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  • 1.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Yaqoob
    National Centre for Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan .
    Hussain, Sajjad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anions effect on the low temperature growth of ZnO nanostructures2012In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 12, p. 1998-2001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seed mediated aqueous chemical growth (ACG) route was used for the growth of ZnO nanostructures on Si substrate in four different growth mediums. The growth medium has shown to affect the morphology and the size of the different nanostructures. We observed that the medium containing zinc nitrate anions yields the nanorods, in a medium containing zinc acetate anions nano-candles are obtained. While in a medium containing zinc chloride anions ZnO nano-discs were obtained and in a medium containing zinc sulfate anions nano-flakes are achieved. Growth in these different mediums has also shown effect on the optical emission characteristics of the different ZnO nanostructures.

  • 2.
    Ali, Sharafat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Paul, Biplab
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Novel transparent Mg-Si-O-N thin films with high hardness and refractive index2016In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand for glass materials with better mechanical and optical properties for display and electronic applications. This paper describes the deposition of novel thin films of Mg-circle divide-Si-O-N onto float glass substrates. Amorphous thin films in the Mg-Si-O-N system with high nitrogen and magnesium contents were deposited by reactive RF magnetron co-sputtering from Mg and Si targets in Ar/N-2/O-2 gas mixtures. The thin films studied span an unprecedented range of compositions up to 45 at% Mg and 80 at% N out of cations and anions respectively. Thin films in the Mg-Si-O-N system were found to be homogeneous and transparent in the visible region. Mechanical properties like hardness (H) and reduced elastic modulus (Er) show high values, up to 21 GPa and 166 GPa respectively. The refractive index (1.87-2.00) increases with increasing magnesium and nitrogen contents. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Atanassov, A
    et al.
    Baleva, M
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Goranova, E
    Grazing incident asymmetric X-ray diffraction of beta-FeSi2 layers, produced by ion beam synthesis2004In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 76, no 02-Mar, p. 277-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crystal structure of beta-FeSi2 phase, prepared by ion beam synthesis (IBS) method, followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) is investigated by grazing incident asymmetric X-ray diffraction (GIAXRD). The X-ray spectra, obtained at different grazing angles, indicated that the beta-FeSi2 phase is formed in the whole implantation range. From the comparison of the reflections intensities ratios, it is found that in the metal-deficient regions, where the beta-FeSi2 phase is present in the form of precipitates, the crystallites orientation is influenced by the one of the silicon substrates, while the orientation in the metal-rich region is different and depends on the annealing temperature. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Batool, S S
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Imran, Z
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Pakistan Inst. Engn. and Appl Sci, Pakistan.
    Israr Qadir, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jamil Rana, Sadaf
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Usman, M
    Pakistan Institute Engn and Appl Science, Pakistan .
    Jamil, H
    Pakistan Institute Engn and Appl Science, Pakistan .
    Rafiq, M A
    Pakistan Institute Engn and Appl Science, Pakistan .
    Hasan, M M
    Pakistan Institute Engn and Appl Science, Pakistan .
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Silica nanofibers based impedance type humidity detector prepared on glass substrate2013In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 87, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impedance type relative humidity detector is fabricated by depositing electrospun silica nanofibers on glass substrate. The silica nanofibers with an average diameter similar to 150 nm and length similar to 100 mu m were used. Thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis confirm that the accurate annealing temperature is 500 degrees C for complete removal of PVP. Humidity detecting devices were fabricated by defining titanium electrodes on top of the silica nanofibers. The performance of silica nanofibers humidity detectors was tested by AC electrical measurements at 40-90% relative humidity. The response and the recovery times were 5 s and 3 s, respectively, between 40% and 90% relative humidity. Contribution of dipoles, space charge polarization, relaxation of these dipoles and low frequency dispersion phenomenon were observed during impedance measurements.

