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  • 1.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    University of Gävle.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems2010Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, nr 7, s. 2401-2410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study is to analyse the conditions for connection of residential buildings in heat sparse areas to district heating systems in order to increase electricity production in municipal combined heat and power plants. The European electricity market has been assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of heat sparse areas, increased electricity and heat production as well as electricity prices, fuel prices and emissions rights is investigated. The results of the study show that there is potential to expand the district heating market to areas with lower heat concentrations in the cities of Gavle, Sandviken and Borlange in Sweden, with both economic and environmental benefits. The expansion provides a substantial heat demand of approximately 181 GWh/year, which results in an electricity power production of approximately 43 GWh/year. Since the detached and stand-alone houses in the studied heat sparse areas have been heated either by oil boiler or by direct electricity, connection to district heating also provides a substantial reduction in emissions of CO2. The largest reductions in CO2 emissions are found to be 211 ktonnes/year assuming coal-fired condensing power as marginal electricity production. Connection of heat sparse areas to district heating decrease the system costs and provide a profitability by approximately 22 million EURO/year for the studied municipalities if the price of electricity is at a European level, i.e. 110 EURO/MWh. Sensitivity analysis shows, among other things, that a strong relation exists between the price of electricity and the profitability of connecting heat sparse areas to district heating systems.

  • 2.
    Broberg Viklund, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Industrial excess heat use: Systems analysis and CO2 emissions reduction2015Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 152, s. 189-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The adopted energy efficiency directive stresses the use of excess heat as a way to reach the EU target of primary energy use. Use of industrial excess heat may result in decreased energy demand, CO2 emissions reduction, and economic gains. In this study, an energy systems analysis is performed with the aim of investigating how excess heat should be used, and the impact on CO2 emissions. The manner in which the heat is recovered will affect the system. The influence of excess heat recovery and the trade-off between heat recovery for heating or cooling applications and electricity production has been investigated using the energy systems modeling tool reMIND. The model has been optimized by minimizing the system cost. The results show that it is favorable to recover the available excess heat in all the investigated energy market scenarios, and that heat driven electricity production is not a part of the optimal solution. The trade-off between use of recovered excess heat in the heating or cooling system depends on the energy market prices and the type of heat production. The introduction of excess heat reduces the CO2 emissions in the system for all the studied energy market scenarios. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Difs, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Danestig, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Increased use of district heating in industrial processes - Impacts on heat load duration2009Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, nr 11, s. 2327-2334Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Current knowledge of the potential for an increased use of industrial district heating (DH) due to conversions of industrial processes to DH is limited. In this paper, a Method for Heat Load Analysis (MeHLA) for exploring industrial DH conversions has been developed. This method can be a helpful tool for analyzing the impact different industrial processes have on the local DH system, when processes that utilize electricity and other fuels, convert to utilizing DH instead. Heat loads for different types of industries and processes are analyzed according to characteristics such as temperature levels and time dependency. MeHLA has been used to analyze 34 Swedish industries and the method demonstrates how conversion of industrial processes to DH can result in heat load duration curves that are less outdoor temperature-dependent and more evenly distributed over the year. An evenly distributed heat load curve can result in increased annual operating time for base load DH plants such as cogeneration plants, leading to increased electricity generation. In addition to the positive effects for the DH load duration curve, the conversions to DH can also lead to an 11% reduction in the use of electricity, a 40% reduction in the use of fossil fuels and a total energy end-use saving of 6% in the industries. Converting the industrial processes to DH will also lead to a potential reduction of the global carbon dioxide emissions by 112,000 tonnes per year.

  • 4.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    District heating and ethanol production through polygeneration in Stockholm2012Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 91, nr 1, s. 214-221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol can be produced with little impact on the environment through the use of polygeneration technology. This paper evaluates the potential of integrating a lignocellulosic ethanol plant into a district heating system by case study; the plant has an ethanol capacity of 95 MW with biogas. electricity and heat as by-products. Stockholms district heating system is used as the case study, but the results may be relevant also for other urban areas. The system has been studied using MODEST - an optimisation model framework. The results show that introducing the plant would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of heat production. The income from the biofuels and electricity produced would be about (sic)76 million and (sic)130 million annually, respectively, which is an increase of 70% compared to the income from the electricity produced in the system today. Assuming that the electricity produced will replace marginal electricity on the European electricity market and that the biofuel produced will replace gasoline in the transport sector, the introduction of the polygeneration plant in the district heating system would lead to a reduction of global CO(2) emissions of about 0.7 million tonnes annually.

  • 5.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Larsson, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Truong, Xu-Bin
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Cardell, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden .
    Borgström, Ylva
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Pöyry Sweden AB, Sweden .
    Björn, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Pöyry Sweden AB, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden .
    Methane potentials of the Swedish pulp and paper industry - A screening of wastewater effluents2013Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, s. 507-517Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the final aim of reducing the energy consumption and increase the methane production at Swedish pulp and paper mills, the methane potential of 62 wastewater effluents from 10 processes at seven pulp and/or paper mills (A-G) was determined in anaerobic batch digestion assays. This mapping is a first step towards an energy efficient and more sustainable utilization of the effluents by anaerobic digestion, and will be followed up by tests in lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors. Five of the mills produce kraft pulp (KP), one thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP), two chemical thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) and two neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulp. Both elementary and total chlorine free (ECF and TCF, respectively) bleaching processes were included. The effluents included material from wood rooms, cooking and oxygen delignification, bleaching (often both acid- and alkali effluents), drying and paper/board machinery as well as total effluents before and after sedimentation. The results from the screening showed a large variation in methane yields (percent of theoretical methane potential assuming 940 NmL CH4 per g TOC) among the effluents. For the KP-mills, methane yields above 50% were obtained for the cooking effluents from mills D and F, paper machine wastewater from mill D, condensate streams from mills B, E and F and the composite pre-sedimentation effluent from mill D. The acidic ECF-effluents were shown to be the most toxic to the AD-flora and also seemed to have a negative effect on the yields of composite effluents downstream while three of the alkaline ECF-bleaching effluents gave positive methane yields. ECF bleaching streams gave higher methane yields when hardwood was processed. All TCF-bleaching effluents at the KP mills gave similar degradation patterns with final yields of 10-15% of the theoretical methane potential for four of the five effluents. The composite effluents from the two NSSC-processes gave methane yields of 60% of the theoretical potential. The TMP mill (A) gave the best average yield with all six effluents ranging 40-65% of the theoretical potential. The three samples from the CTMP process at mill B showed potentials around 40% while three of the six effluents at mill G (CTMP) yielded 45-50%.

