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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Editorial Material: THE IFP RENEWABLE ENERGIES SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCES RHEVE 2011: INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE ON HYBRIC AND ELECTRIC VEHICLES2013In: Oil & gas science and technology, ISSN 1294-4475, E-ISSN 1953-8189, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 3-7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Modeling and Control of Turbocharged SI and DI Engines2007In: Oil & gas science and technology, ISSN 1294-4475, E-ISSN 1953-8189, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 523-538Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Nilsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fröberg, Anders
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden .
    Åslund, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of look-ahead controller concepts for a wheel loader application: [Développement de concepts d’une commande prédictive, destinée à une application pour chargeur sur pneus]2015In: Oil & gas science and technology, ISSN 1294-4475, E-ISSN 1953-8189, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 159-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents two conceptual methods, based on dynamic programming, for one-step look-ahead control of a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) in a wheel loader. The first method developed, designated Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP), uses a statistical load prediction and stochastic dynamic programming for minimizing fuel use. The second method developed, designated Free-Time Dynamic Programming (FTDP), has vehicle speed as a state and introduces a fixed 0.1 s delay in the bucket controls in a combined minimization of fuel and time. The methods are evaluated using a set of 34 measured loading cycles, used in a ‘leave one out’ manner.

    The evaluation shows that the SDP method requires about 1/10th of the computational effort of FTDP and has a more transparent impact of differences in the cycle prediction. The FTDP method, on the other hand, shows a 10% lower fuel consumption, which is close to the actual optimum, at the same cycle times, and is able to complete a much larger part of the evaluation cycles.

  • 4.
    Sivertsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design and Evaluation of Energy Management using Map-Based ECMS for the PHEV Benchmark2015In: Oil & gas science and technology, ISSN 1294-4475, E-ISSN 1953-8189, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 195-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) provide a promising way of achieving the benefits of the electric vehicle without being limited by the electric range, but they increase the importance of the supervisory control to fully utilize the potential of the powertrain. The winning contribution in the PHEV Benchmark organized by IFP Energies nouvelles is described and evaluated. The control is an adaptive strategy based on a map-based Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) approach, developed and implemented in the simulator provided for the PHEV Benchmark. The implemented control strives to be as blended as possible, whilst still ensuring that all electric energy is used in the driving mission. The controller is adaptive to reduce the importance of correct initial values, but since the initial values affect the consumption, a method is developed to estimate the optimal initial value for the controller based on driving cycle information. This works well for most driving cycles with promising consumption results. The controller performs well in the benchmark; however, the driving cycles used show potential for improvement. A robustness built into the controller affects the consumption more than necessary, and in the case of altitude variations the control does not make use of all the energy available. The control is therefore extended to also make use of topography information that could be provided by a GPS which shows a potential further decrease in fuel consumption.

  • 5.
    Thomasson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Model-Based Throttle Control using Static Compensators and Pole Placement2011In: Oil & gas science and technology, ISSN 1294-4475, E-ISSN 1953-8189, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 717-727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-Based Throttle Control using Static Compensators and Pole Placement - In modern spark ignited engines, the throttle is controlled by the Electronic Control Unit (ECU), which gives the ECU direct control of the air flow and thereby the engine torque. This puts high demands on the speed and accuracy of the controller that positions the throttle plate. The throttle control problem is complicated by two strong nonlinear effects, friction and limp-home torque. This paper proposes the use of two, simultaneously active, static compensators to counter these effects and approximately linearize the system. A PID controller is designed for the linearized system, where pole placement is applied to design the PD controller and a gain scheduled I-part is added for robustness against model errors. A systematic procedure for generating compensator and controller parameters from open loop experiments is also developed. The controller performance is evaluated both in simulation, on a throttle control benchmark problem, and experimentally. A robustness investigation pointed out that the limp-home position is an important parameter for the controller performance, this is emphasized by the deviations found in experiments. The proposed method for parameter identification achieves the desired accuracy.

  • 6.
    Wahlström, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nonlinear EGR and VGT Control with Integral Action for Diesel Engines2011In: Oil & gas science and technology, ISSN 1294-4475, E-ISSN 1953-8189, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 573-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonlinear EGR and VGT Control with Integral Action for Diesel Engines - A nonlinear multivariable control design with integral action is proposed and investigated for control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) in heavy duty Diesel engines. The main control goal is to regulate oxygen/fuel ratio and intake manifold EGR-fraction, and they are specified in an outer loop. These are chosen as main performance variables since they are strongly coupled to the emissions. An existing nonlinear control design based on feedback linearization is extended with integral action. In particular; the control design method utilizes a control Lyapunov function, inverse optimal control, and a nonlinear input transformation. Comparisons between different control structures are performed in simulations showing the following four points. Firstly, integral action is necessary to handle model errors so that the controller can track the performance variables specified in the outer loop. Secondly the proposed control design handles the nonlinear effects in the Diesel engine that results in less control errors compared to a control structure with PID controllers. Thirdly, it is important to use the input transformation and it is sufficient to use a control structure with PID controllers and input transformation to handle the nonlinear effects. Fourthly, the proposed control design is sensitive to model errors in the input transformation while a control structure with PID controllers and input transformation handles these model errors.

  • 7.
    Zhao, Jianning
    et al.
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, France.
    Sciarretta, Antonio
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, France.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    GRAB-ECO for Minimal Fuel Consumption Estimation of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles2017In: Oil & gas science and technology, ISSN 1294-4475, E-ISSN 1953-8189, Vol. 72, no 6, article id 39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a promising solution to the reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions in road transport sector, hybrid electric powertrains are confronted with complex control techniques for the evaluation of the minimal fuel consumption, particularly the excessively long computation time of the design-parameter optimization in the powertrains early design stage. In this work, a novel and simple GRaphical-Analysis-Based method of fuel Energy Consumption Optimization (GRAB-ECO) is developed to estimate the minimal fuel consumption for parallel hybrid electric powertrains in light-and heavy-duty application. Based on the power ratio between powertrains power demand and the most efficient engine power, GRAB-ECO maximizes the average operating efficiency of the internal combustion engine by shifting operating points to the most efficient conditions, or by eliminating the engine operation from poorly efficient operating points to pure electric vehicle operation. A turning point is found to meet the requirement of the final state of energy of the battery, which is charge-sustaining mode in this study. The GRAB-ECO was tested with both light- and heavy-duty parallel hybrid electric vehicles, and validated in terms of the minimal fuel consumption and the computation time. Results show that GRAB-ECO accurately approximates the minimal fuel consumption with less than 6% of errors for both light-and heavy-duty parallel hybrid electric powertrains. Meanwhile, GRAB-ECO reduces computation time by orders of magnitude compared with PMP-based (Pontryagins Minimum Principle) approaches.

  • 8.
    Öberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Control Oriented Gas Exchange Models for CVCP Engines and their Transient Sensitivity2007In: Oil & gas science and technology, ISSN 1294-4475, E-ISSN 1953-8189, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 573-584 Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyzes a set of control oriented models for the gas exchange phase in engines with continuously variable cam phasing (CVCP). These models describe the mass flow of fresh gases and the residual gases caught in the cylinder during the gas exchange phase. Simulations with CVCP transients are also performed to analyze the models performance during transients.

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