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  • 1.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Melin, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Matussek, Andreas
    County Hospital Ryhov.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A seasonal study of the mecA gene and Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin-resistant S. aureus in a municipal wastewater treatment plant2009In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 925-932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in which the mecA gene mediates resistance, threatens the treatment of staphylococcal diseases. The aims were to determine the effect of wastewater treatment processes on mecA gene concentrations, and the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA over time. To achieve this a municipal wastewater treatment plant was investigated for the mecA gene, S. aureus and MRSA, using real-time PCR assays. Water samples were collected monthly for one year, at eight sites in the plant, reflecting different aspects of the treatment process. The mecA gene and S. aureus could be detected throughout the year at all sampling sites. MRSA could also be detected, but mainly in the early treatment steps. The presence of MRSA was verified through cultivation from inlet water. The concentration of the mecA gene varied between months and sampling sites, but no obvious seasonal variation could be determined. The wastewater treatment process reduced the mecA gene concentration in most months. Taken together our results show that the mecA gene, S. aureus and MRSA occur over the year at all sites investigated.

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  • 2.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Melin, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Matussek, Andreas
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Division of Laboratory Medicine, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden; Unilabs, Capio S:t Görans Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Division of Laboratory Medicine, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Correction: A seasonal study of the mecA gene and Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin-resistant S. aureus in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (in WATER RESEARCH, Volume 43, Issue 4, Pages 925-932)2009In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, no 15, p. 3900-3900Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 3.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sci., Uppsala S-750 07, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, A.-M.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Öquist, M.G.
    Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sci., Umeå S-901 83, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Methane emissions from a constructed wetland treating wastewater: Seasonal and spatial distribution and dependence on edaphic factors2004In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 38, no 18, p. 3960-3970Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment have many advantages. They can be used for several purposes, for example, to reduce levels of organic matter and nutrients, and to retain toxic metals. However, most wetlands are inherently net sources of gaseous compounds like methane and nitrous oxide, which are of environmental concern due to their rapid current accumulation in the atmosphere and their potent global warming capacity. In order to determine the flux of methane from a constructed wetland a study was conducted over two growth seasons on a pilot scale wetland constructed to reduce nutrient levels in secondary treated wastewater. The emissions for the spring to autumn period averaged 141 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 (S.D.=187), ranging from consumption of 375 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 to emissions of 1739 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. The spatial and temporal variations were large, but could be accounted for by measured environmental factors. Among these factors, sediment and water temperatures were significant in all cases and independent of the scale of analysis (r2 up to 0.88).

  • 4.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ledin, Anna
    Environment and Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Mersiowsky, Ivo
    TuTech Integrated Management, TUHH Technologie GmbH, Germany.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mono- and diesters from o-phthalic acid in leachates from different European landfills2003In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 609-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leachates from 17 different landfills in Europe were analysed with respect to phthalates, i.e. phthalic acid diesters (PAEs) and their degradation products phthalic acid monoesters (PMEs) and ortho-phthalic acid (PA). Diesters are ubiquitous and the human possible exposure and potential to human health and environment has put them in focus. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether monoesters and phthalic acid could be traced in landfill leachates and in what concentrations they may be found. The results showed that phthalates were present in the majority of the leachates investigated. The monoesters appeared from 1 to 20 μg/L and phthalic acid 2–880 μg/L (one divergent value of 19 mg phthalic acid/L). Their parental diesters were observed from 1 to 460 μg/L. These observed occurrences of degradation products, of all diesters studied, support that they are degraded under the landfill conditions covered by this study. Thus, we have presented strong evidences to conclude that microorganisms in landfills degrade diesters released from formulations in a variety of products, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC) species.

  • 5.
    Lavonen, E. E.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science SLU, Sweden.
    Kothawala, D. N.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science SLU, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Tranvik, L. J.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Gonsior, Michael
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Maryland, MD 20688 USA.
    Schmitt-Kopplin, P.
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Germany; Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Kohler, S. J.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science SLU, Sweden.