  • 6.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Visualizing energy consumption activities as a tool for making everyday life more sustainable2011Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, nr 5, s. 1920-1926Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The need to analyze and understand energy consumption in relation to households’ activity patterns is vital for developing policy means that contribute to an energy efficient life and what people would deem as a ‘‘good’’ everyday life. To do this we need to learn more about how energy use is a part of everyday life; this article contributes to that objective. We use the time-geographic diary approach together with interviews to analyze everyday life as a totality. From household members’ time diaries, we can analyze and learn about when, where, and what energy-related activities occur in a household context and by whom (and in what social context) they are performed. We discuss the importance of relating information and feedback to households’ everyday activities, in order to make it relevant to households. Through our method we discover and visualize activity patterns in a household during a given period. The method is also useful to households as a reflective tool when discussing families’ daily lives in relation to energy consumption. The method gives direct feedback to households and the information is relevant since it emanates from their own reported activities.

  • 7.
    Gebremedhin, Alemayehu
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Carlson, A.
    Optimisation of merged district - heating systems - Benefits of co - operaion in the light of externality costs2002Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 73, nr 3-4, s. 223-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that separate actors can benefit from co-operation around heat supply. Such co-operation, for example, might be between an industry selling waste heat to a districtheating system or two district-heating systems interconnecting their respective systems. Cooperation could also be expected to reduce the environmental impacts of the energy systems by choosing the plants with the lowest emissions. It is widely accepted that the production of heat and electricity causes damage to the environment. This damage often imposes a cost on society, but not on company responsible. In general, using a broader system perspective when analysing local energy systems results in a lower total cost, more e.cient use of plants and a greater potential for producing electricity in combined heat-and-power (CHP) plants. Internalising the externality costs in the energy system model facilitates the study of what cooperation can mean for reducing emissions. This study shows that co-operation between the two systems is on the whole cost-effective, but the benefits are greater when external costs are not included in the calculation. Considering externality costs in combination with current electricity prices would lead to a higher system cost, but the quantity of emission gases will be lower. If, on the other hand, the calculation is made taking externality costs and corresponding adjusted electricity prices (the adjustment being necessary to compensate for the additional cost due to externality costs) into consideration, the quantities of emission gases will rise because more heat-and-power will be generated by one of the CHP plants. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Grubbström, Robert W.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    An attempt to introduce dynamics into generalised exergy considerations2007Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, nr 7-8, s. 701-718Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous research, the author developed a general abstract framework for the exergy content of a system of finite objects [Grubbström RW. Towards a generalized exergy concept. In: van Gool W, Bruggink JJC, editors. Energy and time in the economic and physical sciences. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1985. p. 41-56]. Each such object is characterised by its initial extensive properties and has an inner energy written as a function of these properties. It was shown that if these objects were allowed to interact, there is a maximum amount of work that can be extracted from the system as a whole, and a general formula for this potential was provided. It was also shown that if one of the objects was allowed to be of infinite magnitude initially, taking on the role as an environment having constant intensive properties, then the formula provided took on the same form as the classical expression for exergy. As a side result, the theoretical considerations demonstrated that the second law of thermodynamics could be interpreted as the inner energy function being a (weakly) convex function of its arguments, when these are chosen as the extensive properties. Since exergy considerations are based on the principle that total entropy is conserved when extracting work, these processes would take an infinite time to complete. In the current paper, instead, a differential-equation approach is introduced to describe the interaction in finite time between given finite objects of a system. Differences in intensive properties between the objects provide a force enabling an exchange of energy and matter. An example of such an interaction is heat conduction. The resulting considerations explain how the power extracted from the system will be limited by the processes being required to perform within finite-time constraints. Applying finite-time processes, in which entropy necessarily is generated, leads to formulating a theory for a maximal power output from the system. It is shown that such a theory is possible to develop, and the resulting equilibrium conditions are compared with to those of the exergetic equilibrium. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Grubbström, Robert W.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hammond, G.P.
    University of Bath, UK.
    Probert, S.D.
    Cranfield University, Bedford, UK.
    Reis, A.J.P.S.
    Lusíada University, Famalicao, Portugal.
    Industrial energy-analysis and management: A European perspective2007Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, nr 7-8, s. 671-674Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Climate Influence on District Heat and Electricity Demands1992Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 313-320Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the district heating and electricity load of Kalmar, Sweden. Unfortunately, it has not been possible to examine one full year because the monitoring of the energy use for district heating and electricity, and the outdoor temperature, did not exactly overlap. However, more than 7200 h, of the 8760 in a full year, have been examined. It is shown that the district heat load has a far higher correlation with the outdoor temperature (a coefficient of 0·89), than has the electricity load (0·33). Thus, it is much easier to predict the influence of, e.g. an insulation retrofit for the building stock where district heating is used compared with electricity space heating. It is also shown how an estimate can be made of the thermal transmission factor for the total building stock.

