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  • 1.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy end-use and efficiency potentials among Swedish industrial small and medium-sized enterprises - A dataset analysis from the national energy audit program2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 93, p. 165-177Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency in industry is recognized as one of the most vital activities for the mitigation of climate change. Consequently, policy initiatives from governments addressing both energy-intensive and small and medium-sized industry have been enacted. In this paper, the energy end-use and the energy efficiency potential among industrial small and medium-sized companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program are reviewed. The three manufacturing industries of wood and cork, food products and metal products (excluding machinery and equipment) are studied. A unique categorization of their production processes energy end-use is presented, the results of which show that the amount of energy used in various categories of production processes differ between these industries. This applies to support processes as well, highlighting the problem of generalizing results without available bottom-up energy end-use data. In addition, a calculation of conservation supply curves for measures related to production processes is presented, showing that there still remains energy saving potential among companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program. However, relevant data in the database used from the Swedish Energy Audit Program is lacking which limits the conclusions that can be drawn from the conservation supply curves. This study highlights the need to develop energy policy programs delivering high-quality data. This paper contributes to a further understanding of the intricate matters of industrial energy end-use and energy efficiency measures.

  • 2.
    Haikola, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Power production and environmental opinions: Environmentally motivated resistance to wind power in Sweden2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 57, p. 1545-1555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, every form of large scale power production in Sweden has given rise to organised, sustained and partly successful resistance motivated by environmental arguments. Since wind power is identified by the Swedish Parliament as an important energy source for the future and the wind power industry is expected to expand on a large scale, there is reason to believe that the already existing environmental opposition to wind power will continue to grow and will attempt to limit or at least partly obstruct the wind power expansion. In order to facilitate an understanding of this opposition and its possibility to significantly influence future wind power expansion in Sweden, this paper draws upon previous research on the opposition towards hydropower, nuclear power and biomass in Sweden, and discusses these findings in relation to previous research on wind power opposition.

  • 3.
    Haraldsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Review of measures for improved energy efficiency in production-related processes in the aluminium industry: From electrolysis to recycling2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 93, p. 525-548Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aluminium industry is facing a challenge in meeting the goal of halved greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, while the demand for aluminium is estimated to increase 2–3 times by the same year. Energy efficiency will play an important part in achieving the goal. The paper’s aim was to investigate possible production-related energy efficiency measures in the aluminium industry. Mining of bauxite and production of alumina from bauxite are not included in the study. In total, 52 measures were identified through a literature review. Electrolysis in primary aluminium production, recycling and general measures constituted the majority of the 52 measures. This can be explained by the high energy intensity of electrolysis, the relatively wide applicability of the general measures and the fact that all aluminium passes through either electrolysis or recycling. Electrolysis shows a higher number of emerging/novel measures compared to the other processes, which can also be explained by its high energy intensity. Processing aluminium with extrusion, rolling, casting (shape-casting and casting of ingots, slabs and billets), heat treatment and anodising will also benefit from energy efficiency. However, these processes showed relatively fewer measures, which might be explained by the fact that to some extent, these processes are not as energy demanding compared, for example, to electrolysis. In many cases, the presented measures can be combined, which implies that the best practice should be to combine the measures. There may also be a future prospect of achieving carbon-neutral and coal-independent electrolysis. Secondary aluminium production will be increasingly important for meeting the increasing demand for aluminium with respect to environmental and economic concerns and strengthened competitiveness. Focusing on increased production capacity, recovery yields and energy efficiency in secondary production will be pivotal. Further research and development will be required for those measures designated as novel or emerging.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A review of barriers to and driving forces for improved energy efficiency in Swedish industry: Recommendations for successful in-house energy management2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 82, no Part 1, p. 618-628Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From an environmental point of view, reduced use of energy remains a cornerstone in global greenhouse gas mitigation. However, without full internalization of external costs, greenhouse gas mitigation as such may not be highly prioritized among business leaders. Rather, it is the magnitude of production costs and ultimately the size of market revenue that articulates success or failure for business leaders. Nevertheless, reduced energy use or improved energy efficiency can have a vast impact on profitability even for companies with low energy costs, as the reduced energy costs directly lead to increased profits. In this paper, a review of ten years of empirical research in the field of industrial energy management in Swedish industry is presented. Based on the review, the paper proposes success factors for efficient energy management, factors which could help guide individual energy managers as well as policy makers in order to close the energy efficiency and management gaps. The paper also presents an overview of important industrial energy management tools, which would facilitate in-house energy management in industry.

