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  • 1.
    Bano, Nargis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, I
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kwack, H S
    CNRS.
    Le Si Dang, D
    CNRS.
    Study of Au/ZnO nanorods Schottky light-emitting diodes grown by low-temperature aqueous chemical method2010In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 467-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High quality vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown by low-temperature aqueous chemical technique on 4H-n-SiC substrates. Schottky light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Schottky diodes reveal good rectifying behavior. Optical properties of the ZnO nanorods (NRs) were probed by cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements at room temperature complemented with electroluminescence (EL). The room-temperature CL spectra of the ZnO NRs exhibit near band edge (NBE) emission as well as strong deep level emission (DLE) centered at 690 nm. At room temperature the CL spectra intensity of the DLE was enhanced with the increase of the electron beam penetration depth due to the increase of defect concentration at the interface and due to the conversion of self-absorbed UV emission. We observed a variation in the DLE along the nanorod depth. This indicates a relatively lower structural quality near the interface between ZnO NRs and n-SiC substrate. The room-temperature CL spectra of SiC show very weak emission, which confirms that most of the DLE is originating from the ZnO NRs, and SiC has a minute contribution to the emission.

  • 2.
    Bhatt, Pramod
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlegrim, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kanciurzewska, A
    Adam Mickiewicz University Poznan.
    de Jong, M. P.
    University of Twente.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic structure of thin film iron-tetracyanoethylene: Fe(TCNE)x2009In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 95, no 1, p. 131-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin film iron-tetracyanoethylene Fe(TCNE) x , x∼2, as determined by photoelectron spectroscopy, was grown in situ under ultra-high vacuum conditions using a recently developed physical vapor deposition-based technique for fabrication of oxygen- and precursor-free organic-based molecular magnets. Photoelectron spectroscopy results show no spurious trace elements in the films, and the iron is of Fe2+ valency. The highest occupied molecular orbital of Fe(TCNE) x is located at ∼1.7 eV vs. Fermi level and is derived mainly from the TCNE singly occupied molecular orbital according to photoelectron spectroscopy and resonant photoelectron spectroscopy results. The Fe(3d)-derived states appear at higher binding energy, ∼4.5 eV, which is in contrast to V(TCNE)2 where the highest occupied molecular orbital is mainly derived from V(3d) states. Fitting ligand field multiplet and charge transfer multiplet calculations to the Fe L-edge near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectrum yields a high-spin Fe2+ (3d6) configuration with a crystal field parameter 10Dq∼0.6 eV for the Fe(TCNE) x system. We propose that the significantly weaker Fe-TCNE ligand interaction as compared to the room temperature magnet V(TCNE)2 (10Dq∼2.3 eV) is a strongly contributing factor to the substantially lower magnetic ordering temperature (T C ) seen for Fe(TCNE) x -type magnets.

  • 3.
    Echresh, Ahmad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.
    Zargar Shoushtari, Morteza
    Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.
    Farbod, Mansoor
    Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of NiO intermediate layer on the optical and electrical properties of n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaAs heterojunction2015In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 1013-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanorods were grown hydrothermally on bare and NiO-coated p-GaAs substrate to fabricate p-n heterojunctions. The NiO intermediate layer was deposited using thermal evaporation technique. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that ZnO nanorods grown on the bare p-GaAs do not have any preferential orientation along the c-axis, but those on the NiO-coated p-GaAs have preferential orientation along the c-axis, i.e. along the (002) direction. The scanning electron microscope images show that the NiO intermediate layer improved the uniformity and the alignment of the ZnO nanorods. Photoluminescence spectra demonstrated that increasing the thickness of NiO intermediate layer leads to improve the optical quality of the ZnO nanorods. Current-voltage characteristics showed that the presence of the NiO intermediate layer leads to increase the threshold voltage and decrease the leakage current of the n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaAs heterojunction. The energy band diagram of heterojunctions drown using Anderson model revealed that the NiO intermediate layer acts as an electron-blocking layer in the ZnO side and at the same time increases the hole injection from the GaAs to the ZnO side. Therefore, most of electron-hole pair recombination could occur at the ZnO site.