  • 11.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mathematical modelling of district-heating and electricity loads1993Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 149-159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years it has been more common to use linear or mixed-integer programming methods for finding optimal solutions to the complicated operating options in modern Combined Heat and Power (CHP) networks. Electricity may be bought from the national grid or it may be produced in ordinary condenser or CHP plants owned by the utility. In the same manner, district heat can be produced by the use of waste heat from industries or from a CHP plant. Other options are burning garbage in an incineration plant, using heat pumps in a sewage water plant or just burning fuels in an ordinary boiler. Combining these options and including the possibility of using conservation measures in industry or in the housing stock will result in a very complex situation if one tries to find the optimal solution characterized by the the lowest Life-Cycle Cost (LCC). Load management equipment, such as hot-water accumulators, will aggravate the problem even further. By the use of modern computers, complicated problems can be solved within a reasonable period of time. The bases for the mathematical models are the thermal and electrical loads. Splitting these loads into finer and finer segments will yield a model that will depict reality more closely. Two methods have been used frequently, one where the high and low unit price hours in each month have been lumped together, resulting in 24 segments plus one segment showing the influence of the maximum electricity demand. The other method tries to model the loads by lumping the energy demand in six electricity-tariff segments, but also using about 15 elements for a more versatile picture of the district-heating load. This paper describes the two methods using monitored data for 1990-1991 from Kalmar in the south of Sweden. It also discusses which of the methods is preferable or whether a combination must be elaborated upon in order to model reality closely enough for practical use.

  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sensitivity analysis of building energy retrofits1998Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 61, nr 1, s. 13-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When a building is refurbished, energy conservation measures might be profitable to implement. The profitability depends, among other things, on the electricity and district-heating tariffs, the unit price for oil, etc. The cost for the retrofit is of course also important as well as the influence of the retrofit on the demand for heat in the building. By the use of a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model of a building, a number of different optimal retrofit strategies are found depending on the energy cost. The result shows that the Life-Cycle Cost for the building is subject only to small changes as long as the optimal strategies are chosen. Most important is the heating system, while building retrofits such as added insulation, are too expensive to take part in the optimal solution.

  • 13.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Björn G
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Insulation and Bivalent Heating System Optimization: Residential Housing Retrofits and Time-Of-Use Tariffs for Electricity1989Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 303-315Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-of-use tariffs, which reflect the cost of producing one extra unit of electricity, will be more common in the future. In Sweden the electricity unit price will be high during the winter and cheaper during the summer. A bivalent heating system, where an oil-fired boiler takes care of the peak load, when the electricity price is high, and a heat pump the base load, may decrease the cost of space heating substantially. However, insulation retrofits are also likely to reduce the peak space-heating load in a building. This paper shows how a bivalent heating system can be optimized while also considering the insulation measures. The optimization is elaborated by the use of a mixed integer programming model and the result is compared with a derivative optimization method used in the OPERA (optimal energy retrofit advisory) model. Both models use the life-cycle cost (LCC) as a ranking criterion, i.e. when the lowest LCC for the building is achieved, no better retrofit combination exists for the remaining life of the building.

  • 14.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Björn G
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Is space heating in offices really necessary?1991Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 283-291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New office buildings in Sweden are thoroughly insulated due to the Swedish building code. This code, however, does not consider the type of activity occurring in the building. This means that the heating equipment is designed as if no activity at all is going on. In modern offices there is a lot of equipment installed which uses electricity. This electricity is converted into heat which can be utilized for heating the premises, mostly in a direct way but also by the use of exhaust-air heat-pumps or heat exchangers. This paper deals with a modern office building plus office hotel complex located in Linköping, Sweden, about 200 km south of Stockholm. The tenants deal with the design of hard- and software for computers. The lighting and computers in the building use electricity which converts into heat. In this paper, it is shown that this electricity is all that is needed during normal conditions, i.e. when people work in the building. The building is also equipped with a district-heating system, which is designed as if no activity goes on in the building, so subsequently the heating equipment is larger than it need be. In this special case, it might have been better to install an electric heating device for hot-water heating and very cold winter conditions, instead of using district heating. This is so even if district heat is about half the unit price compared with that due to the dissipation of electricity. At present, when district heating is used, no measures for saving heat can be profitable due to the low district-heating price. The fact is that the tenants complain of too much heat instead of too little: the prevailing indoor temperature was about 24° C in January 1990 even though 20° C would have been sufficient. There is subsequently a need for a properly working regulation system. The one currently in use is designed to a modern standard, but is not able to maintain temperatures at a modest level.

  • 15.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Björn G
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Window Retrofits: Interaction and Life-Cycle Costing1991Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 21-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the interaction between different types of building energy retrofits. The means for finding this interaction has been via the OPERA model, which is used for energy retrofit optimization. The solution is an optimum when the total life-cycle cost, LCC, for the building, i.e. the sum of the building, maintenance and operating costs, is minimized. The model finds the candidates for the optimal strategy by calculating the total LCC for one retrofit after another, i.e., an incremental method is used. All the measures are implemented with respect to the building and the resulting LCC is calculated. Usually, the LCC for this combination is higher than the incremental LCC, i.e. the incremental way of calculation overestimates the savings. However, when window retrofits are considered, the opposite might happen due to the use of shading factors. These factors indicate the decrease in solar radiation through a window when an ordinary one is replaced by a window with enhanced thermal performance. The paper also shows that the interaction between the different measures usually can be neglected, as long as optimal retrofits are introduced.

