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  • 1.
    Difs, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bennstam, Marcus
    Tekniska Verken Linköping AB.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordenstam, Lena
    Tekniska Verken Linköping AB.
    Energy conservation measures in buildings heated by district heating - A local energy system perspective2010In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 3194-3203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensive energy use in the European building sector creates opportunities for implementing energy conservation measures (ECMs) in residential buildings. If ECM are implemented in buildings that are connected to a district heating (DH) system, the operation of DH plants may be affected, which in turn may change both revenue and electricity production in cogeneration plants. In this study a local energy system, containing a DH supplier and its customer, has been analysed when implementing three ECMs: heat load control, attic insulation and electricity savings. This study is unique since it analyses economic and CO2 impacts of the ECMs in both a user and a supplier perspective in combination with a deregulated European electricity market. Results show that for the local energy system electricity savings should be prioritised over a reduction in DH use, both from an economic and a global CO2 perspective. For the DH supplier attic insulation demonstrates unprofitable results, even though this measure affects the expensive peak load boilers most. Heat load control is however financially beneficial for both the DH supplier and the residences. Furthermore, the relation between the fixed and variable DH costs is highlighted as a key factor for the profitability of the ECMs.

  • 2.
    Gong, Mei
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optimization of industrial energy systems by incorporating feedback loops into the MIND method2003In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 28, no 15, p. 1655-1669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MIND (Method for analysis of INDustrial energy system) method has been developed for multi-period cost optimization of industrial energy systems. Existing industrial processes can be represented at the desired level of accuracy, i.e. one modeling unit may represent a part of the production process or the whole plant. The optimization method includes both energy and material flows. Nonlinear relations, energy conversion efficiencies and investment costs are linearized by mixed-integer linear programming. A flexible time-scale facilitates the performance of long- and short-term analyses. In order to meet the requirements with regard to sustainable development, the recycling of energy and material flows is becoming more common in many industrial processes. The recycling or reuse of energy and material is managed by feedback loops, which are incorporated into the original MIND method to improve the model and reduce the calculation time. The improved MIND/F method (MIND method with feedback loops) model is applied to a pulp and paper mill in Sweden. A comparison between the original MIND method with manual handling of the feedback loops and the MIND/F method gives highly satisfactory results. Cost optimization using the improved MIND method is well within the given accuracy and computer time and manual calculation time are both reduced considerably. The reuse of energy and material resources is not only an economic advantage, but also implies a reduction of the environmental impact.

  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Gavle Energi AB, Sweden; University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Ronnelid, Mats
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Bjorn
    University of Gavle, Sweden.
    CO2 emission evaluation of energy conserving measures in buildings connected to a district heating system - Case study of a multi-dwelling building in Sweden2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 111, p. 341-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When taking action to fulfill the directives from the European Union, energy conserving measures will be implemented in the building sector. If buildings are connected to district heating systems, a reduced heat demand will influence the electricity production if the reduced heat demand is covered by combined heat and power plants. This study analyze five different energy conserving measures in a multi-dwelling building regarding how they affect the marginal production units in the district heating system in Gavle, Sweden. For CO2 emission evaluations, two different combinations of heat and electricity conserving measures are compared to an installation of an exhaust air heat pump. The different energy conserving measures affect the district heating system in different ways. The results show that installing an exhaust air heat pump affects the use/production of electricity in the district heating system most and electricity conserving measures result in reduced use of electricity in the building, reduced use of electricity for production of heat in the district heating system and an increase of electricity production. The conclusion is that electricity use in the building is the most important factor to consider when energy conserving measures are introduced in buildings within the district heating system in Gavle. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Optimization of Building Retrofits in a Combined Heat and Power Network1992In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 161-171Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Björn G
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Factorial design for energy System Models1994In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 905-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mathematical models are extensively used in energy analysis and have increased in scope as better and faster computers have become available. With complicated systems, it is difficult to predict accurate results if doubtful input data are changed. Traditionally, sensitivity analysis with a change of one or more of the parameters is used. If the influence of a change is very small, the first result is believed to be accurate. Problems may arise when sensitivity analysis is applied to a vast amount of data. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the calculation effort can be decreased by using factorial design. Our model, called Opera (Optimal Energy Retrofit Advisory), is used to find the optimal retrofit strategy for a multi-family building. The optimal solution is characterised by the lowest possible life-cycle cost. Three parameters have been studied here: length of the optimisation period, real interest rate and existing U-value for an attic floor. The first two parameters are found to influence the life-cycle cost significantly, while the last is of minor importance for this cost. We also show that factorial analysis must be used with great care because the method does not reflect the complete situation.