  • 4.
    Fu, Y
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Capacitance analysis for a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure with an ultra-thin oxide layer2003In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 27-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied theoretically the capacitance characteristics of a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure with an ultra-thin oxide layer by self-consistently solving Schrodinger and Poisson equations. It is demonstrated that a diffused interface between Si and SiO2 results in a better agreement between the theoretical prediction of conduction current and experimental I-V data. The calculated steady-state capacitance, obtained both analytically and numerically, increases following the increase of the gate bias when the gate bias is small; it reaches a saturation value at intermediate gate bias. The capacitance decreases with increasing gate bias when the gate bias is rather large due to the depletion of the gate material. Simple analytical expressions for the gate capacitance are derived, based on quantum-mechanical considerations, for future device design. The steady-state capacitance of a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure with an oxide layer of 1.5-2.0 nm by state-of-the-art technology is 20 mF/m(2), while it is 40 mF/m(2) when the practical limit of SiO2 layer thickness, i.e. 10-12 Angstrom, is reached.

  • 5.
    Fu, Y
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Chen, GB
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Ji, YL
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Lu, W
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Photoluminescence spectra of doped GaAs films2004In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 619-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum on the doping level and the film thickness of n-GaAs thin films, both experimentally and theoretically. It has been shown theoretically that modification of the PL spectrum of p-type material by p-type doping is very small due to the large valence-band hole effective mass. The PL spectrum of n-type material is affected by two factors: (1) the electron concentration which determines the Fermi level in the material; (2) the thickness of the film due to re-absorption of the PL signal. For the n-type GaAs thin films under current investigation, the doping level as well as the film thickness can be very well calibrated by the PL spectrum when the doping level is less than 2 x 10(18) cm(-3) and the film thickness is in the range of the penetration length of the PL excitation laser.

  • 6.
    Fu, Y
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Pettersson, H
    Halmstad University.
    Reduced effective temperature of hot electrons in nano-sized metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors2003In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 77, no 6, p. 799-803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hot electron effects have been extensively studied in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). The importance of these effects when the dimensions are drastically reduced has so far not been thoroughly investigated. The scope of this paper is therefore to present a detailed study of the effective temperature of excess electrons in nanoscale MOSFETs by solving coupled Schrodinger and Poisson equations. It is found that the increased doping levels and reduced junction depths lead to substantially higher local Fermi levels in the source and drain regions. As a result, the temperature difference between electrons injected into the drain and local electrons is reduced. The scaling of the gate oxide thickness, as well as the drain voltage furthermore reduces the electron temperature in the drain. The detrimental effects of hot electron injection are therefore expected to be decreased by scaling the MOSFET.

  • 7.
    Fu, Y
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Sengupta, DK
    BioQWIP Inc.
    Peak response wavelengths of p- and n-type InxGa1-xAs-InP quantum well infrared photodetectors2005In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 523-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    p- and n-type InxGa1-xAs-InP quantum wells are suitable for multi-color infrared photodetector applications in atmospheric windows due to improved barrier quality and carrier-transport properties. We apply the k . p method to study the energy band structures and optical transition properties, which show that the peak response wavelengths of p- and n-type InxGa1-xAs-InP quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) are determined not only by the energy distance from the ground sublevels in the quantum well to the energy band edges of extended states, but also by the characteristics of the extended states. The optical phonon scattering process converts the broad absorption spectrum of the p-QWIP from 0 to 16 mum into a short-wavelength spectrum centered at 4.5 mum. The transport of electrons in the extended states of the n-QWIP is characterized by running wave boundary conditions, resulting in a theoretically optimal absorption rate by a 8-nm-thick In0.53Ga0.47As quantum well. Moreover, a conduction-band offset of 0.5 for an InxGa1-xAs- InP (x = 0.53) heterostructure gives the best data fitting of theoretical and experimental response peaks, whereas 0.55 is generally recommended in the literature.

  • 8.
    Fu, Y
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing.
    Willander, Magnus
    Chalmers.
    Wang, T H
    Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing.
    Formation and charge control of a quantum dot by etched trenches and multiple gates2002In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 741-745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have fabricated a GaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs-based single-electron transistor (SET) formed by etched trenches and multiple gates. Clear Coulomb-blockade oscillations have been observed when the gate biases are scanned. By self-consistently solving three-dimensional Schrodinger and Poisson equations, we have studied the energy-band structure and the carrier distribution of our SET. General agreement between numerical simulation results and measurement data has been obtained, thus indicating the effectiveness of our SET-device design as well as the necessity of a complete three-dimensional quantum-mechanical simulation.