    Tracking changes in the optical properties and molecular composition of dissolved organic matter during drinking water production2015In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 85, p. 286-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Absorbance, 3D fluorescence and ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR-MS) were used to explain patterns in the removal of chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (CDOM and FDOM) at the molecular level during drinking water production at four large drinking water treatment plants in Sweden. When dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal was low, shifts in the dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition could not be detected with commonly used DOG-normalized parameters (e.g. specific UV254 absorbance SUVA), but was clearly observed by using differential absorbance and fluorescence or ESI-FT-ICR-MS. In addition, we took a novel approach by identifying how optical parameters were correlated to the elemental composition of DOM by using rank correlation to connect optical properties to chemical formulas assigned to mass peaks from FT-ICR-MS analyses. Coagulation treatment selectively removed FDOM at longer emission wavelengths (450-600 nm), which significantly correlated with chemical formulas containing oxidized carbon (average carbon oxidation state greater than= 0), low hydrogen to carbon ratios (H/C: average +/- SD = 0.83 +/- 0.13), and abundant oxygen-containing functional groups (O/C = 0.62 +/- 0.10). Slow sand filtration was less efficient in removing DOM, yet selectively targeted FDOM at shorter emission wavelengths (between 300 and 450 nm), which commonly represents algal rather than terrestrial sources. This shorter wavelength FDOM correlated with chemical formulas containing reduced carbon (average carbon oxidation state less than= 0), with relatively few carbon-carbon double bonds (H/C = 1.32 +/- 0.16) and less oxygen per carbon (O/C = 0.43 +/- 0.10) than those removed during coagulation. By coupling optical approaches with FT-ICR-MS to characterize DOM, we were for the first time able to confirm the molecular composition of absorbing and fluorescing DOM selectively targeted during drinking water treatment. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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  • 6.
    Lundqvist, Johan
    et al.
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Andersson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johannisson, Anders
    SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lavonen, Elin
    Norrvatten, Solna.
    Mandava, Geeta
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Oskarsson, Agneta
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Innovative drinking water treatment techniques reduce the disinfection-induced oxidative stress and genotoxic activity2019In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 5, p. 182-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disinfection of drinking water using chlorine can lead to the formation of genotoxic by-products whenchlorine reacts with natural organic matter (NOM). A vast number of such disinfection by-products(DBPs) have been identified, making it almost impossible to routinely monitor all DBPs with chemicalanalysis. In this study, a bioanalytical approach was used, measuring oxidative stress (Nrf2 activity),genotoxicity (micronucleus test), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation to evaluate an innovativewater treatment process, including suspended ion exchange, ozonation, in-line coagulation,ceramic microfiltration, and granular activated carbon. Chlorination was performed in laboratory scaleafter each step in the treatment process in order to investigate the effect of each treatment process to theformation of DBPs. Suspended ion exchange had a high capacity to remove dissolved organic carbon(DOC) and to decrease UV absorbance and Nrf2 activity in non-chlorinated water. High-dose chlorination(10 mg Cl2 L-1) of raw water caused a drastic induction of Nrf2 activity, which was decreased by 70% inwater chlorinated after suspended ion exchange. Further reduction of Nrf2 activity following chlorinationwas achieved by ozonation and the concomitant treatment steps. The ozonation treatment resulted indecreased Nrf2 activity in spite of unchanged DOC levels. However, a strong correlation was found betweenUV absorbing compounds and Nrf2 activity, demonstrating that Nrf2 inducing DBPs were formedfrom pre-cursors of a specific NOM fraction, constituted of mainly aromatic compounds. Moreover, highdosechlorination of raw water induced genotoxicity. In similarity to the DOC levels, UV absorbance andNrf2 activity, the disinfection-induced genotoxicity was also reduced by each treatment step of theinnovative water treatment technique. AhR activity was observed in the water produced by the conventionalprocess and in the raw water, but the activity was clearly decreased by the ozonation step inthe innovative water treatment process.

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  • 7.