  • 5.
    Beshkova, M.
    et al.
    Bulgarian Academic Science, Bulgaria.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Device applications of epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide2016In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 128, p. 186-197Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene has become an extremely hot topic due to its intriguing material properties allowing for ground-breaking fundamental research and applications. It is one of the fastest developing materials during the last several years. This progress is also driven by the diversity of fabrication methods for graphene of different specific properties, size, quantity and cost. Graphene grown on SiC is of particular interest due to the possibility to avoid transferring of free standing graphene to a desired substrate while having a large area SiC (semi-insulating or conducting) substrate ready for device processing. Here, we present a review of the major current explorations of graphene on SiC in electronic devices, such as field effect transistors (FET), radio frequency (RF) transistors, integrated circuits (IC), and sensors. The successful role of graphene in the metrology sector is also addressed. Typical examples of graphene on SiC implementations are illustrated and the drawbacks and promises are critically analyzed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Beshkova, Milena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sublimation epitaxy of 3C-SiC grown at Si- and C-rich conditions2012In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 10, p. 1595-1599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3C-SiC layers have been grown by using sublimation epitaxy at a source temperature of 2000 degrees C, under vacuum conditions (andlt;10(-5) mbar) on well oriented (on-axis) 6H-SiC (0001) substrates. Close space sublimation growth geometry has been used in a RF-heated furnace employing high-purity graphite crucible with a possibility to change the growth environment from Si vapor-rich to C vapor-rich. The optical microscopy in transmission mode reveals continuous 3C-domains for 3C-SiC with less than 0.4% 6H-inclusions for the layer grown at Si-rich conditions, and separate 3C-SiC domains for the layer grown at C-rich conditions. The type of 6H-inclusions for layers with continuous domain structure investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is discussed. 2Theta-omega scan shows 0006 and 111 peaks coming from the substrate and the layer, respectively with a higher intensity of the 111 peak for 3C-SiC grown at Si-rich conditions which is related with the continuous character of the 3C-SiC domains.

  • 7.
    Beshkova, Milena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Zakhariev, Z.
    Abrashev, M.V.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, Anelia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Low-pressure sublimation epitaxy of AlN films - growth and characterization2004In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 76, p. 143-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial layers of aluminum nitride have been grown at temperatures 1900-2400degreesC on 10 x 10 mm(2) 4H-SiC substrate via sublimation recondensation in an RF heated graphite furnace. The source material was polycrystalline sintered AlN. A maximum growth rate of about 100 mum/h was achieved at 2400degreesC and seed to source distance of 1 mm. The surface morphology reflects the hexagonal symmetry of the seed suggesting an epitaxial growth. This was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The spectra showed very strong and well-defined (0002) reflection position at around 36.04degrees in symmetric Theta-2Thetascans for all samples. Micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals that the films have a wurtzite structure. It is evidenced by the appearance of the A(1) (TO) (at 601 cm(-1)) and E-2((2)) (at 651 cm(-1)) lines in the spectra. Secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) results showed a low concentration of carbon incorporation in the AlN films. A correlation between the growth conditions and properties of the AlN layers was established.

  • 8.
    Donchev, V.
    et al.
    Faculty of Physics, Dept. Condensed Matter Phys., S., Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Ivanov, Tzv.
    Faculty of Physics, Dept. Condensed Matter Phys., S., Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Angelov, M.
    Faculty of Physics, Dept. Condensed Matter Phys., S., Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Germanova, K.
    Faculty of Physics, Dept. Condensed Matter Phys., S., Sofia, Bulgaria.
    High-temperature excitons in GaAs quantum wells embedded in AlAs/GaAs superlattices2000In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 478-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of GaAs quantum wells embedded in short-period AlAs/GaAs superlattices have been measured at 2 K and at room temperature. Two approaches have been applied in order to investigate the mechanisms of radiative recombination in these structures. In the first one, we studied the excitation density dependence of the PL intensity. In the second approach a line-shape analysis of the PL spectra is performed by means of a statistical model, which includes both free exciton, and free carrier recombinations. The fit based on this model reproduces with high accuracy the experimental spectra and allows to assess the relative contributions of excitons and free carriers to the radiative recombination process. The results of both approaches indicate the predominance of free excitons in the radiative recombination at room temperature.