  • 9.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Svensson, M.
    Materials and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Gadisa, Abay
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Wang, Xiangjun
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Andersson, M.R.
    Materials and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Low bandgap alternating polyfluorene copolymers in plastic photodiodes and solar cells2004In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 31-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a comparative study of plastic photodiodes using four different copolymers of fluorene, with a variation of alkyl side chain length and chemical structure. Photodiode materials are formed by blending the polymers with a fullerene derivative and spincoating the blend solution. A photovoltage of 1 V is obtained in devices, where the anode is a doped polymer and the cathode is LiF/Al. Monochromatic quantum efficiencies are better than 40% over most of the absorption range, and under solar light AM 1.5 simulation, we reach energy efficiencies beyond 2%. The high fill factors obtained in some of the devices indicate that these are of interest for more elaborate optimisation. Reasons for the benign electrical transport are discussed. © Springer-Verlag 2004.

  • 10.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Sauthoff, K.
    University of Gottingen, Germany.
    Koenraad, P. M.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Gerritsen, J. W.
    University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    van Kempen, H.
    University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Fomin, V. M.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Wolter, J. H.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Devreese, J. T.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Optical properties of a tip-induced quantum dot2001In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 72, p. S239-S242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have performed optical spectroscopy measurements on a STM-tip-induced quantum dot in a GaAs layer. The dominant confinement in the (hole) quantum dot is found to be in the direction parallel to the tip axis. Electron confinement is achieved by a sub-surface AlGaAs barrier. Current-dependent measurements indicate that many-body interactions can cause spectral blueshifts up to 75 meV for a tunneling current of 10 nA. Consequently, a full treatment of the many-body problem is required for an accurate description of this type of system.

  • 11.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Sauthoff, K.
    University of Gottingen, Germany.
    Koenraad, P. M.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Gerritsen, J. W.
    University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    van Kempen, H.
    University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Wolter, J. H.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Optical detection of ballistically injected electrons in III/V heterostructures2001In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 72, p. S201-S204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel spectroscopic technique that is based on the ballistic injection of minority carriers from the tip of a scanning-tunneling microscope into a semiconductor heterostructure. By analyzing the resulting electro-luminescence spectrum as a function of tip-sample bias, both the injection barrier height and the carrier relaxation rate Gamma(s) after injection can be determined. At 4.2 K we found Gamma(s) = 5 x 10(13) s(-1) and at 77 K we found Gamma(s) = 8 x 10(13) s(-1). From current-dependent measurements we find that, at room temperature, a large fraction of the carriers is trapped prior to radiative recombination. At high currents or low temperatures the traps become saturated. We tentatively identify the Be acceptors in the structure as trapping centers.

  • 12.
    Lorusso, A.
    et al.
    Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce, Italy.
    Gontad, F.
    Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi” and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce, Italy.
    Caricato, A. P.
    Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi” and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce, Italy.
    Chiadroni, E.
    Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, Italy.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Perrone, A.
    Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi” and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce, Italy.
    Structural and morphological properties of metallic thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for photocathode application2016In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 122, no 3, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work yttrium and lead thin films have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique and characterized by ex situ different diagnostic methods. All the films were adherent to the substrates and revealed a polycrystalline structure. Y films were uniform with a very low roughness and droplet density, while Pb thin films were characterized by a grain morphology with a relatively high roughness and droplet density. Such metallic materials are studied because they are proposed as a good alternative to copper and niobium photocathodes which are generally used in radiofrequency and superconducting radiofrequency guns, respectively. The photoemission performances of the photocathodes based on Y and Pb thin films have been also studied and discussed.

  • 13.
    Lorusso, A.
    et al.
    University of Salento, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Trovo, M.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy.
    Demidovich, A.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy.
    Cinquegrana, P.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy.
    Gontad, F.
    University of Salento, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chiadroni, E.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Perrone, A.
    University of Salento, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Pulsed laser deposition of yttrium photocathode suitable for use in radio-frequency guns2017In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 123, no 12, article id 779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yttrium (Y) thin film was grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on a copper (Cu) polycrystalline substrate. Ex situ morphological and structural characterisations of the circular Y film of 1.2 mu m thickness and 3 mm diameter have shown a very low droplet density on the film surface and a crystalline feature with a preferred orientation along the Y (100) plane. Moreover, Y thin film resulted in being very adherent to the Cu substrate and more scratch resistant than Cu bulk. A twin thin film was deposited also on a Cu backflange of a radio-frequency (RF) gun to test the suitability of the metallic thin film as photocathode. It was observed that the Y-coated photocathode was characterised by a quantum efficiency (QE) higher than that of the Cu bulk photocathode even if the presence of space charge effects didnt allow deriving the absolute maximum value of QE of Y photocathode.

