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  • 1.
    Brenninkmeijer, Jonna
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, England; Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands; Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Schneider, Tanja
    Univ Oxford, England; Univ St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Woolgar, Steve
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Oxford, England.
    Witness and Silence in Neuromarketing: Managing the Gap between Science and Its Application2020In: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 62-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decades commercial and academic market(ing) researchers have studied consumers through a range of different methods including surveys, focus groups, or interviews. More recently, some have turned to the growing field of neuroscience to understand consumers. Neuromarketing employs brain imaging, scanning, or other brain measurement technologies to capture consumers (brain) responses to marketing stimuli and to circumvent the "problem" of relying on consumers self-reports. This paper presents findings of an ethnographic study of neuromarketing research practices in one neuromarketing consultancy. Our access to the minutiae of commercial neuromarketing research provides important insights into how neuromarketers silence the neuromarketing test subject in their experiments and presentations and how they introduce the brain as an unimpeachable witness. This enables us conceptually to reconsider the role of witnesses in the achievement of scientific credibility, as prominently discussed in science and technology studies (STS). Specifically, we probe the role witnesses and silences play in establishing and maintaining credibility in and for "commercial research laboratories." We propose three themes that have wider relevance for STS researchers and require further attention when studying newly emerging research fields and practices that straddle science and its commercial application.

  • 2.
    Galis, Vasilis
    et al.
    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lee, Francis
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Sociology of Treason: The Construction of Weakness2014In: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 154-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of translation has both an excluding and including character. The analysis of actor networks, the process of mobilizing alliances, and constructing networks is a common and worthwhile focus. However, the simultaneous betrayals, dissidences, and controversies are often only implied in network construction stories. We aim to nuance the construc- tion aspect of actor–network theory (ANT) by shining the analytical searchlight elsewhere, where the theoretical tools of ANT have not yet systematically ventured. We argue that we need to understand every process of translation in relation to its simultaneous process of treason, and to add antonyms for Callon’s problematization, intressement, enrollment, and mobilization. This enables us to describe powerlessness not as a state but as a process. Our case focuses on the network building around mea- sures for disabled people in the construction of the Athens Metro, during the period 1991-1993. The discussion highlights the efforts of disability organizations to intervene in the initial construction works of the metro project and the simultaneous actions of the Greek government to exclude disability organizations from the design process and to disrupt the accessibility-metro actor network. 

  • 3.
    Hellstrom, T.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Jacob, Merle
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Taming unruly science and saving national competitiveness: Discourses on science by Sweden's strategic research bodies2005In: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 443-467Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Promoting collaboration between university researchers and practitioners from the business and public sectors has emerged as an important tool of science policy. This article examines the discourses that policy makers employ in promoting this strategy by analyzing the narratives about the social relevance of science and its role vis-à-vis the industrial sector in the context of strategic research funding in Sweden. Four dominant discourses on science are identified and discussed. It is argued that these policy frames construct a boundary between research and practice, which is in turn used as rhetorical justification for research funding policies that seek to increase business influence and input to university research at the expense of academic autonomy in this sphere. © 2005 Sage Publications.

  • 4.
    Johnson, Ericka
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Out of my viewfinder, yet in the picture: Seeing the hospital in medical simulations2008In: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 53-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research examines the integration of medical simulators into medical education. Training on a haptic enabled surgery simulator has been observed with an eye to the context of the medical apprenticeship. Videotape of simulations and ethnographic observations at the simulator center are analyzed using the theoretical tools of legitimate peripheral practice and identity construction. In doing so it becomes apparent that simulations are much more than just a forum for the transfer of specific medical skills. Though they may be designed to facilitate discrete aspects of surgical practice, when in use the simulators are surrounded by the rich and varied social interactions that make up the medical apprenticeship. These social aspects contribute to the creation of medical practices out of simulator practices, so that working on the simulator can still be experienced as part of the situated learning otherwise conducted during the internship (clinical clerkship) of medical training.

  • 5.
    Lövbrand, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Pielke Jr, Roger
    University of Colorado, Boulder.
    Beck, Silke
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research.
    A democracy paradox in studies of science and society?2011In: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 474-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today many scholars seem to agree that citizens should be involved in expert deliberations on science and technology issues. This interest in public deliberation has gained attraction in many practical settings, especially in the European Union, and holds the promise of more legitimate governance of science and technology. In this article, the authors draw on the European Commission’s (EC) report “Taking the European Knowledge Society Seriously” to ask how legitimate these efforts to “democratize” scientific expertise really are. While the report borrows from deliberative democrats' normative accounts of legitimacy, the authors identify a tension between the principles for legitimate rule prescribed by deliberative democratic theory and the report’s celebration of diversity and dissent. While this inconsistency suggests that the legitimacy of deliberative governance arrangements is justified on empirical rather than normative grounds, it remains an open question whether studies of science and technology offer enough empirical support for such a justification. In this article, the authors address this pressing question and propose three possible responses.