  • 9.
    Ehiasarian, A.P.
    et al.
    Materials Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, United Kingdom.
    New, R.
    Materials Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, United Kingdom.
    Munz, W.-D.
    Münz, W.-D., Materials Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, United Kingdom.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Kouznetsov, V.
    Chemfilt R and D AB, Kumla Gårdsvägen 28, SE-145 63 Norsborg, Sweden.
    Influence of high power densities on the composition of pulsed magnetron plasmas2002In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 147-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of high power pulses with peak voltage of -2 kV and peak power density of 3 kWcm-2 to magnetron plasma sources is a new development in sputtering technology. The high power is applied to ordinary magnetron cathodes in pulses with short duration of typically some tens of microseconds in order to avoid a glow-to-arc transition. High plasma densities are obtained which have been predicted to initiate self-sputtering. This study concerns Cr and Ti cathodes and presents evidence of multiply charged metal ions as well as of Ar ions in the dense plasma region of the high power pulsed magnetron discharge and a substantially increased metal ion production compared to continuous magnetron sputtering. The average degree of ionisation of the Cr metal deposition flux generated in the plasma source was 30% at a distance of 50 cm. Deposition rates were maintained comparable to conventional magnetron sputtering due to the low pressure of operation of the pulsed discharge - typically 0.4 Pa (3mTorr) of Ar pressure was used. Observations of the current-voltage characteristics of the discharge confirmed two modes of operation of the plasma source representing conventional pulsed sputtering at low powers (0.2 kWcm-2) and pulsed self-sputtering at higher powers (3 kWcm-2). The optical emission from the various species in the plasma showed an increase in metal ion-to-neutral ratio with increasing power. The time evolution within a pulse of the optical emission from Ar0, Cr0, Cr1+, and Cr2+ showed that at low powers Cr and Ar excitation develops simultaneously. However, at higher powers a distinct transition from Ar to Cr plasma within the duration of the pulse was observed. The time evolution of the discharge at higher powers is discussed. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Elhag, Sami
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Habit-modifying additives and their morphological consequences on photoluminescence and glucose sensing properties of ZnO nanostructures, grown via aqueous chemical synthesis2015In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 116, p. 21-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generally, the anisotropic shape of inorganic nano-crystal can be influenced by one or more of different parameters i.e. kinetic energy barrier, temperature, time, and the nature of the capping molecules. Here, different surfactants acting as capping molecules were used to assist the aqueous chemical growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on Au coated glass substrates. The morphology, crystal quality and the photoluminescence (PL) properties of the ZnO nanostructures were investigated. The PL properties of the prepared ZnO nanostructures at room temperature showed a dominant UV luminescence peak, while the "green yellow" emissions were essentially suppressed. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures were investigated for the development of a glucose biosensor. An adsorbed molecule has direct contribution on the glucose oxidase/ZnO/Au sensing properties. We show that the performance of a ZnO-based biosensor can be improved by tailoring the properties of the ZnO biomolecule interface through engineering of the morphology, effective surface area, and adsorption capability.

  • 11. Engstrom, C.
    et al.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Ivanov, I.P.
    Cypress Semiconductor Corporation, 2401 East 86th Street, Bloomington, MN 55425, United States.
    Kirkpatrick, S.R.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Mat. Res. and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 255 WSEC, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656, United States.
    Rohde, S.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Mat. Res. and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 255 WSEC, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656, United States.
    Design, plasma studies, and ion assisted thin film growth in an unbalanced dual target magnetron sputtering system with a solenoid coil2000In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 107-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An original design and solution to the problem of magnetic field interactions in a vacuum chamber between two unbalanced magnetron sputtering sources and a solenoid coil serving to increase plasma density in near substrate position, is presented. By changing the solenoid coil current strength and direction, plasma growth conditions in an argon discharge and Ti-magnetron cathodes were found to vary in a broad region. Langmuir probe analysis shows that an increase in the coil current from 0 to 6 A caused plasma and substrate floating potentials to change from -7 to -30 V and from +1 to -10 V, respectively, as well as increasing the ion densities to a biased substrate from 0.2 to 5.2 mA cm-2 for each of the magnetrons. By using a ferro-powder magnetic field model, as well as finite element method analysis, we demonstrate the interference of the three magnetic fields - those of the two magnetrons and the solenoid coil. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the microstructure and morphology of Ti-films grown under different ion bombardment conditions. At low Ar-ion-to-Ti-atom arrival rate ratios, Jion/Jn to approximately 1.5, at the substrate, variations of the ion energy, Eion, from 8 to 70 eV has only a minor effect on the microstructure and film preferred crystallographic orientation, resulting in an open/porous structure with defect-rich grains. At a higher Jion/Jn value of approximately 20, films with a well-defined dense structure were deposited at ion energies of 80 eV. The increase in ion flux also resulted in changes of the Ti film preferred orientation, from an (0 0 0 2) preferred orientation to a mixture of (0 0 0 2) and (1 0 1¯ 1) orientations.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemical and Optical Sensor Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petersson, Lars-Gunnar
    Tekniska högskolan.
    The water-forming reaction on thin, SiO2 supported, palladium films1990In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 41, no 1-3, p. 137-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The water-forming reaction has been studied on thin Pd films, evaporated on planar SiO2 substrates. The nominal film thickness varied between 5 and 100 Å. The studies were performed in uhv by means of mass spectrometry, UPS and work function measurements in the temperature range 323–523 K. The film structure was also studied with TEM. The results are compared with previous measurements on 1000 Å, thick, homogeneous Pd films. The structure of the thin Pd films changed dramatically during cyclic H2 and O2 exposures, from that of a continuous film with cracks to that of drop-like metal particles. These structural changes are not observed on the thick (1000 Å) Pd films. Even though there are large structural changes, the water-forming reaction looks qualitatively the same as on a thick Pd film. The total water production however, decreases with decreasing film thickness. We believe that some minor qualitative differences in the water-forming reaction for different nominal Pd film thicknesses, are due to the increasing PdSiO2 boundary as the thickness is reduced.

