and used to develop, validate and automatically parametrize a compressor flow model capable of describing reversed flow, normal operation and choke. Measurement data from both an engine test stand, and a surge test stand, is used to parametrize and validate the surge capability of the model. The model is shown to describe all modes of operation with good performance, and also to be able to extrapolate to small turbo speeds. The extrapolation capability is important, since compressor maps are shown to lack information for low speeds, even though they frequently operate there in an engine installation.

  • 21.
    McKelvey, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stenman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rivera, Daniel E.
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On Adaptive Smoothing of Empirical Transfer Function Estimates2000In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 1309-1315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The determination of the right resolution parameter when estimating frequency functions of linear systems is a trade-off between bias and variance. Traditional non-parametric approaches, like `window-closing' employ a global resolution parameter - the window width - that is tuned by ad hoc methods, usually visual inspection of the results. This paper suggests a method that tunes such parameters by an automatic procedure. A further benefit is that the tuning can be performed locally, i.e., that different resolutions can be used in different frequency bands. The ideas are based on local polynomial regression and a data-driven bandwidth selector. The advantages of the proposed method are illustrated in numerical examples.

  • 22.
    Nezhadali, Vaheed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Frank, B.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wheel loader operation-Optimal control compared to real drive experience2016In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 48, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheel loader trajectories between loading and unloading positions in a repetitive loading cycle are studied. A wheel loader model available in the literature is improved for better fuel estimation and optimal control problems are formulated and solved using it. The optimization results are analyzed in a side to side comparison with measurement data from a real world application. It is shown that the trajectory properties affect the operation productivity. However, efficient trajectories are not the only requirement for high productivity operation and all major power consuming sources such as vehicle dynamics, lifting and steering have to be included in the optimization for productivity analysis. The effect of operator steering capability is also analyzed showing that development of autonomous vehicles can be envisaged especially for repetitive cycles. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Nielsen, Kraen Vodder
    et al.
    MAN Diesel and Turbo, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Blanke, Mogens
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark; Norwegian Univ Sci and Technol, Norway.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vejlgaard-Laursen, Morten
    MAN Diesel and Turbo, Denmark.
    Marine diesel engine control to meet emission requirements and maintain maneuverability2018In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 76, p. 12-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International shipping has been reported to account for 13% of global NOx emissions and 2.1% of global green house gas emissions. Recent restrictions of NOx emissions from marine vessels have led to the development of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for large two-stroke diesel engines. Meanwhile, the same engines have been downsized and derated to optimize fuel efficiency. The smaller engines reduce the possible vessel acceleration, and to counteract this, the engine controller must be improved to fully utilize the physical potential of the engine. A fuel index limiter based on air/fuel ratio was recently developed (Turbo, 2016), but as it does not account for EGR, accelerations lead to excessive exhaust smoke formation which could damage the engine when recirculated. This paper presents two methods for extending a fuel index limiter function to EGR engines. The methods are validated through simulations with a mean-value engine model and on a vessel operating at sea. Validation tests compare combinations of the two index limiter methods, using either traditional PI control for the EGR loop or the recently developed fast adaptive feedforward EGR control (Nielsen et al., 2017a). The experiments show that the extended limiters reduce exhaust smoke formation during acceleration to a minimum, and that the suggested limiter, combined with adaptive feedforward EGR control, is able to maintain full engine acceleration capability. Sea tests with engine speed steps from 35 to 50 RPM, made peak exhaust opacity increase by only 5% points when using the proposed limiter, whereas it increased 70% points without the limiter.

  • 24.
    Nilsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fröberg, Anders
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Sweden.
    Åslund, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Predictive control of a diesel electric wheel loader powertrain2015In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 41, p. 47-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheel loaders often have a highly repetitive pattern of operation, which can be used for creating a rough prediction of future operation. As the present torque converter based transmission is replaced with an infinitely variable device, such as an electric or hydraulic transmission, a freedom in the choice of engine speed is introduced. This choice is far from trivial in the extremely transient operation of these machines, but the availability of a load prediction should be utilized.

