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  • 1.
    Broberg, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindkvist, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biogas production supported by excess heat - A systems analysis within the food industry2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 91, 249-258 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to study the effects on greenhouse gases and economics when a change is made in the use of industrial organic waste from external production and use of biogas (A) to internal production and use (B). The two different system solutions are studied through a systems analysis based on an industrial case. The baseline system (A) and a modified system (B) were compared and analysed. Studies show that industrial processes considered as integrated systems, including the exchange of resources between industries, can result in competitive advantages. This study focuses on the integration of internally produced biogas from food industry waste produced by a food company and the use of excess heat. Two alternative scenarios were studied: (1) the use of available excess heat to heat the biogas digester and (2) the use of a part of the biogas produced to heat the biogas digester. This study showed that the system solution, whereby excess heat rather than biogas is used to heat the biogas digester, was both environmentally and economically advantageous. However, the valuation of biomass affects the magnitude of the emissions reduction. Implementing this synergistic concept will contribute to the reaching of European Union climate targets. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Broberg Viklund, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction2014In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 77, 369-379 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, whichwould create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the useof primary energy and to contribute to global CO2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present differentmeasures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the developmentof the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the mostto global CO2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of theexcess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden.Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system andheat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO2 emissions,six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrialexcess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recoverymeasures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be suppliedfrom this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO2 emissions in all of the analyzedscenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production frombiomass would result in increased global CO2 emissions when the CO2 emission charge is low.

  • 3.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Economic and environmental benefits of converting industrial processes to district heating2014In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 87, 305-317 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyse the possibilities of converting production and support processes from electricity and fossil fuels to district heating in 83 manufacturing companies in three different Swedish counties. A tool for heat load analysis called Method for Heat Load Analysis (MeHLA) is used to explore how the conversions would affect the heat load duration curves in local district heating systems. Economic effects and impacts on global emissions of greenhouse gases are studied from a system perspective. The study has been conducted considering two different energy market conditions for the year 2030.

    The results show that there is a potential for increasing industrial district heating use in all analysed counties. When comparing all three counties, the greatest potential regarding percentage is found in Jönköping, where the district heating use in the manufacturing companies could increase by nine times (from 5 GWh to 45 GWh annually). The industrial district heating use could increase by two times (from 84 GWh to 168 GWh annually) in Östergötland and by four times (from 14 GWh to 58 GWh annually) in Västra Götaland. The conversion of the industrial production processes to district heating would lead to a district heating demand curve which is less dependent on outdoor temperature. As a result, the utilization period of the combined heat and power plants would be prolonged, which would decrease district heating production costs due to the increased income from the electricity production.

    In all analysed counties, the energy costs for the companies decrease after the conversions. Furthermore, the increased electricity production in the combined heat and power plants, and the decreased electricity and fossil fuel use in the industrial sector opens up a possibility for a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. The potential for the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass and on the type of the marginal electricity producers. When the marginal effects from biomass use are not considered, the greenhouse gas emissions reduction is between 10 thousand tonnes of CO2eq and 58 thousand tonnes of CO2eq per year, depending on the county and the type of marginal electricity production plants. The highest reduction is achieved in Östergötland. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating systems may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. If this assumption is included in the calculations, the conversion of the industrial processes to district heating still signify a  potential for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but this potential is considerable lower.

  • 4.
    Fahlen, Elsa
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Erik O
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Assessment of absorption cooling as a district heating system strategy - A case study2012In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 60, no SI, 115-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat load variations, daily as well as seasonal, are constraining co-generation of high-value energy products as well as excess heat utilisation. Integration of heat-driven absorption cooling (AC) technology in a district heating and cooling (DHC) system raises the district heat (DH) demand during low-demand periods and may thus contribute to a more efficient resource utilisation. In Sweden, AC expansion is a potentially interesting option since the cooling demand is rapidly increasing, albeit from low levels, and DH systems cover most of the areas with potential cooling demand. This study aims to assess the potential for cost and CO2 emission reduction due to expansion of DH-driven AC instead of electricity-driven compression cooling in the DHC system of Goteborg, characterised by a high share of low-cost excess heat sources. The DHC production is simulated on an hourly basis using the least-cost model MARTES. Despite recent advances of compression chillers, the results show potential for cost-effective CO2 emission reduction by AC expansion, which is robust with regards to the different scenarios applied of energy market prices and policies. While the effects on annual DHC system results are minor, the study illustrates that an increased cooling demand may be met by generation associated with low or even negative net CO2 emissions - as long as there is high availability of industrial excess heat in the DHC system, or if e.g. new biomass-based combined heat and power capacity is installed, due to the avoided and replaced marginal power generation.