    Mersiowsky, I.
    et al.
    TuTech Integrated Management, TUHH Technologie GmbH, Schellerdamm 4, D-21079 Hamburg, Germany.
    Weller, M.
    Institute of Polymer Testing and Polymer Science, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany.
    Ejlertsson, J.
    Fate of plasticised PVC products under landfill conditions: A laboratory-scale landfill simulation reactor study2001In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 35, no 13, p. 3063-3070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term behaviour of plasticised PVC products was investigated in laboratory-scale landfill simulation reactors. The examined products included a cable material and a flooring with different combinations of plasticisers. The objective of the study was to assess whether a degradation of the PVC polymer or a loss of plasticisers occurred under landfill conditions. A degradation of the polymer matrix was not observed. The contents of plasticisers in aged samples was determined and compared to the respective original products. The behaviour of the various plasticisers was found to differ significantly. Losses of DEHP and BBP from the flooring were too low for analytical quantification. No loss of DIDP from the cable was detectable, whereas DINA in the same product showed considerable losses of up to 70% compared to the original contents. These deficits were attributable to biodegradation rather than leaching. There was no equivalent release of plasticisers into the leachate. Copyright © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 8.
    Metson, Genevieve
    et al.
    National Research Council, National Academies of Science, Washington, USA.
    Lin, Jiajia
    National Research Council, National Academies of Science, Washington, USA.
    Harrison, John
    School of the Environment, Washington State University, Vancouver, WA, USA.
    Compton, Jana
    Western Ecology Division, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, USA.
    Linking 2012 terrestrial P inputs to riverine export from watersheds across the United States2017In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 124, p. 177-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans have greatly accelerated phosphorus (P) flows from land to aquatic ecosystems, causing eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and hypoxia. A variety of statistical and mechanistic models have been used to explore the relationship between P management on land and P losses to waterways, but our ability to predict P losses from watersheds often relies on small scale catchment studies, where detailed measurements can be made, or global scale models that that are often too coarse-scaled to be used directly in the management decision-making process. Here we constructed spatially explicit datasets of terrestrial P inputs and outputs across the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) for 2012. We use this dataset to improve understanding of P sources and balances at the national scale and to investigate whether well-standardized input data at the continental scale can be used to improve predictions of hydrologic P export from watersheds across the U.S. We estimate that in 2012 agricultural lands received 0.19 Tg more P as fertilizer and confined manure than was harvested in major crops. Approximately 0.06 Tg P was lost to waterways as sewage and detergent nationally based on per capita loads in 2012. We compared two approaches for calculating non-agricultural P waste export to waterways, and found that estimates based on per capita P loads from sewage and detergent were 50% greater than Discharge Monitoring Report Pollutant Loading Tool. This suggests that the tool is likely underestimating P export in waste the CONUS scale. TP and DIP concentrations and TP yields were generally correlated more strongly with runoff than with P inputs or P balances, but even the relationships between runoff and P export were weak. Including P inputs as independent variables increased the predictive capacity of the best-fit models by at least 20%, but together inputs and runoff explained 40% of the variance in P concentration and 46–54% of the variance in P yield. By developing and applying a high-resolution P budget for the CONUS this study confirms that both hydrology and P inputs and sinks play important roles in aquatic P loading across a wide range of environments.

  • 9.
    Nordgren, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Matussek, Andreas
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, County Hospital Ryhov, 55185 Jönköping, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Ann
    Gryaab AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindgren , Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Prevalence of norovirus and factors influencing virus concentrations during one year in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant2009In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 1117-1125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Norovirs (NoV) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and is often spread via wastewater contamination. Little is known about how the wastewater treatment process affects norovirus, and which factors influence virus concentrations. To investigate this, we collected wastewater samples monthly during one year at eight different key sites at the municipal wastewater treatment plant in Gothenburg, Sweden. Virus particles were concentrated using ultracentrifugation, viral RNA was subsequently extracted, and transformed into cDNA by reverse transcription. The quantification was performed with real-time PCR assays for NoV genogroups I (GGI) and II (GGII), respectively. We found seasonal changes of NoV genogroups, with the highest concentration of NoV GGII during the winter months, and the highest concentration of NoV GGI during the summer months. Virus transmission in wastewater was more stable for NoV GGI, with NoV GGII demonstrating larger seasonal peaks. Virus reduction took place at similar rates in the primary settling, and in the activated sludge in combination with the secondary settling. Different physicochemical parameters and incoming virus concentrations were correlated to reduction of NoV between different treatment sites. This study gives new information about NoV transmission and virus reduction in a wastewater treatment plant.