  • 13. Fogelberg, J.
    et al.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petersson, L.-G.
    A hydrogen sensitive palladium metal-oxide-semiconductor device as sensor for dissociating NO in H2-atmospheres1990In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 41, p. 705-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Pd-MOS structure can be used as a sensitive analytical tool in the study of dissociating oxygen containing molecules. Nitric oxide has been studied as a test case. Initially NO adsorbs very effectively and dissociatively on polycrystalline Pd at temperatures above 473 K. At this temperature H2O, N2O and N2 desorbs during an NO exposure in a hydrogen background. After such exposure the surface is probably left with only residual nitrogen atoms adsorbed on the surface. Below 390 K the dissociation probability is insignificant.

  • 14.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Peak amplitude of target current determines deposition rate loss during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering2016In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Film growth rates during DCMS and HIPIMS sputtering in Ar are measured for ten technologically relevant elemental target materials: Al, Si, Ti, Cr, Y, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, and W, spanning wide range of masses, ionization energies, and sputter yields. Surprisingly, the ratio of power-normalized HIPIMS and DCMS rates a decays exponentially with increasing peak target current density J(T)(max) for all metals. The effect of J(T)(max) on alpha is dramatic: alpha approximate to 1 in the limit of lowest J(T)(max) values tested (0.04 A/cm(2)) and decreases to only 0.12 with J(T)(max) similar to 3 A/cm(2). With the exception of Al and Si, alpha(J(T)(max)) curves overlap indicating that the debated rate loss in HIPIMS is to large extent determined by the peak amplitude of the HIPIMS target current for all tested metals. Back attraction of ionized target species is responsible for such large variation in a. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, M
    Seco Tools AB.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selection of metal ion irradiation for controlling Ti1-xAlxN alloy growth via hybrid HIPIMS/magnetron co-sputtering2012In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 8, p. 1036-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the growth of metastable single-phase NaCl-structure high-AlN-content Ti1-xAlxN alloys (x andlt;= 0.64) which simultaneously possess high hardness and low residual stress. The films are grown using a hybrid approach combining high-power pulsed magnetron (HPPMS/HIPIMS) and dc magnetron sputtering of opposing metal targets. With HIPIMS applied to the Al target, Aln+ ion irradiation (dominated by Aln+) of the growing film results in alloys 0.55 andlt;= x andlt;= 0.60 which exhibit hardness H similar to 30 GPa and low stress sigma = 0.2-0.7 GPa, tensile. In sharp contrast, films with corresponding AlN concentrations grown with HIPIMS applied to the Ti target, giving rise to Tin+ ion irradiation (with a significant Ti2+ component), are two-phase - cubic (Ti,Al)N and hexagonal AlN - with low hardness, H = 18-19 GPa, and high compressive stress ranging up to 2.7 GPa. Annealing alloys grown with HIPIMS applied to the Al target results in age hardening due to spinodal decomposition; the hardness of Ti0.41Al0.59N increases from 30 to 33 GPa following a 900 degrees C anneal.

  • 16.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA; Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strategy for tuning the average charge state of metal ions incident at the growing film during HIPIMS deposition2015In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 116, p. 36-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and time-dependent mass spectrometry is used to determine the relative number density of singly- and multiply-charged metal-ion fluxes incident at the substrate during high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) as a function of the average noble-gas ionization potential. Ti is selected as the sputtering target since the microstructure, phase composition, properties, and stress-state of Ti-based ceramic thin films grown by HIPIMS are known to be strongly dependent on the charge state of Tin+ (n = 1, 2, …) ions incident at the film growth surface. We find that the flux of Tin+ with n > 2 is insignificant; thus, we measure the Ti2+/Ti+ integrated flux ratio JTi2+ =JTi+ at the substrate position as a function of the choice of noble gase Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, as well as Ne/Ar, Kr/Ar, and Xe/Ar mixtures – supporting the plasma. We demonstrate that by changing noble-gas mixtures, JTi2+ varies by more than two orders of magnitude with only a small change in JTi+ . This allows the ratio JTi2+ =JTi+ to be continuously tuned from less than 0.01 with Xe, which has a low first-ionization potential IP1, to 0.62 with Ne which has a high IP1. The value for Xe, IP1Xe= 12.16 eV, is larger than the first ionization potential of Ti, IP1Ti= 6.85 eV, but less than the second Ti ionization potential, IP2Ti= 13.62 eV. For Ne, however, IP1Ne= 21.63 eV is greater than both IP1Ti and IP2Ti. Therefore, the high-energy tail of the plasma-electron energy distribution can be systematically adjusted, allowing JTi2+/JTi+ to be controllably varied over a very wide range.