  • 5.
    Lonnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Sweden; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Gronkvist, Stefan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Stimulating biogas in the transport sector in a Swedish region - An actor and policy analysis with supply side focus2019In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 113, article id UNSP 109269Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses incentives and barriers for the development of biogas production and use in transport. It is based on statistics, interviews with biogas actors in a Swedish region, as well as a literature study. These actors perceive that the stagnating vehicle gas demand is the major barrier for biogas development. Policy support could stimulate the vehicle gas demand to strengthen incentives for investments along the entire biogas value chain. There are opportunities on the supply side to increase biogas production based on waste and residues, to improve digestate handling, and to expand the gas distribution infrastructure. However, the sector perceives a high risk in biogas investments partially due to the low predictability of Swedish policy instruments and this, together with the stagnated demand for vehicle gas, are identified as the main barriers for biogas development. Thus, policy makers should focus on these barriers if the intention is to develop the use of biogas in transport.

  • 6.
    Mamun, Md Al
    et al.
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Sohag, Kazi
    National University of Malaysia.
    Hannan Mia, Md. Abdul
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ozturk, Ilhan
    Cag University, Turkey .
    Regional differences in the dynamic linkage between CO2 emissions, sectoral output and economic growth2014In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 38, p. 1-11Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental degradation measured by CO2 emissions is a significant challenge to sustainable economic development. Owing to significant differences in the empirical relationship between the economic growth and CO2 emissions and policies adopted by different countries to overcome the challenge are not decisive. This study aims to generalize our knowledge about the relationship between CO2 emissions per capita and economic growth across the world for 1980-2009 periods. Besides, it explores whether the transformation of different economies (e.g. agrarian to industrial and industrial to sophisticated service economy) over the past few decades yielded any significant positive impact towards sustainable economic development by reducing the level of CO2 emission. Empirical results suggest that (i) except for high-income-countries, Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is a general phenomenon across the world, and (ii) the transformation of different economies towards a service economy has produced more pollution in high income countries and less pollution in low and middle income countries.