  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Probert, S. D.
    Electricity use in the Swedish carpentry industry1995Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 52, nr 1, s. 73-85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Sundberg, Carina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden .
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden .
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Bioavailability of cobalt and nickel during anaerobic digestion of sulfur-rich stillage for biogas formation2013Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, s. 473-477Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Addition of Co and Ni often improves the production of biogas during digestion of organic matter, i.e. increasing CH4-production, process stability and substrate utilization which often opens for higher organic loading rates (OLRs). The effect of Co and Ni addition was evaluated by measuring methane production, volatile solids reduction, pH and concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). A series of six lab-scale semi-continuously fed biogas tank reactors were used for this purpose. The chemical forms and potential bioavailability of Co and Ni were examined by sequential extraction, acid volatile sulfide extraction (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals. Furthermore, the sulfur speciation in solid phase was examined by sulfur X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The effect of Co and Ni deficiency on the microbial community composition was analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 454-pyrosequencing. The results showed that amendment with Co and Ni was necessary to maintain biogas process stability and resulted in increased CH4-production and substrate utilization efficiency. 10-20% of the total Co concentration was in dissolved form and should be regarded as easily accessible by the microorganisms. In contrast, Ni was entirely associated with organic matter/sulfides (mainly AVS) and regarded as very difficult to take up. Still Ni had stimulatory effects suggesting mechanisms such as dissolution of NiS to be involved in the regulation of Ni availability for the microorganisms. The microbial community structure varied in relation to the occurrence of Ni and Co. The acetate-utilizing Methanosarcinales dominated during stable process performance, i.e. when both Co and Ni were supplied, while hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales increased together with VFA concentrations under Co or Ni deficiency. The increase was more pronounced at Co limitation. This study demonstrates that there are good possibilities to improve the performance of biogas processes digesting sulfur-rich substrates by supplementation of Co and Ni.

  • 18.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Svedung, Harald
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Highly reflective coatings for interior and exterior steel cladding and the energy efficiency of buildings2011Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, nr 12, s. 4655-4666Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of surface heat-radiation properties of coil-coated steel cladding material on the energy efficiency of buildings in Nordic climate is addressed by parallel temperature and energy usage measurements in a series of test cabins with different exterior solar reflectivity and interior thermal reflectivity. During one year, a number of one- or two-week experiments with air conditioner cooling and electrical floor heating were made while logging air-, radiation- and surface temperatures, energy consumption and weather conditions. Measurements show significant energy savings in the test cabins by the use of high thermal reflectivity interior surfaces both during heating and cooling and a strongly reduced cooling demand by the use of high solar reflectivity exterior surfaces. Results are interpreted within the context of a steady-state energy flux model, to illuminate the importance of surface resistance properties (radiation and convective heat dissipation).

  • 19.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Energy and Environmental Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Svedung, Harald
    SSAB Europe, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Energy and Environmental Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden .
    Reflective coatings for interior and exterior of buildings and improving thermal performance2013Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 103, s. 562-570Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of reducing building energy usage and thriving for more energy efficient architectures, has nurtured creative solutions and smart choices of materials in the last few decades. Among those are optimizing surface optical properties for both interior and exterior claddings of the building. Development in the coil-coating steel industries has now made it possible to allocate correct optical properties for steel clad buildings with improved thermal performance. Although the importance of the exterior coating and solar gain are thoroughly studied in many literatures, the effect of interior cladding are less tackled, especially when considering a combination of both interior and exterior reflective coatings. This paper contemplates the thermal behavior of small cabins with reflective coatings on both interior and exterior cladding, under different conditions and climates with the aim to clarify and point out to the potential energy saving by smart choices of clad coatings.

  • 20.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The MIND method: A decision support for optimization of industrial energy systems – Principles and case studies2011Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, nr 3, s. 577-589Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in complex industrial energy systems require adequate tools to be evaluated satisfactorily. The MIND method (Method for analysis of INDustrial energy systems) is a flexible method constructed as decision support for different types of analyses of industrial energy systems. It is based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and developed at Linköping University in Sweden. Several industries, ranging from the food industry to the pulp and paper industry, have hitherto been modelled and analyzed using the MIND method. In this paper the principles regarding the use of the method and the creation of constraints of the modelled system are presented. Two case studies are also included, a dairy and a pulp and paper mill, that focus some measures that can be evaluated using the MIND method, e.g. load shaping, fuel conversion and introduction of energy efficiency measures. The case studies illustrate the use of the method and its strengths and weaknesses. The results from the case studies are related to the main issues stated by the European Commission, such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, improvements regarding security of supply and increased use of renewable energy, and show great potential as regards both cost reductions and possible load shifting.

  • 21.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gebremedhin, Alemayehu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klugman, Sofia
    Gävle University.
    Henning, Dag
    Optensys Energianal.
    Moshfegh , Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Regional energy system optimization - Potential for a regional heat market2009Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, nr 4, s. 441-451Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy supply companies and industrial plants are likely to face new situations due to, for example, the introduction of new energy legislation, increased fuel prices and increased environmental awareness. These new prerequisites provide companies with new challenges but also new possibilities from which to benefit. Increased energy efficiency within companies and increased cooperation between different operators are two alternatives to meet the new conditions. A region characterized by a high density of energy-intensive processes is used in this study to find the economic potential of connecting three industrial plants and four energy companies, within three local district heating systems, to a regional heat market, in which different operators provide heat to a joint district heating grid. Also, different investment alternatives are studied. The results show that the economical potential for a heat market amounts to between 5 and 26 million EUR/year with payback times ranging from two to eleven years. However, the investment costs and the net benefit for the total system need to be allotted to the different operators, as they benefit economically to different extents from the introduction of a heat market. It is also shown that the emissions of CO2 from the joint system would decrease compared to separate operation of the systems. However, the valuation of CO2 emissions from electricity production is important as the difference of emitted CO2 between the accounting methods exceeds 650 kton/year for some scenarios.