  • 17.
    Hellgren, Niklas
    et al.
    Messiah Coll, PA 17055 USA.
    Thörnberg, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhirkov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sortica, Maurico A.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Natl Taiwan Univ Sci and Technol, Taiwan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    High-power impulse magnetron sputter deposition of TiBx thin films: Effects of pressure and growth temperature2019In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 169, article id UNSP 108884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium boride, TiBx thin films are grown in pure Ar discharges by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from a compound TiB2 target Film compositions are determined by time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry as a function of deposition temperature (T-s = 25-900 degrees C) and Ar pressure (p(Ar) = 0.67-2.67 Pa, 5-20 mTorr). For reference, films are also grown by direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS) under similar conditions. The HiPIMS waveform, average target power P-T, and resulting film compositions are strongly dependent not only on P-Ar, but also on T-s. At high pressures the effect of varying T-s on P-T is minimal, while at lower P-Ar the effect of T-s is more pronounced, due to substrate-temperature-induced gas rarefaction. Films grown by HiPIMS at 0.67 Pa are understoichiometric, with B/Ti = 1.4-1.5, while at 2.67 Pa, B/Ti decreases from 2.4 to 1.4 as T-s increases from 25 to 900 degrees C. dcMS-deposited films are overstoichiometric (B/Ti similar or equal to 3) when grown at low pressures, and near-stoichiometric (B/Ti similar or equal to r 1.9-2.2) for higher P-Ar. All experimental results are explained by differences in the ionization potentials of sputtered Ti and B atoms, together with P-Ar- and T-s-dependent gas-phase scattering.

  • 18.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Serban, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nucleation and core-shell formation mechanism of self-induced InxAl1−xN core-shell nanorods grown on sapphire substrates by magnetron sputter epitaxy2016In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 131, p. 39-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nucleation of self-induced nanorod and core-shell structure formation by surface-induced phase separation have been studied at the initial growth stage. The growth of well-separated core shell nanorods is only found in a transition temperature region (600 degrees C amp;lt;= T amp;lt;= 800 degrees C) in contrast to the result of thin film growth outside this region (T amp;lt; 600 degrees C or T amp;gt; 800 degrees C). Formation of multiple compositional domains, due to phase separation, after similar to 20 nm InxAl1-xN epilayer growth from sapphire substrate promotes the core-shell nanorod growth, showing a modified Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. The use of VN seed layer makes the initial growth of the nanorods directly at the substrate interface, revealing a Volmer-Weber growth mode. Different compositional domains are found on VN template surface to support that the phase separation takes place at the initial nucleation process and forms by a self-patterning effect. The nanorods were grown from In-rich domains and initiated the formation of core-shell nanorods due to spinodal decomposition of the InxAl1-xN alloy with a composition in the miscibility gap.