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  • 10.
    Odnell, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Karshult Municipal Wastewater Treatment, Sweden.
    Recktenwald, Michael
    Kemira Oyj, Finland.
    Stensen, Katarina
    Tekniska Verken Linkoping AB, SE-58278 Linkoping, Sweden; Swedish Meteorol and Hydrol Institute, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. InZymes Biotech AB, Gjuterigatan 1B, SE-58273 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Activity, life time and effect of hydrolytic enzymes for enhanced biogas production from sludge anaerobic digestion2016In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 103, p. 462-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As an alternative to energy intensive physical methods, enzymatic treatment of sludge produced at wastewater treatment plants for increased hydrolysis and biogas production was investigated. Several hydrolytic enzymes were assessed with a focus on how enzyme activity and life time was influenced by sludge environments. It could be concluded that the activity life time of added enzymes was limited (amp;lt;24 h) in both waste activated sludge and anaerobic digester sludge environments and that this was, for the majority of enzymes, due to endogenous protease activity. In biogas in situ experiments, subtilisin at a 1% mixture on basis of volatile solids, was the only enzyme providing a significantly increased biomethane production of 37%. However, even at this high concentration, subtilisin could not hydrolyze all available substrate within the life time of the enzyme. Thus, for large scale implementation, enzymes better suited to the sludge environments are needed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Stephens, SK
    et al.
    ; .
    Tothill, IE
    ; .
    Warner, PJ
    ; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Detection of silage effluent pollution in river water using biosensors1997In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of silage effluent identified glucose and lactic acid as suitable markers for diagnosis of silage effluent pollution in river water. The use of biosensors, utilising the reactions of glucose oxidase and lactate oxidase to detect glucose and lactic acid respectively, in silage effluent, was investigated. The lactate sensor was able to detect effluent from mature silage at 1/1000 dilution, whilst the glucose sensor proved more suitable for detecting effluent from freshly ensiled grass, which contains higher levels of sugar than mature silage. In both cases the sensor response was within 60 s of exposure to the effluent. The potential of biosensors for rapid monitoring in the water industry was demonstrated in this work. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

  • 12.
    Valle, Juliana
    et al.
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, Germany.
    Gonsior, Michael
    Univ Maryland, MD 20688 USA.
    Harir, Mourad
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, Germany; Tech Univ Munich, Germany.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, Germany; Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Conrad, Ralf
    Max Planck Inst Terr Microbiol, Germany.
    Hertkorn, Norbert
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, Germany.