  • 22.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mardan, Nawzad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Considering start-ups and shutdowns using an optimisation tool – Including a dairy production planning case study2013Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 107, s. 338-349Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many different aspects a production-planning model has to be able to handle to make a model adequate for the purpose. One aspect is the handling of start-ups and shutdowns for different processes. The production plan is likely to be changed when considering, for example, a cost connected to the start-up and/or shutdown of processes. Besides costs associated with start-ups and shutdowns, waste may be produced during the start-up and shutdown. However, there is also the possibility of carrying out soft start-ups and shutdowns or limiting the number of start-ups and shutdowns. Thus, start-ups and shutdowns have to be handled in an adequate way in models to produce reliable and accurate results. In optimisation tools, this may be dealt with by introducing certain constraints, including integers. In this paper, the implementation of alternative ways to consider start-ups and shutdowns are presented. This is done in the energy system optimisation tool reMIND, which deals with Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problems. The purpose of this paper is to show four alternatives to consider start-ups and shutdowns in optimisation models. This involves, in total, almost 50 constraints. Also, a simple dairy case study is included in the paper to visualise the effect of implementing the different alternatives to shutdowns.

  • 23.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Local and regional energy companies offering energy services: Key activities and implications for the business model2016Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 171, s. 491-500Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy services play a key role in increasing energy efficiency in the industry. The key actors in these services are the local and regional energy companies that are increasingly implementing energy services as part of their market offering and developing service portfolios. Although expectations for energy services have been high, progress has so far been limited, and many companies offering energy services, including energy companies, are experiencing difficulties in implementing energy services and providing them to the market. Overall, this research examines what is needed for local and regional energy companies to successfully implement energy services (and consequently provide them to the market). In doing this, a two-stage process is used: first, we identify key activities for the successful implementation of energy services, and second, we aggregate the findings to the business model level. This research demonstrates that to succeed in implementing energy services, an energy company may need to renew parts or all of its existing product-based business model, formulate a new business model, or develop coexisting multiple business models. By discussing two distinct business model innovation processes, this research demonstrates that there can be different paths to success.

  • 24.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill. Part 1. Energy audit aiming at efficiency measures2007Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, nr 3, s. 326-339Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A Swedish wood-pulp mill is surveyed in terms of energy supply and use in order to determine the energy-saving potential. Conservation measures are of increasing interest to Swedish industry, as energy prices have continued to rise in recent years. The electricity price particularly increased after the deregulation of the Scandinavian electricity market in 1996. The deregulation expanded to all of the EU in July 2004, which may increase the Swedish electricity price further until it reaches the generally higher European price level. Furthermore, oil prices have increased and the emissions trading scheme for CO2 adds to the incentive to reduce oil consumption. The energy system at the surveyed pulp mill is described in terms of electricity and process heat production and use. The total energy-saving potential is estimated and some saving points are identified. The heat that today is wasted at the mill has been surveyed in order to find potential for heat integration or heat export. The result shows that the mill probably could become self-sufficient in electricity. Particularly important in that endeavour is updating old pumps.

  • 25.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill. Part 2. International and model mills comparison.2007Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, nr 3, s. 340-350Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy use at a Swedish chemical wood-pulp mill is compared internationally and for two model mills that aim to use the most efficient available technology. The international comparison is performed between Canadian and Scandinavian pulp-mills on a general level, and on a closer level among eleven Swedish and Finnish non-integrated sulfate pulp-mills, the type of mill considered in the case study. The two model mills that are used for comparison are one Swedish and one Canadian. The Scandinavian pulp-mills are somewhat more energy efficient than the Canadian mills. Still, the variation in energy use is remarkably large among the Scandinavian mills, which indicates that the energy-saving potential is great. If all Swedish freestanding sulfate pulp-mills became as energy efficient as the most efficient Scandinavian mill, electricity savings corresponding to nearly 1% of the national electricity use would be obtained. In the model mills comparison it was found that large amounts of heat could be saved, particularly in the evaporation plant.

  • 26.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effects of monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics on electricity saving in energy-intensive industry2019Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 240, s. 499-512Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study looked at the extent to which firm characteristics such as total firm capital affect electricity saving in energy-intensive industry in Sweden from 2007 to 2015. Specifically, the most influential variables for systematic variation in electricity saving in the energy-intensive companies participating in Sweden’s voluntary programme for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry (the PFE) were studied by analysing monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics. Monetary investment and payback time influenced electricity savings during the PFE more than firm characteristics, with monetary investment being most influential. Nevertheless, the total systematic variation in firm characteristics may account for ∼16% of the systematic variation in electricity saving, where ∼74% (32 of 43) of the studied firm characteristics seemed to merit further investigation and where ∼49% (21 of 43) of firm characteristics appeared most influential. The most influential firm characteristics were total firm capital, stock turnover ratio, machinery, short-term liabilities per turnover ratio and goodwill. The overall results showed that firm characteristics can influence a firm’s energy-saving activities and indicated a tendency for more energy savings in companies that were financially weaker or had done less work to improve energy efficiency prior to the PFE.

  • 27.
    Lidberg, T.
    et al.
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Myhren, J. A.
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Olofsson, T.
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden; Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Environmental impact of energy refurbishment of buildings within different district heating systems2018Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, s. 231-238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The refurbishment of existing buildings is often considered a way to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions in the building stock. This study analyses the primary energy and CO2 impact of refurbishing a multi-family house with different refurbishment packages, given various district heating systems. Four models of typical district heating systems were defined to represent the Swedish district heating sector. The refurbishment packages were chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency and indoor climate of a multi-family house. The study was made from a system perspective, including the valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in primary energy use for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of district heating system. While the packages with heat pumps had the lowest final energy use per m(2) of floor area, air heat recovery proved to reduce primary energy use and emissions of CO2-equivalents more, independent of the type of district heating system, as it leads to a smaller increase in electricity use. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Photovoltaicself-consumption in buildings: A review2015Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 142, s. 80-94Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in self-consumption of PV electricity from grid-connected residential systems is increasing among PV system owners and in the scientific community. Self-consumption can be defined as the share of the total PV production directly consumed by the PV system owner. With decreased subsidies for PV electricity in several countries, increased self-consumption could raise the profit of PV systems and lower the stress on the electricity distribution grid. This review paper summarizes existing research on PV selfconsumption and options to improve it. Two options for increased self-consumption are included, namely energy storage and load management, also called demand side management (DSM). Most of the papers examine PV-battery systems, sometimes combined with DSM. The results show that it is possible to increase the relative self-consumption by 13–24% points with a battery storage capacity of 0.5–1 kW h per installed kW PV power and between 2% and 15% points with DSM, both compared to the original rate of self-consumption. The total number of papers is however rather limited and further research and more comparative studies are needed to give a comprehensive view of the technologies and their potential. Behavioral responses to PV self-consumption and the impact on the distribution grid also need to be further studied.