    In this paper, a predictive engine and generator controller, based on stochastic dynamic programming, is described, implemented and evaluated. The evaluation is performed against non-predictive controllers in the same system, to lift out any possible benefits of utilizing the repetition based prediction. Simulations and field tests show that the controllers are able to handle disturbances introduced from model errors, the machine environment and the human operator, and that the predictive controller gives around 5% lower fuel consumption than the non-predictive reference controllers.

  • 25.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Automatic Design of Diagnosis Systems with Application to an Automotive Engine1999In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 87, no 8, p. 993-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is highly desirable to systematize and automate the process of designing diagnosis systems. The reason is that in many applications, high diagnosis performance is required, and at the same time, the time-consuming engineering work of designing diagnosis systems must be minimized. Here, model-based diagnosis based on structured hypothesis tests is considered. Principles for evaluating diagnosis systems are developed, and a systematic and automatic design procedure is proposed. The procedure is successfully applied to the problem of designing a diagnosis system for the air-intake system of an automotive engine. The resulting diagnosis system is then experimentally validated using a real engine.

  • 26.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Using hypothesis testing theory to evaluate principles for leakage diagnosis of automotive engines2003In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 1263-1272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different methods for diagnosing leakages in the air path of an automotive engine are investigated. The first is based on a comparison between measured and estimated air flows. The second is based on an estimation of the leakage area. The two methods are compared by using a framework of hypothesis testing and especially the power function. The investigation is made first in theory and then also on a real engine. The conclusion is that the principle based on the estimated leakage area, gives a better power function and is therefore the best choice if only leakage detection is considered. However, if also other faults need to be diagnosed, it is shown that the sensitivity to these other faults may be better with the principle based on comparison of estimated and measured air flow. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Nyborg, Marta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Stutte, T.
    DaimlerChrysler AG, Research and Technology (REM/EP), Stuttgart D-70546, Germany.
    Model based diagnosis of the air path of an automotive diesel engine2004In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 513-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model based diagnosis system for the air-path of a turbo-charged diesel engine with EGR is constructed. The faults considered are air mass-flow sensor fault, intake-manifold pressure sensor fault, air-leakage, and the EGR-valve stuck in closed position. A non-linear engine model, with four states, is constructed. The diagnosis system is then constructed in the framework of structured hypothesis tests and by using observers estimating unknown fault-parameters. To handle modeling errors a new method for adaptive thresholds is proposed. The diagnosis system is successfully evaluated in a real car driving on the road. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Pettersson, M.
    et al.
    SCANIA AB, Södertälje SE-151 87, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Diesel engine speed control with handling of driveline resonances2003In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 319-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vehicular driveline transfer engine torque to the wheels. Resonances in the elastic parts of the driveline are important to handle when control of the engine and the transmission is optimized. Traditional diesel engine speed control maintains a well-damped engine speed set by the driver. However, the resonance modes of the driveline are easily excited by accelerator-position changes or by road disturbances. A speed-control strategy is proposed that includes the behavior of the driveline, and reduces driveline resonaces and vehicle shuffle by engine control. Implementation shows significant reduction, also when facing nonlinear torque limitations from maximum torque and diesel smoke delimiters. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 29.
    Sciarretta, A.
    et al.
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, France .
    Serrao, L.
    Dana Corporation, Italy.
    Dewangan, P.C.
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, France; IFP School, France .
    Tona, P.
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, France .
    Bergshoeff, E.N. D.
    TU Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Bordons, C.
    University of Seville, Spain .
    Charmpa, L.
    IFP Sch, France Continental, France .
    Elbert, Ph.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hofman, T.
    TU Eindhoven, Netherlands .
    Hubacher, M.
    TU Eindhoven, Netherlands .
    Isenegger, R.
    TU Eindhoven, Netherlands .
    Lacandia, F.
    Ohio State University, USA.
    Laveau, A.
    IFP School, France.
    Li, H.
    IFP School, France.
    Marcos, D.
    University of Seville, Spain .
    Nueesch, T.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Onori, S.
    Ohio State University, USA .
    Pisu, P.
    Clemson University, USA .
    Rios, J.
    Clemson University, USA .
    Silvas, E.
    TU Eindhoven, Netherlands .
    Sivertsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tribioli, L.
    Ohio State University, USA .
    van der Hoeven, A.-J.
    TU Eindhoven, Netherlands .
    Wu, M.
    IFP School, France.
    A control benchmark on the energy management of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle2014In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 29, p. 287-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A benchmark control problem was developed for a special session of the IFAC Workshop on Engine and Powertrain Control, Simulation and Modeling (E-COSM 12), held in Rueil-Malmaison, France, in October 2012. The online energy management of a plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle was to be developed by the benchmark participants. The simulator, provided by the benchmark organizers, implements a model of the GM Voltec powertrain. Each solution was evaluated according to several metrics, comprising of energy and fuel economy on two driving profiles unknown to the participants, acceleration and braking performance, computational performance. The nine solutions received are analyzed in terms of the control technique adopted (heuristic rule-based energy management vs. equivalent consumption minimization strategies, ECMS), battery discharge strategy (charge depleting-charge sustaining vs. blended mode), ECMS implementation (vector-based vs. map-based), ways to improve the implementation and improve the computational performance. The solution having achieved the best combined score is compared with a global optimal solution calculated offline using the Pontryagins minimum principle-derived optimization tool HOT.