    Extensive processing of sediment pore water dissolved organic matter during anoxic incubation as observed by high-field mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS)2018In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 129, p. 252-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contained in lake sediments is a carbon source for many microbial degradation processes, including aerobic and anaerobic mineralization. During anaerobic degradation, DOM is partially consumed and transformed into new molecules while the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are produced. In this study, we used ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to trace differences in the composition of solid-phase extractable (PPL resin) pore water DOM (SPE-DOM) isolated from surface sediments of three boreal lakes before and after 40 days of anoxic incubation, with concomitant determination of CH4 and CO2 evolution. CH4 and CO2 production detected by gas chromatography varied considerably among replicates and accounted for fractions of similar to 2-4 x 10(-4) of sedimentary organic carbon for CO2 and similar to 0.8-2.4 x 10(-5) for CH4. In contrast, the relative changes of key bulk parameters during incubation, such as relative proportions of molecular series, elemental ratios, average mass and unsaturation, were regularly in the percent range (1-3% for compounds decreasing and 4-10% for compounds increasing), i.e. several orders of magnitude higher than mineralization alone. Computation of the average carbon oxidation state in CHO molecules of lake pore water DOM revealed rather non-selective large scale transformations of organic matter during incubation, with depletion of highly oxidized and highly reduced CHO molecules, and formation of rather non-labile fulvic acid type molecules. In general, proportions of CHO compounds slightly decreased. Nearly saturated CHO and CHOS lipid-like substances declined during incubation: these rather commonplace molecules were less specific indicators of lake sediment alteration than the particular compounds, such as certain oxygenated aromatics and carboxyl-rich alicyclic acids (CRAM) found more abundant after incubation. There was a remarkable general increase in many CHNO compounds during incubation across all lakes. Differences in DOM transformation between lakes corresponded with lake size and water residence time. While in the small lake Svarttjarn, CRAM increased during incubation, lignin-and tannin-like compounds were enriched in the large lake Bisen, suggesting selective preservation of these rather non-labile aromatic compounds rather than recent synthesis. SPE-DOM after incubation may represent freshly synthesized compounds, leftover bulk DOM which is primarily composed of intrinsically refractory molecules and/or microbial metabolites which were not consumed in our experiments. In spite of a low fraction of the total DOM being mineralized to CO2 and CH4, the more pronounced change in molecular DOM composition during the incubation indicates that diagenetic modification of organic matter can be substantial compared to complete mineralization. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Valle, Juliana
    et al.
    German Research Center for Environmental Health, Research Unit Analytical Biogeochemistry (BGC), Neuherberg, Germany.
    Harir, Mourad
    German Research Center for Environmental Health, Research Unit Analytical Biogeochemistry (BGC), Neuherberg, Germany; Technische Universit€at München, Chair Analytical Food Chemistry, Freising, Weihenstephan, Germany.
    Gonsior, Michael
    University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons, USA.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Botany, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe
    German Research Center for Environmental Health, Research Unit Analytical Biogeochemistry (BGC), Neuherberg, Germany; Technische Universit€at München, Chair Analytical Food Chemistry, Freising, Weihenstephan, Germany.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hertkorn, Norbert
    German Research Center for Environmental Health, Research Unit Analytical Biogeochemistry (BGC), Neuherberg, Germany.
    Molecular differences between water column and sediment porewater SPE-DOM in ten Swedish boreal lakes2020In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 170, article id 115320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal lakes are considered hot spots of dissolved organic matter (DOM) processing within the globalcarbon cycle. This study has used FT-ICR mass spectrometry and comprehensive data evaluation to assessthe molecular differences of SPE-DOM between lake column water SPE-DOM and sedimentary porewater SPE-DOM in 10 Swedish boreal lakes of the Malingsbo area, which were selected for their largediversity of physicochemical and morphological characteristics. While lake column water is well mixedand fairly oxygenated, sedimentary pore water is subject to depletion of oxygen and to confinement ofmolecules. Robust trends were deduced from molecular compositions present in all compartments andin all 10 lakes (“common compositions”) with recognition of relative abundance. Sedimentary pore waterSPE-DOM featured higher proportions of heteroatoms N and S, higher average H/C ratios in presence ofhigher DBE/C ratios, and higher average oxygenation than lake column water SPE-DOM. These trendswere observed in all lakes except Ljustj€arn, which is a ground water fed kettle lake with an unique lakebiogeochemistry. Analogous trends were also observed in case of single or a few lakes and operated alsofor compounds present solely in either lake column water or sedimentary pore water. Unique compoundsdetected in either compartments and/or in a few lakes showed higher molecular diversity thanthe “common compositions”. Processing of DOM molecules in sediments included selective preservationfor polyphenolic compounds and microbial resynthesis of selected molecules of considerable diversity.

  • 14.
    Wibisono, Yusuf
    et al.