  • 29.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    An interdisciplinary perspective on industrial energy efficiency2010Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, nr 10, s. 3255-3261Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper combines engineering and social science approaches to enhance our understanding of industrial energy efficiency and broaden our perspective on policy making in Europe. Sustainable development demands new strategies, solutions, and policy-making approaches. Numerous studies of energy efficiency potential state that cost-effective energy efficiency technologies in industry are not always implemented for various reasons, such as lack of information, procedural impediments, and routines not favoring energy efficiency. Another reason for the efficiency gap is the existence of particular values, unsupportive of energy efficiency, in the dominant networks of a branch of trade. Analysis indicates that different sectors of rather closed communities have established their own tacit knowledge, perceived truths, and routines concerning energy efficiency measures. Actors in different industrial sectors highlight different barriers to energy efficiency and why cost-effective energy efficiency measures are not being implemented. The identified barriers can be problematized in relation to the social context to understand their existence and how to resolve them.

  • 30.
    Rolfsman, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Combined heat-and-power plants and district heating in a deregulated electricity market2004Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 78, nr 1, s. 37-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a municipality with district heating supplied via boilers and combined heat-and-power (CHP) plants is studied. The electricity load in the municipality is provided for by the CHP plant and electricity bought from the Nordic electricity market. It is therefore desirable to produce as much electricity as possible during periods when the price of electricity is high. The variations in the price of electricity over a 24-h period are significant. The idea presented in this paper is that heat storage can be used to maximise the amount of electricity produced in the CHP plants during peak-price periods. It can also be used to minimise the use of plants with higher operational costs. For storing heat, both a hot-water accumulator at the CHP plant and storage in the building stock are suggested. The situation is analysed using a mixed integer linear-programming model and a case study is presented for the city of Linköping, a City of approximately 130,000 inhabitants, situated 200 km south of Stockholm in Sweden. A simple model for forecasting the electricity price on the Nordic electricity market is also presented. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Rudberg, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Waldemarsson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lidestam, Helene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Strategic Perspectives on Energy Management: A Case Study in the Process Industry2013Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 104, s. 487-496Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been anticipated that energy management will gain increased interest amongst companies in a near future. Yet, even in energy-intensive companies, like process industries, energy management is seldom treated strategically. The purpose of this study is thus to investigate the necessary prerequisites for putting energy management on the strategic agenda in energy-intensive process industries. This is done by the means of a literature review and a case study, and the analysis is based on how energy management is treated from three perspectives; a strategic perspective, an energy system utilisation perspective, and an alternative revenue perspective. The case study shows, similar to other process industry companies, that the strategic importance of energy management, to a large extent, is neglected. The research also indicates necessary prerequisites, for each perspective, for highlighting the strategic importance of energy management for a typical company in the process industry sector.

  • 32.
    Sjödin, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem.
    Henning, Dag
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem.
    Calculating the marginal costs of a district-heating utility2004Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 78, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating plays an important role in the Swedish heat-market. At the same time, the price of district heating varies considerably among different district-heating utilities. A case study is performed here in which a Swedish utility is analysed using three different methods for calculating the marginal costs of heat supply: a manual spreadsheet method, an optimising linear- programming model, and a least-cost dispatch simulation model. Calculated marginal-costs, obtained with the three methods, turn out to be similar. The calculated marginal-costs are also compared to the actual heat tariff in use by the utility. Using prices based on marginal costs should be able to bring about an efficient resource-allocation. It is found that the fixed rate the utility uses today should be replaced by a time-of-use rate, which would give a more accurate signal for customers to change their heat consumptions.

  • 33.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    System analysis in a European perspective of new industrial cooling supply in a CHP system2011Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, nr 12, s. 5164-5172Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the municipality of Södertälje two large industries use much of the electricity, district heating (DH) and chilled water in the area. The Södertälje energy system is not isolated, however, but is connected to the DH systems of southern and central Stockholm, and a change in the Södertälje energy system will also influence the connected energy systems in Stockholm. The cooling demand in Södertälje is currently covered by lake water cooling and compression chillers, but in order to reduce the use of electricity, conversion to absorption cooling or increased lake water cooling can be considered. The large combined heat and power (CHP) plant in Södertälje is not used to its full potential today, but investment in absorption cooling and/or a cold condenser unit integrated with the CHP plant could increase the plant’s operation hours. In this paper the system effects of introducing new industrial cooling supply in Södertälje has been investigated through optimizations of a model including both the industries and the district heating supply in Södertälje and Stockholm. The results show that, independently of whether condensing power production is feasible in the CHP plant or not, investments in both increased lake water cooling and absorption cooling are profitable. A sensitivity analysis of how energy market prices affect the results shows that even though the system cost will change depending on energy market prices, the optimum cooling technology mix will remain the same. However, a sensitivity analysis of the transfer DH capacity between the Södertälje and Stockholm energy systems shows that if the transfer DH capacity is increased, absorption cooling will be less profitable since more heat can be sold from Södertälje to Stockholm while at the same time reducing the use of fuel resources.

  • 34.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trianni, Andrea
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden2013Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 111, s. 636-643Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to be financially related, followed by organizational driving forces. Nevertheless, some differences can be appreciated according to the firm’s size and country. Almost half of the studied foundries lack a long-term energy strategy, about one-fourth stated that they have used Energy Performance Contracting (EPC), and only approximately one in ten foundries have used Third Party Financing (TPF). Among the studied foundries, three out of five have conducted an energy audit. On average, the energy saving potential according to the respondents is stated to be 7.5%. In conclusion, energy management in the European foundry industry, despite increasing energy prices and extensive energy policy actions taken by the EU, still seems to have great improvement potential, calling for future research and policy actions in the field.

