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  • 1.
    Bergsten, Johan
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Chen, Jr-Tai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Sebastian
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Malmros, Anna
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thorsell, Mattias
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rorsman, Niklas
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Performance Enhancement of Microwave GaN HEMTs Without an AlN-Exclusion Layer Using an Optimized AlGaN/GaN Interface Growth Process2016In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 333-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of the sharpness of the AlGaN/GaN interface in high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) is investigated. Two structures, one with an optimized AlGaN/GaN interface and another with an unoptimized, were grown using hot-wall metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The structure with optimized sharpness of the interface shows electron mobility of 1760 cm(2)/V . s as compared with 1660 cm(2)/V . s for the nonoptimized interface. Gated Hall measurements indicate that the sharper interface maintains higher mobility when the electrons are close to the interface compared with the nonoptimized structure, indicating less scattering due to alloy disorder and interface roughness. HEMTs were processed and evaluated. The higher mobility manifests as lower parasitic resistance yielding a better dc and high-frequency performance. A small-signal equivalent model is extracted. The results indicate a lower electron penetration into the buffer in the optimized sample. Pulsed-IV measurements imply that the sharper interface provides less dispersive effects at large drain biases. We speculate that the mobility enhancement seen AlGaN/AlN/GaN structures compared with the AlGaN/GaN case is not only related to the larger conduction band offset but also due to a more welldefined interface minimizing scattering due to alloy disorder and interface roughness.

  • 2.
    Bergsten, Johan
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Thorsell, Mattias
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Adolph, David
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Chen, Jr-Tai
    SweGaN AB, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kordina, Olof
    SweGaN AB, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Einar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Rorsman, Niklas
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Electron Trapping in Extended Defects in Microwave AlGaN/GaN HEMTs With Carbon-Doped Buffers2018In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 2446-2453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) fabricated on epistructures with carbon (C)-doped buffers. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is used to grow two C-doped structures with different doping profiles, using growth parameters to change the C incorporation. The C concentration is low enough to result in n-type GaN. Reference devices are also fabricated on a structure using iron (Fe) as dopant, to exclude any process related variations and provide a relevant benchmark. All devices exhibit similar dc performance. However, pulsed I-V measurements show extensive dispersion in the C-doped devices, with values of dynamicRON 3-4 times larger than in the dc case. Due to the extensive trapping, the devices with C-dopedbuffers can only supply about half the outputpower of the Fe-doped sample, 2.5 W/mm compared to 4.8 W/mm at 10 GHz. In drain current transient measurements, the trap filling time is varied, finding large prevalence of trapping at dislocations for the C-doped samples. Clusters of C around the dislocations are suggested to be the main cause for the increased dispersion.

  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Sebastian
    et al.
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Chen, Jr-Tai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergsten, Johan
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thorsell, Mattias
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rorsman, Niklas
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Dispersive Effects in Microwave AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs With Carbon-Doped Buffer2015In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 62, no 7, p. 2162-2169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN)/GaN high-electron mobility transistor performance is to a large extent affected by the buffer design, which, in this paper, is varied using different levels of carbon incorporation. Three epitaxial structures have been fabricated: 1) two with uniform carbon doping profile but different carbon concentration and 2) one with a stepped doping profile. The epitaxial structures have been grown on 4H-SiC using hot-wall metal-organic chemical vapor deposition with residual carbon doping. The leakage currents in OFF-state at 10 V drain voltage were in the same order of magnitude (10-4 A/mm) for the high-doped and stepped-doped buffer. The high-doped material had a current collapse (CC) of 78.8% compared with 16.1% for the stepped-doped material under dynamic I-V conditions. The low-doped material had low CC (5.2%) but poor buffer isolation. Trap characterization revealed that the high-doped material had two trap levels at 0.15 and 0.59 eV, and the low-doped material had one trap level at 0.59 eV.

  • 4.
    Hjelmgren, H
    et al.
    Ericsson Microelect AB, S-16481 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Litwin, A
    Ericsson Microelect AB, S-16481 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Small-signal substrate resistance effect in RF CMOS identified through device simulations2001In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 397-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An anomalous dip in the measured s(22) characteristic, as well as a decrease in the output resistance, of MOS devices for rf applications was found to be a pure ac effect caused by the small-signal substrate transconductance. The study of the ac characteristics of multifinger transistors in rf applications with high-resistivity substrate also puts a question mark on the possibility of achieving fully scalable models, considering the observed ac substrate effect.