    University of Twente, Netherlands; Wetsus, Netherlands.
    Yandi, Wetra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    Nugraha, Roni
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cornelissen, Emile R.
    KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Netherlands.
    Kemperman, Antoine J. B.
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nijmeijer, Kitty
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Hydrogel-coated feed spacers in two-phase flow cleaning in spiral wound membrane elements: A novel platform for eco-friendly biofouling mitigation2015In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 71, p. 171-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofouling is still a major challenge in the application of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. Here we present a platform approach for environmentally friendly biofouling control using a combination of a hydrogel-coated feed spacer and two-phase flow cleaning. Neutral (polyHEMA-co-PEG(10)MA), cationic (polyDMAEMA) and anionic (polySPMA) hydrogels have been successfully grafted onto polypropylene (PP) feed spacers via plasma-mediated UV-polymerization. These coatings maintained their chemical stability after 7 days incubation in neutral (pH 7), acidic (pH 5) and basic (pH 9) environments. Anti-biofouling properties of these coatings were evaluated by Escherichia coli attachment assay and nanofiltration experiments at a TMP of 600 kPag using tap water with additional nutrients as feed and by using optical coherence tomography. Especially the anionic polySPMA-coated PP feed spacer shows reduced attachment of E. coli and biofouling in the spacer-filled narrow channels resulting in delayed biofilm growth. Employing this highly hydrophilic coating during removal of biofouling by two-phase flow cleaning also showed enhanced cleaning efficiency, feed channel pressure drop and flux recoveries. The strong hydrophilic nature and the presence of negative charge on polySPMA are most probably responsible for the improved antifouling behavior. A combination of polySPMA-coated PP feed spacers and two-phase flow cleaning therefore is promising and an environmentally friendly approach to control biofouling in NF/RO systems employing spiral-wound membrane modules.

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  • 15.
    Ziels, Ryan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, WA, USA.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Beck, David A.C.
    Science Institute, University of Washington, WA, USA.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stensel, H. David
    Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, WA, USA.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Microbial community adaptation influences long-chain fatty acid conversion during anaerobic codigestion of fats, oils, and grease with municipal sludge2016In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 103, p. 372-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Codigesting fats, oils, and greases with municipal wastewater sludge can greatly improve biomethanerecovery at wastewater treatment facilities. Process loading rates of fats, oils, and greases have beenpreviously tested with little knowledge of the digester microbial community structure, and high transientfat loadings have led to long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation and digester upsets. This studyutilized recently-developed quantitative PCR assays for syntrophic LCFA-degrading bacteria along with16S amplicon sequencing to relate changes in microbial community structure to LCFA accumulationduring transient loading increases to an anaerobic codigester receiving waste restaurant oil andmunicipal wastewater sludge. The 16S rRNA gene concentration of the syntrophic b-oxidizing genusSyntrophomonas increased to ~15% of the Bacteria community in the codigester, but stayed below 3% inthe control digester that was fed only wastewater sludge. Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were thedominant methanogenic genera enriched in the codigester, and together comprised over 80% of theArchaea community by the end of the experimental period. Constrained ordination showed that changesin the codigester Bacteria and Archaea community structures were related to measures of digester performance.Notably, the effluent LCFA concentration in the codigester was positively correlated to thespecific loading rate of waste oil normalized to the Syntrophomonas 16S rRNA concentration. Specificloading rates of 0e1.5 1012 g VS oil/16S gene copies-day resulted in LCFA concentrations below 30 mg/g TS, whereas LCFA accumulated up to 104 mg/g TS at higher transient loading rates. Based on thecommunity-dependent loading limitations found, enhanced biomethane production from high loadingsof fats, oils and greases can be achieved by promoting a higher biomass of slow-growing syntrophicconsortia, such as with longer digester solids retention times. This work also demonstrates the potentialfor controlling the loading rate of fats, oils, and greases based on the analysis of the codigester communitystructure, such as with quantitative PCR measurements of syntrophic LCFA-degrading bacteriaabundance.

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