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  • 1.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The cumulative power of incremental innovation and the role of project sequence management2019In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 461-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In innovation and project management studies incremental development projects are perceived as theoreticlly and organisationallyuninteresting. By means of a longitudinal study of product improvement projects at an automobile firm, this paper challenges such views andshows how the cumulative impact of the studied sequence resulted in a competitive repositioning of the company's product portfolio during afinancially difficult period. Project managers achieved this by transcending the separation between exploration and exploitation projects; they notonly adhered to time, cost and quality goals but also tried out new ways of testing and experimenting with controversial technical ideas. The paperanalyzes the intensive inter project learning that generated these ambidextrous capabilities and emphasizes that practices at the project-level need tobe buttressed by expanded management learning and capability development also at the sequence level.

  • 2.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Norway.
    Rethinking project management education: Social twists and knowledge co-production2008In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 286-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Projects play an important role in modern enterprises, not only as arenas for corporate renewal and capability integration, but also for the development of leadership capacity. As a consequence, the area of project management is becoming increasingly important for universities and management educators. Previous research and reports, however, have given severe critique to much of the project management education for its lack of relevance and rigor - but offered surprisingly little guidance as to what to do to deal with the problems. In this paper, our aim is to contribute to the current debate about project management education for practicing managers. We draw on more than ten years of experience from two senior-level education programs to show how educational practices can be developed to stimulate knowledge co-production between practitioners and academia. We suggest a model based on a "social twist" of experiential learning theory and discuss six learning modes of how to rejuvenate, stretch and improve project management education.

  • 3.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Anderson, Christian
    Clients, contractors, and consultants - The consequences of organizational fragmentation in contemporary project environments2001In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 32, no No. 3, p. 39-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Brady, T
    et al.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Special Issue on Projects in Innovation, Innovation i Projects2008In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 26, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Brady, Tim
    et al.
    Brighton University, UK.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Projects in innovation, innovation in projects: selected papers from the IRNOP VIII conference2008In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 465-468Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Bredin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    People capability of project based organisations: A conceptual framework2008In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 566-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a conceptual framework intended to increase the understanding of human resource management (HRM) in project-based organisations. Drawing on the capabilities perspective on project-based organisations, it makes two main contributions. First, it proposes the concept of ‘people capability’ to broaden the conceptualisation of HRM in project-based organisations. Secondly, building on the framework proposed by Davies and Brady [Davies A, Brady T. Organisational capabilities and learning in complex product systems: towards repeatable solutions. Res Policy 2000;29(7–8):931–53], an extended conceptual framework for people capability of project-based organisations is suggested. In this framework, people management systems are conceived as the expression of an integration of people capability with strategic, functional and project capabilities. Based on this framework, three sets of activities for the people management system in project-based organisations are identified. Finally, the paper discusses possible avenues for future research within the area of organisational capabilities of project-based organisations.

  • 7.
    Bredin, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Project managers and career models:: An explorative, comparative study2013In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 889-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research has paid little attention to the careers and career models of project managers. This is troublesome for at least two reasons. First, project managers are becoming an increasingly important category of managers and today they constitute a major part of many organizations' leadership capability. Second, traditional literature on careers generally does not address project-based careers as a specific case in point, although this kind of career is unique in the sense that it is based on temporary assignments and lack of formal positions. The research presented in this paper identifies and explains patterns of similarities and differences among applied career models in ten large, mature project-intensive firms in Sweden. The paper identifies a number of factors that seem to be critical for the design of career models for project managers, including the number of levels, the complexity of assignments, and the degree of formal requirements. The paper also outlines two archetypes of career models applied by the firms under study: the competence strategy model and the talent management model.

  • 8.
    Canonico, P.
    et al.
    University of Napoli Federico II, Italy.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Getting control of multi-project organizations: Combining contingent control mechanisms2010In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 796-806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on management control has expanded considerably in the past few decades, yet only a limited number of publications have been devoted to multi-project organizations (MPOs). This is somewhat a problem given the increasing rise and importance of project-based structures and the role of project management as a significant part of many firms' management control system. This paper elaborates on a contingency framework of management control in MPOs and aims at investigating the control issues that call for holistic frameworks of control mechanisms. Relying on a comparative case study, the analysis shows how control mechanisms are deployed and what implications different choices of management control systems have on the organizational structure of MPOs. In particular, the paper addresses the importance technical complementarities, and the role of ‘project interdependencies’ and ‘project openness’ for the design of management control system

  • 9.
    Dille, T.
    et al.
    BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Managing inter-institutional projects: The significance of isochronism, timing norms and temporal misfits2011In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 480-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional analysis of project organization has paid limited attention to projects in their institutional environment. Such analysis would be particularly relevant and important when dealing with projects in which actors represent different institutional environments. Accordingly, this paper suggests and defines the notion of “inter-institutional projects” and develops a conceptual framework consisting of three concepts and a set of guiding propositions. The following concepts are singled out: (1) isochronism highlights an important aspect of institutions and particularly how organizations within the same organizational field come to resemble each other in the tempos and phases of their activity cycles; (2) the notion of timing norms is used to analyze the surrounding rhythms and beats of the project at the institutional level and recognizes that different actors and involved units in the project adhere to conflicting timing norms; and (3) the concept of temporal fit/misfit is used to analyze the conflicting timing norms among organizations within the same project. The paper ends with implications and ideas for future research