  • 6.
    Mellström, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Patriarchal machines and masculine embodiment2002In: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 460-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hegemonic masculinity is a concept that lit is been of central concern in gender research on different musculinities. However, with the exception of the pioneering work of Wajcman, it has not been widely discussed in relation to studies of science and technology. In this article, which mainly draws on anthropological fieldwork among car and motor mechanics in Penang, Malaysia, a certain form of hegemonic masculinity based on an intimate embodied interaction with machines, is being discussed. Such a masculinity is furthermore founded on an anthropomorphization of the man-machine relationship in which the machines are transformed into subjects in what might be termed a masculine technical sociability. In such a sociability, machines are understood as a means of a performative and embodied communication enabling masculine homosocial bonding linkages.

  • 7.
    Moats, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Following the Fukushima Disaster on (and against) Wikipedia: A Methodological Note about STS Research and Online Platforms2019In: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 938-964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Science and technology studies is famous for questioning conceptual and material boundaries by following controversies that cut across them. However, it has recently been argued that in research involving online platforms (Wikipedia, Facebook, Twitter, etc.), there are also more practical boundaries to negotiate that are created by the variable availability, visibility, and structuring of data. In this paper, I highlight a potential tension between our inclination toward following controversies and “following the medium” and suggest that sometimes following controversies might involve going “against platforms” as well as with them. I will illustrate this dilemma through an analysis of the controversy over the coverage of the Fukushima disaster on English language Wikipedia, which concerns boundaries between expert and lay knowledge but also the social and technical functioning of Wikipedia itself. For this reason, I show that following the controversy might mean making use of less formatted and less obvious data than Wikipedia normally provides. While this is not an argument against the use of automated digital research tools such as scrapers, I suggest that both quantitative and qualitative researchers need to be more willing to tweak their approaches based on the specificities of the case.

  • 8.
    Moats, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    McFall, Liz
    Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom.
    In Search of a Problem: Mapping Controversies over NHS (England) Patient Data with Digital Tools2019In: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 478-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a long history in science and technology studies (STS) of tracking problematic objects, such as controversies, matters of concern, and issues, using various digital tools. But what happens when public problems do not play out in these familiar ways? In this paper, we will think through the methodological implications of studying “problems” in relation to recent events surrounding the sharing of patient data in the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. When a data sharing agreement called care.data was announced in 2013, nearly 1.5 million citizens chose to opt out. Yet, in subsequent years, there has been little evidence of a robust public mobilising around data sharing. We will attempt to track this elusive ‘non problem’ using some digital tools developed in STS for the purpose of mapping issues and problem definitions within science. Although we find these digital tools are unable to capture the “problem,” the process of searching helps us map the terrain of the case and forces us to consider wider definitions.

  • 9.
    Summerton, Jane
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Do electrons have politics? Constructing user identities in Swedish electricity2004In: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 486-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity systems in many parts of Europe and the United States are currently undergoing transformations that have potentially profound implications for managerial practice and the politics of user identities within these systems. After more than a century of "universal service" that provided technical goods and services to all users on essentially equal terms, utility managers are now constructing and exploiting heterogeneity and difference among users. This article explores local managerial practices within Swedish electricity in the mid-1990s, where managers promoted "brand-name" electricity as a strategy for configuring identities for users, their utilities, and electricity itself. These dynamics are analyzed using theoretical perspectives from two bodies of science and technology studies on configuring users' identities. The article then analyzes the emergent practices and their theoretical and political implications for understanding of how and why artifacts, users, and organizational entities are coconstituted in ongoing techno-scientific practice in infrastructural systems.

  • 10.
    Wallsten, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Urks and the Urban Subsurface as Geosocial Formation2016In: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 827-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates “urks”, i.e., disconnected parts of urban infrastructure that remain in their subsurface location. The reason for engaging in this topic is resource scarcity concerns, as urks contain large amounts of copper and aluminum that could be “mined” for the benefit of the environment.

    Our starting point is that there is a certain non–stagnant capacity of waste–like entities such as urks and that their resistance to categorization is crucial to encapsulate their political potential (cf. Hawkins, 2006; Moore, 2012; Hird, 2013). We investigate how this indeterminate capacity has implications in terms of where future trajectories for urk recovery are conceivable.

    The study is based on interviews with respondents from the infrastructure and waste sectors in Sweden. By stressing the relationship between urks and their geo–social subsurface surroundings, we use the respondents’ exploratory interpretations of urks to outline a spectrum of issues that should be further discussed for urks to become a matter of concern. The negotiation of these issues, we suggest, can be conceived of as a form of navigation along the perceived fault lines between actors and priorities, and they must be resolved for increased urk recovery to occur.

1 - 10 of 10
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