  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carpentry factory and municipal electricity loads1998In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 39, no 3-4, 343-347 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Load management of electricity loads has received more interest in recent years. At least in Sweden, this is natural because of a rather cheap energy price, while at the same time, the demand charge is high. If a company could save the precise kWh that build the peak demand, then these would have a value of more than 200 times the off-peak kWh. This paper deals with monitored electricity data for two carpentry industries and one municipality, both situated in the south of Sweden. The ideal ! situation would be if the industry could reduce their peak demand and, at the same time, reduce the peak for the utility. Both participants would, in that case, save money, and the payback time for load management equipment would decrease substantially. If, however, a load management system at the carpentry transfers kWh to peak hours for the utility, the industry will save money, while the utility gets higher costs. The result of the study is that the Swedish electricity rates in use today are a very poor means of encouraging worthwhile load management, and often, they even aggravate the situation.

  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Energy usage and conservation in surfacing lines2000In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 41, no 15, 1649-1669 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with energy usage and conservation for a surfacing line in a carpentry factory. In this line, wood panels are coated with paint in a highly automated fashion. The products vary in shapes and the way they shall be coated, and therefore, a number of machines are present in the line which is about 100 m long. Sanding machines, roller coaters, dryers etc. are installed, and all machinery uses electricity for their operation. There are, however, other equipments coupled to the line. One example is the wood dust transportation system, and another is the steam system used for heating purposes. By use of a number of electricity meters, monitoring ventilation flow rates etc., it has been possible to analyze how much energy is used in the surfacing line and also to propose measures to reduce this amount.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Energy Usage in Surfacing Lines2001In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 41, no 5, 1649-1669 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

        

  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Refurbishment of industrial buildings2006In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 47, no 15-16, 2223-2239 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a building is subject for refurbishment, there is a golden opportunity to change its behavior as an energy system. This paper shows the importance of careful investigations of the processes, the climate shield and the heating systems already present in the building before measures are implemented in reality. A case study is presented dealing with a carpentry factory. The building is poorly insulated according to standards today, and initially it was assumed that a better thermal shield would be of vital importance in order to reach optimal conditions. Instead, it is shown that the main problem is the ordinary heating system. This uses steam from a wood chips boiler and the wood chips come from the manufacturing processes. These wood chips are, therefore, a very cheap fuel. The boiler had, during decades of use, slowly degraded into a poor state. Hence, aero-tempers using expensive electricity have been installed to remedy the situation. These use not only expensive kWh but also very expensive kW due to the electricity tariff. It is shown that electricity for heating purposes must be abandoned and further, that this could be achieved at a surprisingly small cost. By stopping a large waste of steam, it was possible to find resources, in the form of unspent money, for further mending the existing heating system. Not only economy but also environmental hazards in the form of CO2 emissions urges us to abandon electricity and instead use heat from cheap biomass fired boilers. Such equipment saves environment at the same time it saves money. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Björn G
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Heat Accumulators in CHP Networks1992In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 33, no 12, 1051-1061 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) network, it is sometimes optimal to install a device for storing heat from one period of time to another. Several possibilities exist. If the electricity demand is high, while at the same time the district heating load is too small to take care of the heat from the CHP plant, it could be optimal to store heat from peak periods and discharge the storage under off-peak. It might also be optimal to store heat during off-peak and use it under the district heating peak load. The storage is then used for decreasing either the district heating demand or for decreasing the electricity load used for space heating. The paper shows how a mixed integer program is developed for use in the optimization process. As a case study, the CHP system of Malmö, Sweden, is used. Further, a sensitivity analysis is elaborated in order to show how the optimal solution will vary due to changes in certain input data.

  • 10.
    Rolfsman, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Optimal supply and demand investments in municipal energy systems2004In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 45, no 4, 595-611 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many municipalities, there are district heating networks, which are quite commonly supplied by combined heat and power plants (CHP). A district heating network contains buildings of different types. In this paper, one such municipal energy system is analysed. In order to provide space heating and domestic hot water, investments could be made on the supply side in power plants, or on the demand side in the buildings, for example in the form of extra wall insulation. The electricity from the CHP plants is supplied to the municipality but can also be sold to the electricity market, and electricity can, of course, also be bought from the market. The variation in price on the spot market over any given day is significant. The need for district heat in the building stock also varies, for example due to climatic conditions. The energy system in the case study is analysed with a mixed integer linear programming model. The model has 3 h time steps in order to reflect diurnal variations, and an entire year is analysed. A case study is presented for the city of Linköping in Sweden. On the demand side, the options are: extra wall insulation, extra attic insulation and better types of windows. The building stock is divided into nine categories. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Sundberg, Gunnel
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Henning, Dag
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Investments in combined heat and power plants: Influence of fuel price on cost minimised operation2002In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 43, no 5, 639-650 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liberalisation of the electricity market and governmental politics influence heat and power supply in Sweden, like in many other countries. In this paper, the impact of subsidies and fuel and electricity costs on a representative Swedish district heating system is analysed. The energy system model MODEST (model for optimisation of dynamic energy systems with time dependent components and boundary conditions) was used to optimise investments and operation for heat and power production plants. At higher electricity prices, combined heat and power introduction may be profitable in the studied system. With current fuel prices, a natural gas fired combined cycle would primarily be favourable. A lower woodchips price and a governmental grant would make cogeneration with a biomass fired steam cycle more beneficial. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

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