  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bojic, Milorad
    University of Kragujevac, Yugoslavia.
    Optimal heating-system retrofits in residential buildings1997In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 867-874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimal heating-system-retrofit strategy for existing buildings differs due to varying prices of energy, building and installation features, climate conditions, etc. We have examined a test building situated in Linköping, Sweden. By using the OPERA model, we were able to arrive at the optimal retrofit strategy, which includes a ground-coupled heat pump using electricity to run the compressor. Unfortunately, the price of electricity differs according to the time of day, month, etc. These variations are not included in the OPERA model. In OPERA, the price should be divided into 12 segments, one for each month of the year since climate data are divided in this manner. Fine tuning of a dual-fuel system (an oil-fired boiler handles the peak load and a heat pump the base thermal load) is optimized using the Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) method. Adding a hot-water accumulator also makes it possible to use low electricity prices for space and domestic hot-water heating. This system competes in the model with traditional heating devices such as district heating. The optimal method of heating the building was found for using the heat pump alone.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Björn G
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Natural gas in Optimized Bivalent Heating Sytems1990In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 15, no 11, p. 993-999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In accordance with a public referendum held in 1980, Sweden will phase out nuclear power completely by 2010. One way to compensate for an immediate, appreciable scarcity of electric power is to construct new fossil-fuel power stations. Another is to reduce the burden on electric power by converting some end-user facilities to operate on natural gas (NG) imported from Denmark through a new pipeline to southern Sweden. We show how an optimal solution can be found for NG operation of a system incorporating an NG boiler and an electric heat pump. Electricity is priced by a time-of-use tariff (TOU) requiring a discrete optimization method. The optimal solution is characterized by the lowest life cycle cost (LCC) for the building as an energy system.

  • 8.
    Johansson, B.
    et al.
    Dept. Environ. Ener. Syst. Studs., Lund Univ., Gerdagatan 13, SE-223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Energy and environmental costs for electric vehicles using CO2-neutral electricity in Sweden2000In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 777-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles (EVs) may provide an alternative for CO2-neutral transportation services. This article analyses the cost of energy and emissions from using electricity produced from Swedish renewable energy sources in electric vehicles, and compares it with the cost of an alternative in which biomass-based methanol is used in internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). These costs do not include vehicle and battery costs. Cost estimates of electricity, calculated using a marginal cost perspective, include production costs as well as the cost of distribution and vehicle recharging. The energy cost per km for vehicles using electricity is calculated to be 30-70% of the cost of biomass-based methanol, depending on the general level of electricity demand, the need for grid upgrading, and the assumed cost of biomass-based methanol. A high general electricity demand in society would require expensive condensing plants to supply the vehicles, whereas with a lower demand, cheaper cogeneration and wind power plants could be utilised. An electric vehicle, used as the average Swedish car, would, during its lifetime, have energy and environmental costs 30 000-40 000 SEK ($4000-5400) lower than the current state-of-the art ICEVs using biomass-based methanol. An electric vehicle used mainly in the city centre might have energy and environmental costs which are 130 000-140 000 SEK ($17 000-19 000) lower than a current methanol-fuelled car. With future improvements in the energy efficiency and environmental performance of ICEVs the difference will be significantly reduced. If battery costs were included in the cost calculations, EVs would not be cost competitive with future ICEVs, even if battery costs are reduced to $100/kWh. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.Electric vehicles (EVs) may provide an alternative for CO2-neutral transportation services. This article analyses the cost of energy and emissions from using electricity produced from Swedish renewable energy sources in electric vehicles, and compares it with the cost of an alternative in which biomass-based methanol is used in internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). These costs do not include vehicle and battery costs. Cost estimates of electricity, calculated using a marginal cost perspective, include production costs as well as the cost of distribution and vehicle recharging. The energy cost per km for vehicles using electricity is calculated to be 30-70% of the cost of biomass-based methanol, depending on the general level of electricity demand, the need for grid upgrading, and the assumed cost of biomass-based methanol. A high general electricity demand in society would require expensive condensing plants to supply the vehicles, whereas with a lower demand, cheaper cogeneration and wind power plants could be utilized. An electric vehicle, used as the average Swedish car, would, during its lifetime, have energy and environmental costs 30 000-40 000 SEK ($4000-5400) lower than the current state-of-the art ICEVs using biomass-based methanol. An electric vehicle used mainly in the city centre might have energy and environmental costs which are 130 000-140 000 SEK ($17 000-19 000) lower than a current methanol-fuelled car. With future improvements in the energy efficiency and environmental performance of ICEVs the difference will be significantly reduced. If battery costs were included in the cost calculations, EVs would not be cost competitive with future ICEVs, even if battery costs are reduced to $100/kWh.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Bio-synthetic natural gas as fuel in steel industry reheating furnaces: A case study of economic performance and effects on global COemissions2013In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 57, p. 699-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is of great concern for society today. Manufacturing industries and construction account for approximately 20% of global CO2 emissions and, consequently, it is important that this sector investigate options to reduce its CO2 emissions. One option could be to substitute fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. This paper describes a case study in which four future energy market scenarios predicting 2030 were used to analyse whether it would be profitable for a steel plant to produce bio-SNG (bio-synthetic natural gas) in a biomass gasifier and to substitute LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) with bio-SNG as fuel in reheating furnaces. The effects on global CO2 emissions were analysed from a perspective in which biomass is considered a limited resource. The results from the analysis show that investment in a biomass gasifier and fuel conversion would not be profitable in any of the scenarios. Depending on the scenario, the production cost for bio-SNG ranged between 22 and 36 EUR/GJ. Fuel substitution would reduce global CO2 emission if the marginal biomass user is a producer of transportation fuel. However, if the marginal user of biomass is a coal power plant with wood co-firing, the result would be increased global CO2 emissions