  • 14.
    Mikula, P
    et al.
    Nuclear Physics Institute Rez.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Asymmetric diffraaction geometry of the bent crystal monohromator - A way to improve the properties of strain diffractometers2002In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 74, p. 204-206Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Music, Denis
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Kreissig, U.
    Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Institute fur IM, PF 510119, 01314 Dresden, Germany.
    Czigany, Zs.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Schneider, Jochen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Elastic modulus-density relationship for amorphous boron suboxide thin films2003In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 269-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boron suboxide thin films nave been deposited on Si(100) substrates by reactive RF magnetron sputtering of a sintered B target in an Ar/O2 atmosphere. Elastic recoil detection analysis was applied to determine the film composition and density. Film structure was studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The elastic modulus, measured by nanoindentation, was found to decrease as the film density decreased. The relationship was affected by tuning the negative substrate bias potential and the substrate temperature during film growth. A decrease in film density, by a factor of 1.55, caused an elastic modulus reduction by a factor of 4.5, most likely due to formation of nano-pores containing Ar. It appears evident that the large scattering in the published data on elastic properties of films with identical chemical composition can readily be understood by density variations. These results are important for understanding the elastic properties of boron suboxide, but may also be qualitatively relevant for other B-based material systems.

  • 16.
    Mårtensson, N.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Weinelt, M.
    Uppsala University.
    Karis, O.
    Uppsala University.
    Magnuson, Martin
    Uppsala University.
    Wassdahl, N.
    Uppsala University.
    Nilsson, A.
    Uppsala University.
    Stöhr, J.
    Almaden Research Center, San Jose.
    Samant, M.
    Almaden Research Center, San Jose.
    Coherent and incoherent processes in resonant photoemission1997In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 159-167Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Shi, Lei
    et al.
    Nanjing University, Peoples R China.
    Yin, Jiang
    Nanjing University, Peoples R China.
    Yin, Kuibo
    Nanjing University, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Xia, Yidong
    Nanjing University, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Zhiguo
    Nanjing University, Peoples R China.
    An investigation into ultra-thin pseudobinary oxide (TiO2)(x)(Al2O3)(1-x) films as high-k gate dielectrics2008In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 90, no 2, p. 379-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As potential gate dielectric materials, pseudobinary oxide (TiO2)(x)(Al2O3)(1-x) (0.1 less than= x less than= 0.6) films (TAO) were deposited on Si (100) substrates by pulsed-laser deposition method and studied systematically via various measurements. By a special deposition process, including two separate steps, the TAO films were deposited in the form of two layers. The first layer was deposited at room temperature and the second layer was completed at the substrate temperature of 400 degrees C. Detailed data show that the properties of the TAO films are closely related to the ratio between TiO2 and Al2O3. The existence of the first layer deposited at room temperature can effectively restrain the formation of the interfacial layer. And according to the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy performed on the films, no other information belonging to the silicon oxide could be observed. For the (TiO2)(0.4)(Al2O3)(0.6) film, the best result has been achieved among all samples and its dielectric constant is evaluated to be about 38. It is valuable for the amorphous TAO film as one of the promising dielectric materials for high-k gate dielectric applications.

  • 18.
    Soomro, Muhammad Yousuf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, I
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bano, Nargis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, S
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enhancement of zinc interstitials in ZnO nanotubes grown on glass substrate by the hydrothermal method2012In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 151-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, high density well aligned ZnO nanotubes were grown on glass via a two-step growth-then-etching by simple and template-free hydrothermal method. We used etching procedure to introduce additional zinc interstitial defects in the ZnO nanotubes. The optical properties of the ZnO nanotubes have been investigated by depth-resolved cathodluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS) which provides information about the physical origin and growth dependence of optically active defects together with their spatial distribution. The DRCLS study gives clear evidence about the enhancement of zinc interstitial defects which are responsible for the violet and decrease of the DL emission in ZnO nanotubes when compared to the as grown ZnO nanorods. We observed a variation in the zinc interstitials along the nanotube depth.