  • 5.
    Kassamakova, L
    et al.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Appl Phys, Plovdiv 4000, Bulgaria IMC, Ind Microelect Ctr, S-16421 Kista, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kakanakov, RD
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Appl Phys, Plovdiv 4000, Bulgaria IMC, Ind Microelect Ctr, S-16421 Kista, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kassamakov, IV
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Appl Phys, Plovdiv 4000, Bulgaria IMC, Ind Microelect Ctr, S-16421 Kista, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nordell, N
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Appl Phys, Plovdiv 4000, Bulgaria IMC, Ind Microelect Ctr, S-16421 Kista, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Savage, S
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Appl Phys, Plovdiv 4000, Bulgaria IMC, Ind Microelect Ctr, S-16421 Kista, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hjorvarsson, B
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Appl Phys, Plovdiv 4000, Bulgaria IMC, Ind Microelect Ctr, S-16421 Kista, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Svedberg, EB
    Abom, L
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Appl Phys, Plovdiv 4000, Bulgaria IMC, Ind Microelect Ctr, S-16421 Kista, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Madsen, LD
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Appl Phys, Plovdiv 4000, Bulgaria IMC, Ind Microelect Ctr, S-16421 Kista, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Temperature stable Pd ohmic contacts to p-type 4H-SiC formed at low temperatures1999In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 605-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of low resistivity Pd-based ohmic contacts to p-type 4H-SiC below 750 degrees C are reported herein, The electrical properties of the contacts were examined using I-V measurements and the transmission-line model (TLM) technique. Contact resistivity as a function of annealing was investigated over the temperature range of 600 degrees C-700 degrees C, The lowest contact resistivity (5.5 x 10(-5) Ohm cm(2)) was obtained after annealing at 700 degrees C for 5 min, Atomic force microscopy of the as-deposited Pd layer showed a root-mean square roughness of similar to 8 nm, while after annealing at 700 degrees C, agglomeration occurred, increasing the roughness to 111 nm, Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiles revealed that with annealing, interdiffusion had resulted in the formation of Pd-rich silicides. However, X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering showed that the majority of the film was still (unreacted) Pd. The thermal stability and reliability of the Pd contacts were examined by aging and temperature dependence electrical tests, The contacts annealed at 700 OC were stable at prolonged heating at a constant temperature of 500 degrees C and they showed thermal stability in air at operating temperatures up to 450 degrees C, This stability was not found for contacts formed at lower temperatures of 600 degrees C or 650 degrees C.

  • 6.
    Kawahara, Jun
    et al.
    Department of Printed Electronics, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Department of Printed Electronics, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping.
    Katoh, Kazuya
    R&D Strategy Department, Lintec Corporation, Saitama, Japan.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fast-switching printed organic electrochemical transistors including electronic vias through plastic and paper substrates2013In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 2052-2056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel vertical architecture for all-printed organic electrochemical transistors, based on poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate), realized on flexible substrates, is reported. The transistors are manufactured along both faces of plastic or paper substrates and via connections are realized using laser ablation or simple punch through using a pin. Successful modulation of the electric current that flows between the two sides of the substrate is achieved using electrolyte-gating and electrochemical modulation of the electronic charge transport of the bulk of the transistor channel. In addition to this, the transistors are exhibiting fast switching and high ON/OFF current ratios.

  • 7.
    Konofaos, N.
    et al.
    Comp. Engineering/Informatics Dept., University of Patras, Patras 26500, Greece.
    Evangelou, E.K.
    Laboratorio MDM-INFM, Agrate Briana 20041, Italy.
    Wang, Z.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Properties of Al-SrTiO3-ITO capacitors for microelectronic device applications2004In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 1202-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth of SrTiO3 (STO) thin films on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates took place by RF magnetron sputtering under various deposition conditions. Subsequent AI metallization created metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors. The properties of such capacitors were investigated by means of structural and electrical measurements, revealing the films transparency, the dielectric constant, the switching time characteristics, and the trapped charges density. Dielectric constant values as high as 120 were obtained for low frequencies of around 2 kHz, the switching time was found to be 3.2 µs and the trapped charges were found equal to 2.9 nCcm-2. The results showed that the films were suitable for use in electronic devices where high capacitance is required and for potential applications in optical devices. © 2004 IEEE.

  • 8.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Tobias, P
    Linkoping Univ, S SENCE, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Appl Phys Lab, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Baranzahi, A
    Martensson, P
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Current status of silicon carbide based high-temperature gas sensors1999In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 561-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon carbide (SIC) based field effect gas sensors can be operated at very high temperatures. Catalytic metal-insulator-silicon carbide (MISiC) Schottky diodes respond very fast to a change between a reducing and an oxidizing atmosphere, and cylinder-specific combustion engine monitoring has been demonstrated. The sensors have also been suggested for high-temperature electronic nose applications. Car applications and other harsh environments put very strong requirements on the long-term stability of the sensors. Here rye review the current status of the field of SiC based Schottkg diode gas sensors with emphasis on the work in our group. Basic work on understanding of the detection mechanism and the influence of interfacial layers on the long-term stability of the sensors is reviewed, The direction of future research and device development in our group is also discussed.