  • 10.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Enabling Knowledge Integration in Coopetitive R&D Projects: The Management of Conflicting Logics2012In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 771-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of how knowledgeintegration can be managed in coopetitiveR&D projects. The findings from this study imply that knowledgeintegration in a coopetitiveR&D project is not built on shared knowledge or a shared understanding of the content of project work but that knowledgeintegration is enabled by a shared understanding of the process of project work. Such understanding can be established by the use of mechanisms such as planning and process specification and presentation genres. These mechanisms support the process of knowledgeintegration while simultaneously putting constraints on what knowledge is exchanged and they can structure discussions when face-to-face communication takes place. The findings further suggest that, to avoid unintended knowledge leakages, individual and collective settings of project work should be clearly separated such that problem solving stays an individual activity while decision making still rests with the project team as a collective activity.

  • 11.
    Lindkvist, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Project organization: Exploring its adaptation properties2008In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 13-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms investing in project organization often do so in order to become more flexible, adaptable and customer-oriented. This promotes the question of whether there are specific properties of project organization, which contribute to instilling such capabilities in a firm, and if so, what managers could do in order to bring them on board. I discuss how certain project organization features may be conducive to that end, and suggest that project-level processes display features of an evolutionary learning process, with pre-selection, variation and retention as distinguishable process steps. Similarly, at higher levels within project-based firms, projects can be used as experiments within trial-and-error based strategic learning. A case study of a project-based firm is used to illustrate the propositions and managerial implications put forward. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd and IPMA.

  • 12.
    Sense, A.J.
    et al.
    Ctr. Change Mgmt. within Dept. Mgmt., Faculty of Commerce, Wollongong University, Wollongong, Australia.
    Antoni, Marc
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Exploring the politics of project learning2003In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 487-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competitive advantage for project success will only be realized when project team members effectively access, absorb and apply the multiple learning opportunities that exist within and across projects and, manage the political dimension effectively. These items as individual entities are important project variables to be addressed. Both are also linked. In making a contribution to understanding this nexus, this paper combines and explores case study research findings from 'within a project' and 'across projects' from two countries, which illuminates some 'central agitators' of politics impacting project learning. These revelations have implications for both practitioners and project management researchers. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd and IPMA. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Stjerne, Iben Sandal
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark DTU, Denmark.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norway, Norway.
    Minbaeva, Dana
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Denmark.
    Crossing times: Temporal boundary-spanning practices in interorganizational projects2019In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 347-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the notion of "temporal boundary spanning" and highlights the key role of project management in resolving temporal tensions among partners participating in interorganizational projects (IOPs). The present study, which is based on data from 93 IOPs undertaken within a major change program, relies on in-depth, semi-structured interviews, observations, and detailed analyses of written documents and procedures from those IOPs. Based on the data, we inductively develop a practice-based theory that identifies three main practices (framing, synchronizing, hyping) used to resolve the central temporal tensions observed in the studied IOPs. In that respect, the paper offers novel insights into the role and practice of project management in IOPs. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd, APM and IPMA. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Analyzing the contexts and processes of inter-firm projects1998In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 4, no No. 1, p. 86-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Building theories of project management: Past research, questions for the future2004In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 183-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Project management has long been considered as an academic field for planning-oriented techniques and, in many respects, an application of engineering science and optimization theory. Much research has also been devoted to the search for the generic factors of project success. Project management has, however, in the last decade received wider interest from other academic disciplines. As the field rapidly expands, the need for an internal discussion and debate about project management research increases. Project management and project organization is a complex subject and, we argue, is usefully examined from several perspectives. In this paper we discuss the emerging perspectives within the project field. The paper also presents a number of questions that project research to a greater extent should acknowledge. The questions concern issues such as why project organizations exist, how they behave and why they differ. The principal argument is that too much effort has been dedicated to clarifying the reasons of project success and failure, while downplaying a number of important research questions that need to be discussed in order to further the knowledge about project management. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd and IPMA. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Knowledge entrainment and project management: The case of large-scale transformation projects2010In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 130-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of change processes and initiatives are organized and implemented as projects, often through the formation of large-scale transformation projects (LST). involving a great number of specialists, departments, partners, development work, and knowledge bases. The theoretical foundation that supports the choice of managing change as projects and, in effect. the role of project management has received surprisingly little attention in the Current literature, In this paper, we present a model where the success of change initiatives is explained by the quality of project management, which in turn is determined by the quality of knowledge integration. The Outlined model highlights knowledge integration as a process determined by the scope and speed of change, which typically result in problems with synchronization of activities within an LST project. Our model draws oil the idea of knowledge entrainment to explain the fact that different parts (organizations, teams, individuals) tend to develop different time orientations and hence rely on different cycles of knowledge processes. This has important effects oil the absorptive capacity of the involved parts of the project and the amount of information and knowledge that the project can digest. This paper discusses different knowledge-entrainment mechanisms and their effects on the role and practice of project management. Empirical data from an LST project in Posten. one of Northern Europes largest messaging and logistics operators, illustrate the model. The paper contributes to the analysis of the relationships between knowledge integration and time, particularly in LST projects.