  • 19.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Editorial2012In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 8, p. 1013-1013Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 20.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Editorial Material: SPECIAL ISSUE CELEBRATING VOLUME 1002014In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 100, no SI, p. 1-1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 21.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Thermal stability of nitride thin films2000In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 57, no 1Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a review of the thermal stability of state-of-the-art transition metal nitride thin films synthesized by physical vapour deposition techniques. Nitrides are successfully applied as wear-protection coatings for tools and mechanical components, decorative coatings, electrical contacts, and diffusion barriers in electronic devices. The aspects for thermal stability are on phase equilibrium, metal, nitrogen and impurity diffusion, recrystallization, phase separation, interfacial reactions, and oxidation. Microstructurally engineered structures are considered including single-crystals, nanolaminates, metastable alloys, and films in a state of compressive intrinsic stress. Titanium nitride is discussed in detail as a model system for the studies, but results are given also for NbN, AlN, BN, CNx, CrN, TiN-TiB2, Ti(C,N), and (Ti,Al)N films. More than 150 references are included. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Karlsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mockuté, Aurelija
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ingason, Arni Sigurdur
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ta, Huy Q.
    Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea; Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea.
    Rummeli, Mark H.
    Soochow University, Peoples R China; Soochow University, Peoples R China; IFW Dresden, Germany; Polish Academic Science, Poland.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Graphene on graphene formation from PMMA residues during annealing2017In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 137, p. 191-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PMMA is a common support material for transferring graphene between substrates. However, PMMA residues typically remain on the graphene sheet after the transfer process. A high temperature annealing process is commonly applied to reduce the amount of PMMA residues. It is also known that high temperature annealing of PMMA causes the PMMA to graphitize, which has been used as a method to synthesize graphene on metal substrates. In this letter we show the development of additional graphene layers during high temperature annealing, which occurs on a single, clean, graphene sheet. The additional graphene is nucleated from the decomposition products of PMMA residues. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Khomyak, V.
    et al.
    Fedkovich Chernivtsi National University, Ukraine.
    Shtepliuk, I.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. NAS Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Band-gap engineering of ZnO1-xSx films grown by rf magnetron sputtering of ZnS target2015In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 121, p. 120-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural and optical properties of ZnO1-xSx (0 less than= x less than= 1.0) thin films grown onto sapphire substrates (c-Al2O3) at 300 degrees C by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering of ZnS ceramic target are studied. A possibility of purposeful controlling sulfur content and, as consequence, ZnO1-xSx band gap energy via changing the ratio of the partial pressures of argon and oxygen are revealed. Linear dependence of ZnO lattice parameter c on S content suggests that structural properties of single-phase ternary alloys in the composition range between ZnO and ZnS obey Vegards law. The mechanisms of influence of gas mixing ratio on film growth and band gap energy are discussed. Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGS)-based heterojunction solar cells with ZnO1-xSx buffer layers were fabricated by one-cycle magnetron sputtering procedure. Electrical characteristics of Cd-free devices are comparable to those of CdS-containing photovoltaic heterostructures, thereby indicating prospects of using ZnO1-xSx layers for fabrication of CIGS solar cells. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Liang, Jiamin
    et al.
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China; Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Wei, Qiang
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China; Hebei Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Ge, Fangfang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Ren, Donglou
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Ji
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Dong, Yue
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huang, Feng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Du, Shiyu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Qing
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Synthesis of Zr2Al3C4 coatings on zirconium-alloy substrates with Al-C/Si interlayers as diffusion barriers2019In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 160, p. 128-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zr2Al3C4 coatings are potential candidates to prevent claddings of traditional Zr-based alloys from severe oxidation in water steam at high temperature. However, the diffusion of aluminum between coating and substrates at high temperature results in a coating composition deviating from the compositional domain for formation of the Zr2Al3C4 phase. Thus, synthesis of Zr2Al3C4 coatings on zirconium-alloy substrates is challenging. Here, we report that the Zr2Al3C4 phase can be obtained on zirconium alloy (ZIRLO) substrates where an Al-C/Si interlayer deposited by magnetron sputtering is introduced. The Al-C/Si interlayer prevented elemental diffusion of aluminum between the Zr-Al-C coating and the substrates during a post-annealing process at 800 degrees C for 3 h. The Al/Zr ratio of the Zr-Al-C coating after annealing was 0.96 and 0.59 in the cases of with and without Al-C/Si interlayer, respectively. Hence, the Al-C/Si interlayer acts as diffusion barrier and greatly decreases the deviation from the standard stoichiometric ratio of the Zr2Al3C4 phase, which facilitates the formation of the Zr2Al3C4 phase in the final coating.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-11-16 15:47
  • 25.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vacuum technology applied to solid state chemical sensors, processing, characterization and applications2012In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 5, p. 488-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter will review several solid state chemical sensors with focus on the importance of ultra high vacuum, UHV, for the development of this area. Examples of sensors will be given where processing of sensors and sensing layers as well as characterization of chemical sensors takes place in UHV as well as examples of sensors for operation in UHV. Applications of chemical sensors both already commercialized and still on the research level will be given. Sensor technologies will span from metal oxide sensors, field effect transistor sensors to surface plasmon resonance, SPR, sensors and microcalorimeters. Examples of new challenging novel sensor approaches like sensors based on indirect SPR sensing and ultra sensitive graphene-based sensors for NO2 detection will also be given.

  • 26.
    Music, Denis
    et al.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Schmidt, Paul
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Czigany, Zsolt
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Hungary.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Geyer, Richard W.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Hans, Marcus
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Electrical resistivity modulation of thermoelectric iron based nanocomposites2018In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 157, p. 384-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron oxides are promising thermoelectrics, but their high electrical resistivity impedes broader applications. In this work, we have studied Fe oxides with metallic contributions. Pt and Ir additions are also considered to enhance the valence electron concentration and further modify the transport properties. Based on density functional theory explorations, Fe based clusters (Fe-3, Fe-4, and Fe3Pt) are suggested to act as nucleation sites for metallic crystallites, while O leads to formation of an amorphous matrix. This has been validated by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of sputter-grown Fe-Pt-Ir-O thin films. Densely packed bcc Fe grains, approx. 2-3 nm in diameter, are embedded in an amorphous Fe-O matrix in the as-grown state. The Seebeck coefficient reaches even -411 mu V K-1 and the electrical resistivity is up to 5 orders of magnitude lower than that of previously reported literature data on Fe oxides. We suggest that this peculiarity of our films is due to finite states localized at the Fermi level in these nanocomposites.