  • 7.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Linking energy efficiency measures in industrial compressed air systems with non-energy benefits - A review2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 89, p. 72-87Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compressed air is widely used in supporting industrial manufacturing processes due to its cleanness, practicality and ease of use. However, the efficiency of compressed air systems is often very low. Typically, for compressed air-driven tools only 10-15% of the energy input is utilised as useful work. Despite these recognised inefficiencies, and even though energy efficiency measures for compressed air systems normally offer several opportunities for energy savings and energy cost savings, generally, less attention has been given to the energy use and energy costs incurred in compressed air systems. Industrial energy efficiency measures might also yield additional effects, beyond the energy savings, which are denoted as non-energy benefits. This study reviews the existing base of scientific knowledge on energy efficiency in compressed air systems combined with the perspective of non-energy benefits. Even though some measures were mentioned more frequent than others, the results revealed significant variation in which measures could be undertaken to improve energy efficiency in compressed air systems. However, few publications employ a comprehensive approach by examining the entire compressed air system. Furthermore, few publications have addressed the possible additional benefits to be gained from energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems. This study provides a compilation of the various energy efficiency measures reported in the reviewed scientific literature that can be undertaken in order to improve energy efficiency in compressed air systems. It also provides a comprehensive take on the measures, including a systems perspective, by categorising them in respect to where in the compressed air system they can be undertaken. This paper suggests that energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems, and related non-energy benefits, should be studied on a specific measure level to fully understand and acknowledge their effects on the energy use of a compressed air system and possible additional effects, i.e. non-energy benefits.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-03-19 14:14
  • 8.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy-efficiency networks for SMEs: Learning from the Swedish experience2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 65, p. 295-307Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for energy efficiency improvements in the industry is significant for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), but the implementation of energy-efficiency measures is not always possible owing to various barriers to energy efficiency. Working with energy management personnel inside companies can help to overcome these barriers. However, this is not a common practice among SMEs. Participation in industrial energy-efficiency networks (IEENs) can be a means of introducing customized energy management practices into SMEs. In such a network, industrial companies get support for a period of three to four years from an external network coordinator to determine energy efficiency potential, implement energy-efficiency measures, and monitor energy performance. The method has been used widely in Switzerland and Germany, while in other countries the experience has not proven successful thus far. To show the effects of networking among industrial companies, it is important to evaluate networks quantitatively and qualitatively. This aspect is missing from the field of energy efficiency research, not least with regard to evaluation methods. Thus, it is crucial to evaluate Swedish IEENs and suggest methods for evaluating IEENs. The aim of this study is to review IEENs with particular emphasis on Swedish IEENs. The results show that in Sweden, a common notion of IEENs has not yet been established, and projects with different characteristics and designs fall under the category of IEEN. The lack of a standard approach to running and evaluating IEENs makes it difficult to evaluate Swedish networks quantitatively. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Quantifying the extended energy efficiency gap: - evidence from Swedish electricity-intensive industries2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 51, p. 472-483Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is one of the major means of reducing CO2 emissions resulting from industrial use of energy. Both from a societal as well as business perspective it is of great importance to reduce industrial energy end use (EEU). The implementation of energy-efficient technologies as well as increased focus on energy management practices has been stated by previous research to be the two most important methods of improved industrial energy efficiency. To date, however, there are few (if any) studies that have analyzed the proportion of industrial energy savings that derive from implementation of new technology versus from continuous energy management practices. By analyzing substantial data from the Swedish PFE program this paper aims to quantify what previously has been referred to as the extended energy efficiency gap. Results show that about 61% of the analyzed 1254 energy efficiency measures are derived from the implementation of new technology, and the rest stems from management and operational measures. The results presented in this paper are of outmost importance for industrial energy managers and energy auditors as well as industrial associations and policy-makers in order to cost-effectively address these no-regret measures.

  • 10.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Assessing the driving factors for energy management program adoption2017In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 74, p. 538-547Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of energy management (EnM) became a topical issue in industrial settings as a result of the energy crises that affected the global community in the 1970s. However, EnM was not implemented within industry with all its potential to improve energy security, raise the maturity level of EnM and increase sustainability. According to the results of previous empirical investigations, the expected interest in energy programs is not found and there is no clear understanding about program adoption criteria within an industry. Keeping in mind the adoption of energy investment through conformation with financial analysis and choosing the investments through contextual factors in the organization (e.g. organizational energy culture, power relationships, EnM system, expertise availability, managers mindset) together with characteristics of EnM program as two macro perspectives in energy efficiency literature, this paper aims to understand the main driving factors which lead organizations to either adopt or not adopt a particular program (always with respect to energy management). Moreover, it aims to express the impact of those driving forces of implementing a successful EnM program which could contribute to better understanding of suitable EnM configuration. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 15 manufacturing companies of varying size and in different sectors located in Sweden. After analyzing the minimum required steps to establish EnM, assessing the adoption of practices according to their energy strategy, and through assessing EnM maturity level, we found a low level of risk (which arises from lack of certainty and awareness) and the programs alignment with the core business as prominent driving factors for all sizes which foster positive investment decision making through top management. On the contrary, complexity of industry (for large manufacturing companies) and access to capital (for small and medium-sized companies) are the main barriers to adopting those programs.

