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  • 1.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Is ellipsometry suitable for sensor applications?2001In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 92, no 1-3, p. 43-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ellipsometry is a powerful tool for optical characterization of surfaces and thin-films. Very favorable features for sensor applications are the in situ advantage, the possibility to work with non-labeled molecules and the high thickness resolution. Sub-nanometers resolution can be achieved in bioaffinity-based sensing and ppm-sensitivity in gas sensing. Ellipsometric sensor systems are based on monitoring changes in the thickness, the refractive index or the microstructure of a sensing layer. These changes are induced by the substance or process measured. A classification of sensing layers is proposed and discussed. One specific application, gas sensing based on sensor arrays, is discussed in some detail. However, the main objective is to critically discuss the possibilities for sensor applications based on ellipsometric read-out.

  • 2.
    Hassanli, Kourosh
    et al.
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Masoud Sayedi, Sayed
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Dehghani, Rasoul
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Jalili, Armin
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wikner, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A highly sensitive, low-power, and wide dynamic range CMOS digital pixel sensor2015In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 236, p. 82-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new pixel-level light-to-frequency converter (LFC) that operates at a low supply voltage, and also offers low power consumption, low area, wide dynamic range, and high sensitivity. By using the proposed LFC, a digital pixel sensor (DPS) based on a pulse-frequency-modulation (PFM) scheme has been designed and fabricated. The prototype chip, including an array of 16 x 16 DPS with pixel size of 23 x 23 mu m(2) and 33.5% fill factor, was fabricated in a standard 180-nm CMOS technology. Experimental results show that the pixel operates with maintained output characteristics at supply voltages down to 1 V. The pixel sensor achieves an overall dynamic range of more than 142 dB and consumes 103 nW per pixel at a supply voltage of 1V at room light intensity. The sensitivity of the LFC is very high at the lower end of the light intensity compared to the higher end which enables the ability to capture clear images. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Hassanli, Kourosh
    et al.
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Masoud Sayedi, Sayed
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Wikner, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A compact, low-power, and fast pulse-width modulation based digital pixel sensor with no bias circuit2016In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 244, p. 243-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-speed and compact in-pixel light-to-time converter (LTC), with low power consumption and wide dynamic range is presented. By using the proposed LTC, a digital pixel sensor (DPS) based on a pulse width modulation (PWM) scheme has been designed and fabricated in a standard 180-nm, single-poly, six-metal complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The prototype chip consists of a 16 x 16 pixel array with an individual pixel size of 21 x 21 mu m(2) and a fill factor of 39% in the 180-nm CMOS technology. Experimental results show that the circuit operates at supply voltages down to 800 mV and achieves an overall dynamic range of more than 140 dB. The power consumption at 800 mV supply and room light intensity is approximately 2.85 nW. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Jakonis, Darius
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Christer
    Microelectronics Research Center, Ericsson Components AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Readout architectures for uncooled IR detector arrays2000In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 220-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main idea of this paper is to compare the readout architectures for uncooled microbolometer focal plane detector arrays with respect to the detector and readout circuit noise. The comparison is done keeping the total power consumption of all architectures constant. Three CMOS readout architectures with different degree of parallelism are described in this paper: pixelwise, columnwise and serial. The noise model of the readout circuit is given. Also, the optimization for the lowest NETD (noise equivalent temperature difference) and estimation of the self-heating effect is presented.

  • 5.
    Murib, M. S.
    et al.
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Yeap, W. S.
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Martens, D.
    Ghent University of INTEC, Belgium.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bienstman, P.
    Ghent University of INTEC, Belgium.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schoening, M. J.
    Aachen University of Appl Science, Germany.
    Michiels, L.
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Haenen, K.
    Hasselt University, Belgium; IMEC VZW, Belgium.
    Serpenguzel, A.
    Koc University, Turkey.
    Wagner, P.
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Photonic studies on polymer-coated sapphire-spheres: A model system for biological ligands2015In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 222, p. 212-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we show an optical biosensor concept, based on elastic light scattering from sapphire micro-spheres. Transmitted and elastic scattering intensity of the microspheres (radius 500 mu m, refractive index 1.77) on an optical fiber half coupler is analyzed at 1510 nm. The 0.43 nm angular mode spacing of the resonances is comparable to the angular mode spacing value estimated using the optical size of the microsphere. The spectral linewidths of the resonances are in the order of 0.01 am, which corresponds to quality factors of approximately 10(5). A polydopamine layer is used as a functionalizing agent on sapphire microspherical resonators in view of biosensor implementation. The varying layer thickness on the microsphere is determined as a function of the resonance wavelength shift. It is shown that polymer functionalization has a minor effect on the quality factor. This is a promising step toward the development of an optical biosensor. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 6. Paulsson, N.
    et al.
    Larsson, E.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Extraction and selection of parameters for evaluation of breath alcohol measurement with an electronic nose2000In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ethanol concentration in realistic breath samples was analyzed using an electronic nose. Conditions were selected so that the samples would reflect those collected in a real drunk driver situation. Hence, parameters such as intake of food and beverage, tobacco habits, as well as the order of participating volunteers were allowed to be variable. The setup was unexpectedly robust towards inter- and intrapersonal variations in breath samples as well as long-term variations. The standard error (16 mol ppm) was the limiting factor but the statistical detection limit was well below 0.1 ppm. The standard error corresponds to between 9% (Austria) and 36% (Sweden) of lowest legally accepted levels. Even though this is regarded as a significant error, there are several options of optimization. Incorporating feature extraction and forward selection together with artificial neural network for prediction of the ethanol concentration showed, besides increasing the accuracy, to be a valuable tool generating feedback of possible improvements of the sensor array.

  • 7.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    et al.
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Bakarich, Shannon E.
    US Army, MD 20783 USA; Cornell Univ, NY 14850 USA.
    Aziz, Shazed
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Salahuddin, Bidita
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Xin, Hai
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Using force-displacement relations to obtain actuation parameters from artificial muscles2019In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 290, p. 90-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different test methods are currently used to characterise the output of artificial muscle materials but few studies report the full range of possible force and displacements that can be generated by a given material when activated with a given input stimulus but when operated against different external loads. The measurement of the loading and unloading force extension curves in tension in both the un-activated and activated states is investigated as a means for efficiently characterising the full range of outputs for three different types of artificial muscles: pneumatically operated braided muscle and thermally operated shape memory alloy spring and twisted / coiled polymer fiber. A graphical method of analysis was applied whereby the force-extension curves obtained before and after actuator activation were plotted on the same axes. By overlaying the external loading conditions, the graphical method provided the equilibrium starting and finishing forces and displacements and successfully predicted the isotonic strokes, isometric forces and combined force and displacement generated when the actuator was operated against an external spring. Complications in the interpretation of the force-stroke curves were encountered as all three artificial muscles displayed a degree of loading-unloading hysteresis and non-ideal mechanical behavior. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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