  • 35.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Creutz, Dan
    Swedish Foundry Association, Jönköping.
    Reducing industrial energy costs through energy-efficiency measures in a liberalized European electricity market:: case study of a Swedish iron foundry2005Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 81, nr 2, s. 115-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish industry, which has one of the lowest electricity prices in the European Union, will face higher electricity prices due to the Union’s electricity market liberalization. Rising electricity prices, together with a larger use of electricity than other European countries, pose a threat to industrial activity in Sweden. The Swedish foundry industry, with large proportions of energy costs in relation to the added value, is particularly sensitive to higher electricity costs. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of higher electricity prices on the Swedish iron-and steel foundry industry, quantify an energy efficiency potential for a medium-sized Swedish iron foundry resulting from a thorough industrial energy audit, and investigate what impact they have on the energy cost.

  • 36.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nawzad, Mardan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optimization as investment decision supportin a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry: a move beyond traditional energy auditing2009Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, nr 4, s. 433-440Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry’s investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces – which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing.

  • 37.
    Trianni, Andrea
    et al.
    Univ Technol Sydney, Australia.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Bertolotti, Matteo
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Elias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Energy management: A practice-based assessment model2019Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 235, s. 1614-1636Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy efficiency is crucial for energy cost saving and sustainable competitiveness, but its potential is not exploited due to several barriers. Previous literature has pointed out that, among the most effective means, energy management in industrial companies could bring a valuable contribution. Therefore, it is crucial to assess and evaluate the energy management status in an organisation so to undertake the most appropriate improvement actions. So far, literature has neither described the fundamental characteristics of energy management practices, nor specifically developed an assessment model to support industrial decision-makers. Stemming from those research gaps, the present work presents and discusses an innovative energy management assessment model based on a novel characterization of energy management practices. We validated and applied the model through case studies among large Italian and Swedish manufacturing companies, both proving the model to be able to thoroughly describe the energy management status and benchmarking the adoption level of energy management practices with respect to specific baselines. The model highlights both strengths and critical areas in an industrial companys energy management, thus offering a valuable support to drive further improvement activities. The work concludes with interesting suggestions for industrial decision-makers and policy-makers, sketching also some further research avenues.

  • 38.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    European perspective on absorption cooling in a combined heat and power system: A case study of energy utility and industries in Sweden2007Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, nr 12, s. 1319-1337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mankind is facing an escalating threat of global warming and there is increasing evidence that this is due to human activity and increased emissions of carbon dioxide. Converting from vapour compression chillers to absorption chillers in a combined heat and power (CHP) system is a measure towards sustainability as electricity consumption is replaced with electricity generation. This electricity produced in Swedish CHP-system will substitute marginally produced electricity and as result lower global emissions of carbon dioxide. The use of absorption chillers is limited in Sweden but the conditions are in fact most favourable. Rising demand of cooling and increasing electricity prices in combination with a surplus of heat during the summer in CHP system makes heat driven cooling extremely interesting in Sweden. In this paper we analyse the most cost-effective technology for cooling by comparing vapour compression chillers with heat driven absorption cooling for a local energy utility with a district cooling network and for industries in a Swedish municipality with CHP. Whilst this case is necessarily local in scope, the results have global relevance showing that when considering higher European electricity prices, and when natural gas is introduced, absorption cooling is the most cost-effective solution for both industries and for the energy supplier. This will result in a resource effective energy system with a possibility to reduce global emissions of CO2 with 80%, a 300% lower system cost, and a 170% reduction of the cost of producing cooling due to revenues from electricity production. The results also show that, with these prerequisites, a decrease in COP of the absorption chillers will not have a negative impact on the cost-effectiveness of the system, due to increased electricity production.

  • 39.
    Waldemarsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lidestam, Helene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    How energy price changes can affect production- and supply chain planning – A case study at a pulp company2017Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 203, s. 15s. 333-347Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The process industry in general is very energy-intensive, and therefore models focusing on energy can be very important in order to reach higher profitability. In this study, an optimization model of the supply chain in a pulp company, where energy is included with respect to its revenue generating capabilities, is used. Using real company data, and through an analysis of the model’s results, we show that higher profitability can be achieved when integrating energy into the planning process. Our findings show that when energy-intensive raw materials not only provide fibre to the pulp process but also generate an energy surplus, there is room for different planning approaches in order to maximize the total profit. This paper reveals promising changes that can be made for improving the current planning process. The scenarios considered involve market changes for energy demand and price, and also alternative production opportunities. A cross-analysis compares the scenarios in order to reveal additional relations that are important to consider. Depending on a price change of energy, the model prioritizes in its selection of pulp products to produce. From this we provide guidelines on where and when to increase or decrease pulp production. The model shows that the company can increase its total profit no matter which of the included energy parameters that increase in price. The paper contributes to previous research by enhancing the usefulness of this model for not only the case company as such, but also by illustrating and describing how the approach applied can be useful for other cases within the energy intensive industry.

  • 40.
    Waldemarsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lidestam, Helene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Produktionsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Including energy in supply chain planning at a pulp company2013Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, s. 1056-1065Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider integrated planning of the supply chain at a multi-site pulp company. In addition to the traditional focus on pulp products, also energy aspects are considered, both in the form of raw material and as revenue generating products. The idea is that energy intense raw materials not only gives fibre to the pulp process but also generates an energy surplus that can be used in different ways to create additional value or revenues. The planning horizon is one year and monthly time periods are considered. Decisions included in the planning are; purchase and transportation of raw materials from harvest areas to pulp mills, production allocation by dividing the production among the pulp mills, energy mix by choosing the energy input at the pulp mills, and distribution of products from mills to customer. An MILP model for the entire supply chain is proposed. A number of different scenarios including real data from the case company are analyzed and evaluated. The aim of the study is thus to investigate the effects on profitability while taking energy issues into consideration.