  • 10.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Options for the Swedish steel industry - Energy efficiency measures and fuel conversion2011In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 191-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The processes of iron and steel making are energy intensive and consume large quantities of electricity and fossil fuels. In order to meet future climate targets and energy prices, the iron and steel industry has to improve its energy and resource efficiency. For the iron and steel industry to utilize its energy resources more efficiently and at the same time reduce its CO2 emissions a number of options are available. In this paper, opportunities for both integrated and scrap-based steel plants are presented and some of the options are electricity production, fuel conversion, methane reforming of coke oven gas and partnership in industrial symbiosis. The options are evaluated from a system perspective and more specific measures are reported for two Swedish case companies: SSAB Strip Products and Sandvik AB. The survey shows that both case companies have great potentials to reduce their CO2 emissions.

  • 11.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A systems approach to the reduction of oil demand in a Swedish board mill2004In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 103-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of reducing oil demand in the board mill at Skoghall, operated by Stora Enso, is analysed from a systems perspective. Identification of different key factors influencing the potential for reducing oil demand includes measures within the mill, e.g. steam reduction measures, and boundary conditions, such as electricity prices. Different key factors influence each other to different extents, indicating that an analysis concerning interactions between the different factors is also vital. A survey of these factors influencing oil demand has been carried out and a sensitivity analysis, including a factorial design method, has been applied to the subject.

  • 12.
    Mardan, Nawzad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klahr, Roger
    Swerea SWECAST AB, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Combining optimisation and simulation in an energy systems analysis of a Swedish iron foundry2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 410-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To face global competition, and also reduce environmental and climate impact, industry-wide changes are needed, especially regarding energy use, which is closely related to global warming. Energy efficiency is therefore an essential task for the future as it has a significant impact on both business profits and the environment. For the analysis of possible changes in industrial production processes, and to choose what changes should be made, various modelling tools can be used as a decision support. This paper uses two types of energy analysis tool: Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and Energy Systems Optimisation (ESO). The aim of this study is to describe how a DES and an ESO tool can be combined. A comprehensive five-step approach is proposed for reducing system costs and making a more robust production system. A case study representing a new investment in part of a Swedish iron foundry is also included to illustrate the method's use. The method described in this paper is based on the use of the DES program QUEST and the ESO tool reMIND. The method combination itself is generic, i.e. other similar programs can be used as well with some adjustments and adaptations.

    The results from the case study show that when different boundary conditions are used the result obtained from the simulation tools is not optimum, in other words, the result shows only a feasible solution and not the best way to run the factory. It is therefore important to use the optimisation tool in such cases in order to obtain the optimum operating strategy. By using the optimisation tool a substantial amount of resources can be saved. The results also show that the combination of optimisation and simulation tools is useful to provide very detailed information about how the system works and to predict system behaviour as well as to minimise the system cost.