  • 27.
    Rech, S
    et al.
    Veneto Nanotech ScpA, Italy.
    Surpi, A
    Veneto Nanotech ScpA, Italy.
    Vezzu, S
    Veneto Nanotech ScpA, Italy.
    Patelli, A
    Veneto Nanotech ScpA, Italy.
    Trentin, A
    Veneto Nanotech ScpA, Italy.
    Glor, J
    Sandvik Mat Technology, Sweden.
    Frodelius, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cold-spray deposition of Ti2AlC coatings2013In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 94, p. 69-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti2AlC coatings have been fabricated by cold-spray deposition. The microstructure evolution as a function of basic spray parameters temperature and pressure onto AA6060 aluminium alloy and 1.0037 steel substrates has been studied. Adherent and dense 50–80 μm thick Ti2AlC coatings were deposited on soft AA6060 substrates under gas temperature and pressure of 600 °C and 3.4 MPa, respectively, whilst comparable results were obtained on harder 1.0037 steel by using higher temperature (800 °C) and pressure (3.9 MPa).

  • 28.
    Shtinkov, N.
    et al.
    Faculty of Physics, Sofia Univ., 5 James Bourchier B., Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Donchev, V.
    Faculty of Physics, Sofia Univ., 5 James Bourchier B., Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Germanova, K.
    Faculty of Physics, Sofia Univ., 5 James Bourchier B., Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Vlaev, S.
    Escuela de Física, Univ. Auton. Zacatecas, 98068 Z., ZAC, Mexico.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Effect of non-abrupt interfaces in AlAs/GaAs superlattices with embedded GaAs quantum wells2000In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 561-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper, we investigate the effect of the non-abrupt interfaces on the electronic and optical properties of short-period AlAs/GaAs superlattices with embedded GaAs quantum wells. The lateral disorder and the component interdiffusion at the interfaces are averaged over the layer planes and are effectively represented by a diffusion concentration profile in the growth direction. The diffusion length LD is used as a parameter characterizing the degree of interface broadening. The electronic structure calculations are made using the sp3s* spin-dependent empirical tight-binding Hamiltonian, the virtual crystal approximation, and the surface Green function matching method. The dependencies of the lowest electron (E1), heavy hole (HH1), and light hole (LH1) bound states on the diffusion length are calculated for LD from 0 to 4 monolayers. It is found that the energies of the transitions (E1-HH1) and (E1-LH1) increase as LD increases. The results obtained are compared with photoluminescence data for MBE-grown samples. It is found that the degree of interface broadening depends on the growth temperature and on the sample geometry. The diffusion lengths calculated from the experimental data follow the expected trends, revealing a good qualitative agreement between theory and experiment.

  • 29.
    Shu, Rui
    et al.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Ge, Fangfang
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Meng, Fanping
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Li, Peng
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Ji
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Qing
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huang, Feng
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    One-step synthesis of polycrystalline V2AlC thin films on amorphous substrates by magnetron co-sputtering2017In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 146, p. 106-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We prepared V-Al-C films on glass and silicon (with native SiO2 layer) substrates using magnetron co-sputtering at 600 degrees C. The composition and microstructure of these films were characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Polycrystalline V2AlC phase was obtained in the films with nearly stoichiometric composition. The microstructural evolution includes random nucleation at the film/substrate interface, competitive growth resulting in a (110) preferred orientation with increasing thickness. The mechanism for crystallization could be understood in terms of polymorphic crystallization. The results show that polycrystalline MAX-phase V2AlC could be directly synthesized on amorphous substrates. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Toneva, A
    et al.
    Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia.
    Goranova, E
    Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia.
    Beshkov, G
    Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia.
    Marinova, T
    Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Sofia.
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, Anelia
    Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Sofia.
    FeSi2 thin films investigated by X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopy2000In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 58, no 2-3, p. 420-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of iron silicide prepared by ion-beam and by electron-beam evaporation of iron on silicon substrates and following rapid thermal processing are investigated. Low-energy argon ion sputtering of surface layer is used for depth profile XPS analysis. The Si2p, Fe2p3/2, O1s and C1s electron spectra are recorded. On the basis of established binding energies and infrared transmission spectra (200–600 cm−1) conclusion are made about the effect of the annealing temperature and duration on the chemical bond type and phase composition of the iron silicide films.