  • 41.
    Weinberger, Gottfried
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    On the benefit of integration of a district heating system with industrial excess heat: An economic and environmental analysis2017Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 191, s. 454-468Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy-related cooperation using industrial excess heat (IEH) in district heating (DH) networks shows economic and environmental benefits. A rarely investigated approach is the energy cooperation which incorporates a jointly operated CHP plant also producing process steam for nearby industry. The present study aims to evaluate economic and environmental effects on the Hofors DH system with jointly operated CHP plant when the nearby steel mill extends the supply of recovered IEH. Various IEH supply opportunities with different capacities of hot water and steam were designed and compared with existing IEH utilization, plant heat and electricity production and DH system performance. The energy system model MODEST is used for cost-optimization. A parametric study is used to analyze influences of increasing IEH cost and fluctuating electricity prices. The results show advantages for the DH system to utilize IEH for deliveries of DH and process steam and the cogeneration of electricity. Economic and environmental benefits are decreased total system cost (-1.67 MEUR/a), less use of fuels and electricity, and reduced CO2 emissions with a maximal reachable amount of 28,200 ton/a when the use of biofuel is assumed as limited resource and the substituted marginal electricity production is based on coal condensing power plants. The results also show that industrial steam is a preferred heat supply source as long as the steam cost is below the alternative heat production cost, irrespective of the electricity price. While the cost-effective utilization of industrial hot water for DH is more sensitive and affected by a beneficial CHP production based on higher electricity price segments, it is also shown that utilization of continuously supplied industrial hot water is limited during seasons of low DH demand. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 42.
    Weinberger, Gottfried
    et al.
    Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Investigating influential techno-economic factors for combined heat and power production using optimization and metamodeling2018Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 232, s. 555-571Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the interaction of a wide range of electricity and fuel prices and technical factors of combined heat and power production in a district heating system. A linear programming-based optimization model with the objective to minimize system cost was used to study the energy systems in the cities of Gavle and Sandviken in Sweden. The comprehensive outcomes from optimization and parametric studies have been analyzed using a polynomial-based metamodel. System costs include variable costs for the production and revenues for sale of heat and electricity. The metamodel is used as an analytical and explanatory tool to interpret input-output relationships. Municipal district heating systems of Gavle and Sandviken in Sweden are studied as an interconnected regional system with improved and new combined heat and power plants. The results show that effects from electricity and fuel prices are important, but that variations in energy system cost may also be caused by many cross-factor interactions with technical factors. A comparative system performance analysis with defined cases and optimal factor setting shows a substantial increase in the electricity production, here by up to 650 GWh annually. The profitability of investing in a new plant depends highly on the considered investment risk and electricity and fuel market prices. CO2 emission savings by up to 466 kton annually can be accomplished if marginal electricity production from coal-condensing power plants is avoided and biofuel is released at the same time.

  • 43.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Biomass gasification in district heating systems - The effect of economic energy policies2010Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, nr 9, s. 2914-2922Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO2 emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two polygeneration applications based on gasification technology are considered in this paper: (1) a biorefinery plant co-producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) and district heat; (2) a combined heat and power (CHP) plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Using an optimisation model we identify the levels of policy support, here assumed to be in the form of tradable certificates, required to make biofuel production competitive to biomass based electricity generation under various energy market conditions. Similarly, the tradable green electricity certificate levels necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in the SNG biorefinery to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, biofuel certificates in the range of 24-42 EUR/MWh are needed. Electricity certificates are not a prerequisite for investment in gasification based CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP, given sufficiently high electricity prices. While the required biofuel policy support is relatively insensitive to variations in capital cost, the required electricity certificates show high sensitivity to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy instruments makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future support policies, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised.

  • 44.
    Whalen, Joann
    et al.
    McGill University, Canada.
    (Chunbao) Xu, Charles
    Western University, Canada.
    Shen, Fei
    Sichuan Agriculture University, Peoples R China.
    Kumar, Amit
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Editorial Material: Sustainable biofuel production from forestry, agricultural and waste biomass feedstocks in APPLIED ENERGY, vol 198, issue , pp 281-2832017Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 198, s. 281-283Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 45.
    Wikström, Martina
    et al.
    KTH – Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Alvfors, Per
    KTH – Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Socio-technical experiences from electric vehicle utilisation in commercial fleets2014Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 123, s. 82-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial vehicle fleets are in many ways an attractive entry for electric vehicles into the transport system. In total, 174 electric vehicles have operated in commercial vehicle fleets and gathered socio-technical data over a period of 18 months, resulting in 302,000 all electric kilometres. This paper presents two perspectives regarding electric vehicle operations in commercial vehicle fleets - the functionality perspective, illustrated by the vehicle actions, and the user perspective that addresses the implementation of the task. The socio-technical analysis has resulted in four major findings. With time, the overall usage and the driving distance between charging occasions increase. It is not the passage of time that has influenced this behaviour but it may be explained as the result of accumulated experience. Swedish winter conditions show regression in usage, foremost due to users not familiar with the range reduction caused by the heating system. The need for public charging has been shown to be modest, which in an introductory phase with limited development of charging infrastructure, makes commercial vehicle fleets favourable to electrify over private vehicle fleets. According to deployment strategy, the different user groups ability to incorporate the electric vehicles in their daily activities has been explored and this paper shows large potential for substituting traditional internal combustion engine vehicles within commercial vehicle fleets. Electric vehicles have been made available through a technology procurement scheme and have generated both kilometres and experience, which has come to increase the understanding of the usage of electric vehicles in commercial vehicle fleets.

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