  • 13.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing industry in Sweden2006In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 1836-1844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry is facing tougher competition which increases the demand to implement cost-effective energy efficiency measures. However, studies have indicated that obvious cost-efficient measures are not always undertaken. This is explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. The aim of this study is to investigate the existence and importance of different barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Swedish non energy intensive manufacturing industry. Results from this study highlight a number of factors that inhibit the degree of implementation, such as the cost and risk associated with production disruptions, lack of time and other priorities, lack of sub-metering in larger organizations, etc. The study also finds a number of drivers, such as the existence of people with real ambition and a long-term energy strategy at site level.

  • 14.
    Sundberg, Gunnel
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Interaction effects in optimising a municipal energy system2000In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 877-891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study is presented where factorial design is used to find how some selected economic and technical factors affect the profitability of an investment in a combined heat and power plant. The study is performed on a Swedish district heating system. The minimal cost for supplying the demanded heat is calculated with a developed energy system optimisation model, MODEST. The effects on the resulting parameters, such as system cost and optimal size of steam cycle, are calculated from a series of experiments performed using high and low levels of the most relevant factors. The conclusion of the study is that both the main factors and the interactions between them have to be analysed to establish an accurate ranking of the technical and economic factors. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analyzing variables for district heating collaborations between energy utilities and industries2010In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 3649-3656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One vital means of raising energy efficiency is to introduce district heating in industry. The aim of this paper is to study factors which promote and inhibit district heating collaborations between industries and utilities. The human factors involved showed to affect district heating collaborations more than anything else does. Particularly risk, imperfect and asymmetric information, credibility and trust, inertia and values are adequate variables when explaining the establishment or failure of industry-energy utility collaborations, while heterogeneity, access to capital and hidden costs appear to be of lower importance. A key conclusion from this study is that in an industry-energy utility collaboration, it is essential to nurture the business relationship. In summary, successful collaboration depends more on the individuals and organizations involved in the relationship between the two parties than on the technology used in the collaboration.

  • 16.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, Laxenburg A-2361, Austria.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, P.O. Box 883, SE-721 23 Västerås, Sweden.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, Laxenburg A-2361, Austria.
    Optimal localisation of biofuel production on a European scale2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 462-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development and use of an optimisation model suitable for analysis of biofuel production scenarios in the EU, with the aim of examining second generation biofuel production. Two policy instruments are considered – targeted biofuel support and a CO2 cost. The results show that over 3% of the total transport fuel demand can be met by second generation biofuels at a cost of approximately 65-73 EUR/MWh. With current energy prices, this demands biofuel support comparable to existing tax exemptions (around 30 EUR/MWh), or a CO2 cost of around 60 EUR/tCO2. Parameters having large effect on biofuel production include feedstock availability, fossil fuel price and capital costs. It is concluded that in order to avoid suboptimal energy systems, heat and electricity applications should also be included when evaluating optimal bioenergy use. It is also concluded that while forceful policies promoting biofuels may lead to a high biofuel share at reasonable costs, this is not a certain path towards maximised CO2 emission mitigation. Policies aiming to promote the use of bioenergy thus need to be carefully designed in order to avoid conflicts between different parts of the EU targets for renewable energy and CO2 emission mitigation.

  • 17.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers.
    Systems analysis of integrating biomass gasification with pulp and paper production - Effects on economic performance, CO2 emissions and energy use2011In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 932-941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates system aspects of biorefineries based on biomass gasification integrated with pulp and paper production. As a case the Billerud Karlsborg mill is used. Two biomass gasification concepts are considered: BIGDME (biomass integrated gasification dimethyl ether production) and BIGCC (biomass integrated gasification combined cycle). The systems analysis is made with respect to economic performance, global CO2 emissions and primary energy use. As reference cases. BIGDME and BIGCC integrated with district heating are considered. Biomass gasification is shown to be potentially profitable for the mill. The results are highly dependent on assumed energy market parameters, particularly policy support. With strong policies promoting biofuels or renewable electricity, the calculated opportunity to invest in a gasification-based biorefinery exceeds investment cost estimates from the literature. When integrated with district heating the BIGDME case performs better than the BIGCC case, which shows high sensitivity to heat price and annual operating time. The BIGCC cases show potential to contribute to decreased global CO2 emissions and energy use, which the BIGDME cases do not, mainly due to high biomass demand. As biomass is a limited resource, increased biomass use due to investments in gasification plants will lead to increased use of fossil fuels elsewhere in the system.

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