  • 11.
    Shahbaz, Muhammad
    et al.
    COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Khraief, Naceur
    University of Sousse, Tunisia .
    Salah Uddin, Gazi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ozturk, Ilhan
    Cag University, Mersin, Turkey.
    Environmental Kuznets curve in an open economy: A bounds testing and causality analysis for Tunisia2014In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 34, p. 325-336Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis posits that in the early stages of economic growth environmental degradation and pollution increase. However, as a nation reaches a certain level of income, measured in per capita terms, the trend reverses. The postulated relationship thus produces an inverted U-shaped curve. The topic has drawn much academic interest in the context of developed and emerging nations. The aim of this paper is to investigate the existence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in case of Tunisia using annual time series data for the period of 1971-2010. The ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration is applied to test long run relationship in the presence of structural breaks and vector error correction model (VECM) to detect the direction of causality among the variables. The robustness of causality analysis has been tested by applying the innovative accounting approach (IAA). The findings of this paper confirmed long run relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, trade openness and CO2 emissions. The results also indicated the existence of EKC confirmed by the VECM and IAA approaches. The study has significant contribution for policy implications to curtail energy pollutants by implementing environment friendly regulations to sustain economic development in Tunisia.

  • 12.
    Shahbaz, Muhammad
    et al.
    COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ur Rehman, Ijaz
    University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Imran, Kashif
    Institute of Business and Management, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Industrialization, electricity consumption and CO2 emissions in Bangladesh2014In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 31, p. 575-586Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the relationship between industrialization, electricity consumption and CO2 emissions in case of Bangladesh using quarter frequency data over the period of 1975–2010. The ARDL bounds testing approach is applied to examine cointegration in the presence of structural breaks stemming in the series. The causal relationship among the variables is explored by applying the innovative accounting approach (IAA).

    Our results indicate that the variables are cointegrated for a long run relationship. We find that financial development adds in energy pollutants. Electricity consumption contributes to CO2 emissions. Trade openness also has a positive impact on energy pollutants. The results unveil that EKC is existed between industrial development and CO2 emissions in case of Bangladesh. Our causality analysis shows that electricity consumption Granger causes energy pollutants, industrial growth and financial development. The unidirectional causality exists running from financial development to trade openness and trade openness Granger causes industrial development. This study opens up new insights for policy makers in formulating a comprehensive economic, financial and trade policy to sustain industrialization by improving the environmental quality.

  • 13.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kimura, Osamu
    Central Research Institute Elect Power Ind, Japan.
    Wakabayashi, Masayo
    Central Research Institute Elect Power Ind, Japan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A review of industrial energy and climate policies in Japan and Sweden with emphasis towards SMEs2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 50, p. 504-512Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat of increased global warming resulting from the use of fossil fuels stresses decision-makers to formulate and adopt policies towards different sectors of the economy. In light of the great earthquake in Japan 2011, energy efficiency also plays an important role in meeting the challenge of power supply shortage. Energy policies towards industry are of particular importance as a major part of the energy in the economy is used in industrial production. The number of papers investigating and presenting experience from energy end-use policies are scarce. Furthermore, for those present, they often only include a very brief analysis. From a public point of view, evaluations of energy programs are of major importance to measure the performance of the programs. From an energy policy designer point of view, it is of major importance to not only see the cost-effectiveness of the policy but also to understand the fundamental mechanisms for the success or failure of an industrial energy program, in order to learn how to improve future programs. The aim of this paper is to present a review of energy end-use policy instrument in Japan and Sweden towards the industrial sector from 1990 to 2014, with special emphasis on industrial SMEs. From the results presented some general-conclusions can be made, (1) results show that the cost-effectiveness differs substantially between the evaluated programs, and (2) that from a governmental point of view, subsidies towards energy audit programs seem like the most cost-effective policy. In addition to this (3) the results from the review also stress the importance of a clear strategy for every energy program on how the program is going to be evaluated, ex-ante or ex-post, and how the performance of the program is to be measured. This structure should be included from the start of the program. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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