  • 30.
    Svärd, Carl
    et al.
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krysander, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automotive engine FDI by application of an automated model-based and data-driven design methodology2013In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 455-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault detection and isolation (FDI) in automotive diesel engines is important in order to achieve and guarantee low exhaust emissions, high vehicle uptime, and efficient repair and maintenance. This paper illustrates how a set of general methods for model-based sequential residual generation and data-driven statistical residual evaluation can be combined into an automated design methodology. The automated design methodology is then utilized to create a complete FDI-system for an automotive diesel engine. The performance of the obtained FDI-system is evaluated using measurements from road drives and engine test-bed experiments. The overall performance of the FDI-system is good in relation to the required design effort. In particular no specific tuning of the FDI-system, or any adaption of the design methodology, was needed. It is illustrated how estimations of the statistical powers of the fault detection tests in the FDI-system can be used to further increase the performance, specifically in terms of fault isolability.

  • 31.
    Thomasson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Co-Surge in Bi-Turbo Engines: Measurements, Analysis and Control2014In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 32, p. 113-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In parallel turbocharged V-engines, with two separate air paths connected before the throttle, an oscillation in the flow can occur.If the compressor operates close to the surge line, typically during low speed and high load, and a disturbance alters the massflow balance, the compressors can begin to alternately go into surge. This phenomenon is called co-surge and is unwanted due tohigh noise and risk for turbocharger destruction. Co-surge is measured on a test vehicle in a chassis dynamometer and the systemanalyzed and modeled using a mean value engine model. The investigation shows that the alternating compressor speeds have animportant role in the prolonged oscillation. A reconstruction of the negative flow from measurements is made and compared tosimulation results, showing similar amplitudes, and supports the model validation. A new co-surge detection algorithm is presented,suitable for a pair of sensors measuring either mass flow, boost pressure or turbo speed in the two air paths. Furthermore, a newcontroller is proposed that uses a model based feedforward for the throttle, together with wastegate actuation to force the compressorspeeds together and improve balance at the recovery point. This has shown to be sufficient with moderate to high pressure ratiosover the throttle, only for zero or very low pressure drop the use of bypass valves are necessary. The advantage of not opening thebypass valves is a smaller drop in boost pressure which also reduces the torque disturbance. The performance of the controller is evaluated both in simulation and in the test vehicle.