  • 31.
    Vishnyakov, V
    et al.
    Manchester Metropolitan University, UK.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Colligon, J
    Manchester Metropolitan University, UK.
    Ti3SiC2-formation during Ti–C–Si multilayer deposition by magnetron sputtering at 650 °C2013In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 93, p. 56-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium Silicon Carbide films were deposited from three separate magnetrons with elemental targets onto Si wafer substrates. The substrate was moved in a circular motion such that the substrate faces each magnetron in turn and only one atomic species (Ti, Si or C) is deposited at a time. This allows layer-by-layer film deposition. Material average composition was determined to Ti0.47Si0.14C0.39 by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to gain insights into thin film atomic structure arrangements. Using this new deposition technique formation of Ti3SiC2 MAX phase was obtained at a deposition temperature of 650 °C, while at lower temperatures only silicides and carbides are formed. Significant sharpening of Raman E2g and Ag peaks associated with Ti3SiC2 formation was observed.

  • 32.
    Wronkowska, A.A.
    et al.
    Institute of Mathematics and Physics, University of Technology and Agriculture, ul. Kaliskiego 7, 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland.
    Wronkowski, A.
    Institute of Mathematics and Physics, University of Technology and Agriculture, ul. Kaliskiego 7, 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Firszt, F.
    Institute of Physics, Nicholas Copernicus University, Torun, Poland.
    Legowski, S.
    L?gowski, S., Institute of Physics, Nicholas Copernicus University, Torun, Poland.
    Meczynska, H.
    M?czynska, H., Institute of Physics, Nicholas Copernicus University, Torun, Poland.
    Szatkowski, J.
    Institute of Physics, Nicholas Copernicus University, Torun, Poland.
    Characterisation of Cd1-xMgxSe solid solutions by spectroscopic ellipsometry2001In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 63, no 1-2, p. 233-239Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical properties of bulk Cd1-xMgxSe mixed crystals, grown from a CdSe, Mg, and Se melt by the Bridgman method, are presented. The alloys have a wurtzite type structure in the investigated range of composition, i.e. for 0 = x = 0.4. Measurements of the complex pseudo-dielectric function, = + ie2(?)>, were performed at room temperature in the photon energy range of 1.25-4.5 eV, using a computer-controlled variable angle of incidence ellipsometer. The spectral dependence of the effective refractive index and the absorption coefficient were also derived. The structure observed in the dielectric functions, attributed to the interband transitions E0, E0 + ?0 and E1, have been analysed by fitting the and d2/d?2 spectra to the damped harmonic oscillator and critical-point line shapes, respectively. For all critical points, the energy increases with increasing Mg concentration. The ellipsometric results of a fundamental band-gap shift due to Mg content are compared with the rate of increase of the excitonic energy, derived from photoluminescence spectra. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 33.
    Yuan, Kang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lin Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Li, Xin-Hai
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Yandong
    University of Science and Technology, Beijing, China.
    Hot corrosion behavior of HVOF-sprayed CoNiCrAlYSi coatings in a sulphate environment2015In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 122, no Part A, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HVOF-sprayed CoNiCrAlYSi coatings were tested at 900 °C in a hot corrosion environment containing sodium–potassium sulphates. The HVOF spraying caused the typical splat-on-splat structure. The results after the hot corrosion testing showed that the corrosion preferentially occurred at the coating surface and the splat boundaries. The oxidation along the splat boundaries can isolate the splat from the underlying coating matrix. In those isolated splats or coating parts, internal oxidation and nitridation of Al took place, following that the Al-depleted coating fragments were then oxidized to spinels. For those coatings which had a worse splat boundary quality (i.e. with higher porosity and intersplat oxides) or had a worse coating surface quality (i.e. with more small coating fragments therefore more interfaces), heavier corrosion attack was observed on those coatings due to the corrosion of the splats or the coating fragments. The results indicated that the as-sprayed coating quality including porosity and surface morphology was important for the hot-corrosion resistance of the coatings.

  • 34.
    Yuan, Kang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Li, Xin-Hai
    Finspang, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Hot Corrosion Behavior of HVOF-sprayed CoNiCrAlYSi Coatings in a Sulphate Environment2015In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 122, no part A, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HVOF-sprayed CoNiCrAlYSi coatings were tested at 900 °C in a hot corrosion environment containing sodium–potassium sulphates. The HVOF spraying caused the typical splat-on-splat structure. The results after the hot corrosion testing showed that the corrosion preferentially occurred at the coating surface and the splat boundaries. The oxidation along the splat boundaries can isolate the splat from the underlying coating matrix. In those isolated splats or coating parts, internal oxidation and nitridation of Al took place, following that the Al-depleted coating fragments were then oxidized to spinels. For those coatings which had a worse splat boundary quality (i.e. with higher porosity and intersplat oxides) or had a worse coating surface quality (i.e. with more small coating fragments therefore more interfaces), heavier corrosion attack was observed on those coatings due to the corrosion of the splats or the coating fragments. The results indicated that the as-sprayed coating quality including porosity and surface morphology was important for the hot-corrosion resistance of the coatings.

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