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  • 1.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optimizing ash wood chairs1997In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 291-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, forest research has been emphasised on mainly two species of wood, i.e. pine and spruce. However, we have also a number of hardwoods which could be utilised for furniture manufacturing, cabinets etc. Nowadays, these hardwoods are a slumbering resource in our country. Most of our broad leafed species are found as small stands inside our soft wood forests and hence not utilised in the most profitable way. For example, much of our birch wood is ground to paper fibres even if it would be perfect for high valued veneer. Instead, most of our birch. veneer is imported from Finland. In order to increase the interest for Swedish hardwoods we therefore have started research in this field and have now designed a chair made of ash wood,Fraxinus excelsior. Most chairs are made up of structural elements called indetermined frames which makes it a rather tedious task to analyse the internal forces in the frame. However, by using the Finite Element Method, FEM, it has been possible to reduce this drawback. This paper shows how a chair could be analysed, and designed, by use of methods common in other disciplines than furniture manufacturing. We also present results, in the form of stress-strain diagrams, from tests made on Swedish ash.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stability problems in optimized chairs?1996In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 339-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chairs and other furniture are seldom designed by help of structural mechanics and modern computers. Even if the designer uses a sophisticated CAD program, he, or she, will not use for example, finite element programs, FEM, in order to optimise the construction. Most furniture is made of wood or wood composites. Usually, structural mechanics is used for designing wood members in roof constructions and so forth. Because of the consequences of a breakdown, the allowable design stresses must be very low, about one third of the measured breaking strength. Smaller wood details could be chosen with more care and for chairs the result of a break would not necessarily lead to a disaster. However, a lot of the knowledge about how to design small wood structures emanates from the pre-war aeroplane industry. The difference between tensile and compression strength properties in wood also makes ordinary FEM programs hazardous to use because the background theory assumes that these properties are equal in magnitude. In this paper we show how to calculate the internal stresses of an undetermined chair frame and also show some material test results for Swedish alder, Alnus glutinosa.

  • 3. Palmqvist, J
    et al.
    Lenner, Matz
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Cutter head forces and load cell scanning2003In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 37, no 03-Apr, p. 199-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among the machinery found in wood manufacturing industries, routers and planers are the most commonly used. These tools, which many times are mounted on metal cylinders, actually operate only briefly, i.e., when a chip is cut from a piece of wood under process. The rest of the time the knife follows the cylinder surface and a cycloid is formed relative to the work piece, which in turn is fed into the machine. A number of knives are mounted on the cutter, which ascertain that the planed surface will become sufficiently planed and does not show too a wavy pattern. This works fine for high revolutions and low feeding speeds even if problems sometimes occur. Factories, however, naturally want to increase the overall manufacturing speed, which means that at the same time more defects are introduced at the planed surface. These defects are the result of the cutting process. In this paper, we examine, by use of a load cell, how the cutting forces vary during the formation of a wood chip. Wood is not an isotropic material and knots and other anomalies make the evaluation harder. In order to simplify the conditions, experiments are also shown from the cutting of a plastic polymer material as well as Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF). It is shown that the work piece vibrated intensely which littered all output data from the cell. Experience from the experiments however made it possible to design a computerised filter which saved only those registrations which were of interest while the others were set to zero. For beech, the forces were found to be of the magnitude 50 N/cm opposite to the feeding direction while the tranverse forces changed signs and had a magnitude of about 5 N/cm.

  • 4.
    Palmqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lenner, Matz
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Cutting-forces when up-milling in beech2005In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 674-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By use of a load cell, a computer and a fast scanning device we have examined the cutting-forces on the tool in a milling machine. Several experiments have been elaborated with different rotation and feeding speeds. The aim is to study, in detail, how wood chips are produced. By a better understanding of this process it must be possible to manufacture wooden details for furniture and other products with minimal errors and, hence, there will be reduced need for sanding and other expensive extra treatment in order to achieve an acceptable result of the finished surface. The load cell was used to register the forces in three directions. These registrations, however, were not easy to interpret because of the vibrations which were introduced in the experimental setup when milling started. A computerized filter therefore had to be used in order to extract only those registrations which were of interest. We found that the cutting forces in beech varied from approximately 40 up to 86 N/cm in the work-piece feed direction, i.e. in the Y-direction, and from about 14 to 51 N/cm in the X-direction, i.e. in the normal to the cut surface. A larger average chip thickness resulted in larger forces but we could not find a clear relationship which, in full, explained our result. © Springer-Verlag 2005.

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