  • 32.
    Thomasson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leufvén, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Criscuolo, Ivan
    University of Salerno, Italy .
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modeling and validation of a boost pressure actuation system, for a series sequentially turbocharged SI engine2013In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 1860-1870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An actuation system for flexible control of an advanced turbocharging system is studied. It incorporates a vacuum pump and tank that are connected to pulse width modulation controlled vacuum valves. A methodology for modeling the entire boost pressure actuation system is developed. Emphasis is placed on developing component models that are easily identified from measured data, without the need for expensive measurements.The models have physical interpretations that enable handling of varying surrounding conditions.The component models and integrated system are evaluated on a two stage series sequential turbo system with three actuators having different characteristics.Several applications of the developed system model are presented, including a nonlinear compensator for voltage disturbance rejection where the performance of the compensator is demonstrated on an engine in a test cell. The applicability of the complete system model for control and diagnosis of the vacuum system is also discussed.

  • 33.
    Vodder Nielsen, Kraen
    et al.
    MAN Diesel and Turbo, Denmark; Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Blanke, Mogens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark; Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vejlgaard-Laursen, Morten
    MAN Diesel and Turbo, Denmark.
    Adaptive feedforward control of exhaust recirculation in large diesel engines2017In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 65, p. 26-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concern has led the International Maritime Organization to restrict NOx emissions from marine diesel engines. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced in order to comply to the new standards. Traditional fixed-gain feedback methods are not able to control the EGR system adequately in engine loading transients so alternative methods are needed. This paper presents the design, convergence proofs and experimental validation of an adaptive feedforward controller that significantly improves the performance in loading transients. First the control concept is generalized to a class of first order Hammerstein systems with sensor delay and exponentially converging bounds of the control error are proven analytically. It is then shown how to apply the method to the EGR system of a two-stroke crosshead diesel engine. The controller is validated by closed loop simulation with a mean-value engine model, on an engine test bed and on a vessel operating at sea. A significant reduction of smoke formation during loading transients is observed both visually and with an opacity sensor. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Wallen Axehill, Johanna
    et al.
    Saab Aeronaut, SE-58188 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Dressler, Isolde
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robertsson, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Norrlöf, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Estimation-based ILC applied to a parallel kinematic robot2014In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation-based iterative learning control (ILC) is applied to a parallel kinematic manipulator known as the Gantry-Tau parallel robot. The system represents a control problem where measurements of the controlled variables are not available. The main idea is to use estimates of the controlled variables in the ILC algorithm, and in the paper this approach is evaluated experimentally on the Gantry-Tau robot. The experimental results show that an ILC algorithm using estimates of the tool position gives a considerable improvement of the control performance. The tool position estimate is obtained by fusing measurements of the actuator angular positions with measurements of the tool path acceleration using a complementary filter.

  • 35.
    Wernholt, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nonlinear Gray-Box Identification of a Flexible Manipulator2007In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-step procedure for time-domain nonlinear gray-box identification of an industrial manipulator containing flexibilities is studied. The aim of the first two steps is to obtain good initial values for the third prediction error minimization step. In the first step, rigid body dynamics and friction are identified using a separable least-squares method. In the second step, initial values for flexibilities are obtained using an inverse eigenvalue method. Finally, in the last step, the remaining parameters of a nonlinear graybox model are identified directly in the time domain using prediction error minimization.

  • 36.
    Östring, Måns
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrlöf, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Closed-Loop Identification of an Industrial Robot Containing Flexibilities2003In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 291-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Closed-loop identification of an industrial robot of the type ABB IRB 1400 is considered. Data are collected when the robot is subject to feedback control and moving around axis one. Both black-box and physically parameterized models are identified. A main purpose is to model the mechanical flexibilities. It is found that a model consisting of three-masses connected by springs and dampers gives a good description of the dynamics of the robot.

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