  • 19.
    Wadeasa, Amal
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beegum, S L
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Raja, S
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The demonstration of hybrid n-ZnO nanorod/p-polymer heterojunction light emitting diodes on glass substrates2009In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 95, no 3, p. 807-812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a demonstration of heterojunction light emitting diode (LED) based on a hybrid n-ZnO-nanorod/p-polymer layered structure. The ZnO was grown using the aqueous chemical growth (ACG) on top of the polymer(s) which were deposited on glass. The current-voltage (I-V) behavior of the heterojunctions showed good rectifying diode characteristics. Room-temperature electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the LEDs provided a broad emission band over a wide LED color range (430-650 nm), in which both zinc and oxygen vacancy peaks are clearly detected. We present here luminescent devices based on the use of ZnO-nanorods in combination with two different blended and multi-layered p-type polymers. Electroluminescence of the first batch of devices showed that white bluish strong emission for the presently used polymers is clearly observed. We obtained a turn-on voltage of 3 V and break-down voltage equal to -6 V for PVK-TFB blended device. The corresponding values for the NPD-PFO multilayer device were 4 V and -14 V, respectively. The rectification factors were equal to 3 and 10 for the two devices, respectively. The films and devices processed were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DEKTAK 3ST Surface Profile, Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer, photoluminescence (PL), and electroluminescence (EL).

  • 20.
    Zainelabdin, A
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zaman, Siama
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Amin, Gul
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optical and current transport properties of CuO/ZnO nanocoral p-n heterostructure hydrothermally synthesized at low temperature2012In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 108, no 4, p. 921-928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the synthesis and investigate the electrical and optical characteristics of nanocorals (NCs) composed of CuO/ZnO grown at low temperature through the hydrothermal approach. High-density CuO nanostructures (NSs) were selectively grown on ZnO nanorods (NRs). The synthesized NCs were used to fabricate p-n heterojunctions that were investigated by the current density-voltage (J-V) and the capacitance-voltage (C-V) techniques. It was found that the NC heterojunctions exhibit a well-defined diode behavior with a threshold voltage of about 1.52 V and relatively high rectification factor of similar to 760. The detailed forward J-V characteristics revealed that the current transport is controlled by an ohmic behavior for V andlt;= 0.15 V, whereas at moderate voltages 1.46 andlt;= V andlt; 1.5 the current follows a J alpha exp(beta V) relationship. At higher voltages (andgt;= 1.5 V) the current follows the relation J alpha V-2, indicating that the space-charge-limited current mechanism is the dominant current transport. The C-V measurement indicated that the NC diode has an abrupt junction. The grown CuO/ZnO NCs exhibited a broad light absorption range that is covering the UV and the entire visible parts of the spectrum.

  • 21.
    Zaman, Siama
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zainelabdin, A
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Amin, Gul
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of the polymer emission on the electroluminescence characteristics of n-ZnO nanorods/p-polymer hybrid light emitting diode2011In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 104, no 4, p. 1203-1209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and polymers (single and blended) were fabricated and characterized. The ZnO nanorods were grown by the chemical bath deposition method at 50A degrees C. Three different LEDs, with blue emitting, orange-red emitting or their blended polymer together with ZnO nanorods, were fabricated and studied. The current-voltage characteristics show good diode behavior with an ideality factor in the range of 2.1 to 2.27 for all three devices. The electroluminescence spectrum (EL) of the blended device has an emission range from 450 nm to 750 nm, due to the intermixing of the blue emission generated by poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) denoted as PFO with orange-red emission produced by poly(2-methoxy-5(20-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) 1,4-phenylenevinylene) symbolized as MEH PPV combined with the deep-band emission (DBE) of the ZnO nanorods, i.e. it covers the whole visible region and is manifested as white light. The CIE color coordinates showed bluish, orange-red and white emission from the PFO, MEH PPV and blended LEDs with ZnO nanorods, respectively. These results indicate that the choice of the polymer with proper concentration is critical to the emitted color in ZnO nanorods/p-organic polymer LEDs and careful design should be considered to obtain intrinsic white light sources.

1 - 21 of 21
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