  • 9.
    Luo, Jun
    et al.
    Fudan University.
    Wu, Dongping
    Fudan University.
    Qiu, Zhijun
    Fudan University.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ostling, Mikael
    Royal Institute of Technology KTH.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Fudan University.
    On Different Process Schemes for MOSFETs With a Controllable NiSi-Based Metallic Source/Drain2011In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 58, no 7, p. 1898-1906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on different silicidation schemes toward a controllable NiSi-based metallic source/drain (MSD) process with restricted lateral encroachment of NiSi. These schemes include thickness control of Ni, Ni-Pt alloying, and two-step annealing. Experimental results show that all the three process schemes can give rise to effective control of lateral encroachment during Ni silicidation. By controlling t(Ni), NiSi-based MSD metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) of gate length L(G) = 55 nm are readily realized on ultrathin-body silicon-on-insulator substrates with 20-nm surface Si thickness. With the aid of dopant segregation (DS) to modifying the Schottky barrier heights of NiSi, both n- and p-type MSD MOSFETs show significant performance improvement, compared to reference devices without DS.

  • 10.
    Malmros, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Chen, Jr-Tai
    SweGaN, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hjelmgren, Hans
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kordina, Olof
    SweGaN, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Einar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Zirath, Herbert
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Rorsman, Niklas
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Enhanced Mobility in InAlN/AlN/GaN HEMTs Using a GaN Interlayer2019In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 66, no 7, p. 2910-2915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An enhancement of the electron mobility (mu) in InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures is demonstrated by the incorporation of a thin GaN interlayer (IL) between the InAlN and AlN. The introduction of a GaN IL increases mu at room temperature (RT) from 1600 to 1930 cm(2)/Vs. The effect is further enhanced at cryogenic temperature (5 K), where the GaN IL sample exhibits a mu of 16 000 cm(2)/Vs, compared to 6900cm(2)/Vs without IL. The results indicate the reduction of one or more scattering mechanisms normally present in InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures. We propose that the improvement in mu is either due to the suppression of fluctuations in the quantum well subband energies or to reduced Coulomb scattering, both related to compositional variations in the InAlN. HEMTs fabricated on the GaN IL sample demonstrate larger improvement in dc- and high-frequency performance at 5 K; f(max) increases by 25 GHz to 153 GHz, compared to an increase of 6 GHz to 133 GHz without IL. The difference in improvement was associated mainly with the drop in the access resistances.

  • 11.
    Pearton, S.J.
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States.
    Norton, D.P.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States.
    Ivill, M.P.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States.
    Hebard, A.F.
    Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States.
    Zavada, J.M.
    Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, United States.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials.
    Buyanova, Irina A.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials.
    ZnO doped with transition metal ions2007In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 1040-1048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spin-dependent phenomena in ZnO may lead to devices with new or enhanced functionality, such as polarized solid-state light sources and sensitive biological and chemical sensors. In this paper, we review the experimental results on transition metal doping of ZnO and show that the material can be made with a single phase at high levels of Co incorporation (~ 15 at.%) and exhibits the anomalous Hall effect. ZnO is expected to be one of the most promising materials for room-temperature polarized light emission, but to date, we have been unable to detect the optical spin polarization in ZnO. The short spin relaxation time observed likely results from the Rashba effect. Possible solutions involve either cubic phase ZnO or the use of additional stressor layers to create a larger spin splitting in order to get a polarized light emission from these structures or to look at alternative semiconductors and fresh device approaches. © 2007 IEEE.

  • 12.
    Szymanski, Marek
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    2-D Drift-Diffusion Simulation of Organic Electrochemical Transistors2017In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 64, no 12, p. 5114-5120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 2-D device model of the organic electrochemical transistor is described and validated. Devices with channel length in range 100 nm-10 mm and channel thickness in range 50 nm-5 mu m are modeled. Steady-state, transient, and AC simulations are presented. Using the realistic values of physical parameters, the results are in good agreement with the experiments. The scaling of transconductance, bulk capacitance, and transient responses with device dimensions is well reproduced. The model reveals the important role of the electrical double layers in the channel, and the limitations of device scaling.

  • 13.
    Tu, Deyu
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Static Model for Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors2011In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 58, no 10, p. 3574-3582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a dc model to simulate the static performance of electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors. The channel current is expressed as charge drift transport under electric field. The charges accumulated in the channel are considered being contributed fromvoltage-dependent electric-doublelayer capacitance. The voltage-dependent contact effect and short-channel effect are also taken into account in this model. A straightforward and efficient methodology is presented to extract the model parameters. The versatility of this model is discussed as well. The model is verified by the good agreement between simulation and experimental data.

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