  • 17.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    On the broadening scope of the research on projects: A review and a model for analysis2004In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 655-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, we have witnessed an increased interest in the research on projects and project management. The aim of this article is to review, classify and analyze the recent contributions within the field. This paper is based on two sets of data: (1) project-related research published in major management and organization scientific journals, and (2) articles published between 1993 and 2002 in the International Journal of Project Management. The article offers a framework suitable for analyzing the developments made and the different perspectives launched. It is submitted that "project research" instead of project management research might be a better concept for capturing the current state of the field. We also show that papers in the International Journal of Project Management have devoted little attention to research on contexts of multi-projects and multi-firms, a context that is considered to be of great importance for the future of project studies. The recent developments illustrate the need to better integrate project management with the general developments in management and organization. Of special importance, we conclude, is the one that we label project ecologies. We also believe that this concept, and research focus, might be of value for practitioners as it describes the way many modern industries work. The paper contributes to the internal debate about the content and identity of project research.

  • 18.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    On the development of project management research: schools of thought and critique2002In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 6, no No. 1, p. 20-31Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    et al.
    BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Bakker, R.
    Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    The case for good reviewing2013In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    et al.
    BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Lenfle, S.
    University of Cergy-Pontoise (THEMA) & CRG, Ecole Polytechnique, France.
    Making project history: Revisiting the past, creating the future2013In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 653-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To this point, project management scholars and historians have carried out surprisingly little research on the landmark projects of our past. This paper argues for the need for delineating Project History as a subject area that ties project management with history. The paper presents the need for more research into this area, the nature and the content of this specific subject area, and the potential contributions that might come out of research within it — for history (management history, business history, and technology history) and project management. The paper also gives an overview of the papers included in the special issue, and offers some ideas of future research in Project History.

  • 21.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Norway.
    Lenfle, Sylvain
    University of Cergy-Pontoise (THEMA), France; Management Research Center, Ecole Polytechnique, France.
    Special issue: Project history: International journal of project management2011In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 491-493Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 22.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    et al.
    BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Maylor, H.
    Cranfield School of Management, UK.
    Project management scholarship: relevance, impact and five integrative challenges for business and management schools2012In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 686-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the standing of project management in the academy. It does so from the viewpoint of business and management schools. The paper identifies five critical integrative challenges concerning research, how they might be better addressed and perhaps turned into opportunities. The paper builds on recent debates within the area of engaged scholarship and knowledge co-production, which call for greater focus on multi-disciplinarity and research–practice collaborations. The paper offers suggestions as to what project management scholars could do to tackle the identified challenges and thereby improve the standing of project management as a subject area within the academy and its contribution to the curriculum and research agenda of business and management schools. The paper ends with some thoughts about future debates on the role of project management research and teaching, especially how project management scholarship could help respond to some of the current criticism of business school research and how research could better inform management practice.

  • 23.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The P-form organization and the dynamics of project competence: Project epochs in Asea/ABB, 1950-20002009In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper links the evolution of the firm to the practice of project management based on a longitudinal, in-depth study of Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) over a period of more than fifty years. It is suggested that Asea/ABB is an example of a project-based firm, which, in a neo-Chandlerian vein, exhibits P-form characteristics. The analysis presented extends previous findings reported in the literature on firm-level capabilities by integrating the analyses of project competence and specifically the nature and emergence of so-called project epochs. We identify four project epochs in the history of Asea/ABB which represent different forms of project competence. In the analytical section, we focus on how ABB managed to shift epochs to enhance its project competence. The paper offers new insights into the characteristics and dynamic capabilities of P-form organizations.

  • 24.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Vaagaasaar, A.
    BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Andersen, E.
    BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Relating, reflecting and routinizing: Developing project competence in cooperation with others2008In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 517-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world where projects represent an increasingly important organizational and economic unit, the capability of generating and executing projects becomes critical for company performance and sustainability of firm-level competitiveness. Despite recent contributions to the area of project-capability building, many of the challenges remain largely unexplored areas of research. The aim of this paper is to increase our understanding of how firms develop competence in a focal project. To accomplish this, we use an in-depth study of a complex development and implementation project. Applying a 'process approach' to the study of project competence, we identify three separate learning mechanisms: relating, reflecting and routinizing. We show how these mechanisms contribute mutually to the expansion and utilization of the resource base of the project.

  • 25.
    Taxén, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lilliesköld, Joakim
    Department of Industrial Information and Control Systems The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Images as action instruments in complex projects2008In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 527-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Images such as Gantt, WBS, PERT, and CPM have always played an important role in project management. In recent years, new types of images have emerged in complex development projects. The purpose of this paper is to make an inquiry into how project management activities are supported by these alternative images, and suggest reasons why the more traditional images appear to be inadequate during turbulent and complex circumstances. In conclusion, we find that the alternative images are a means to managing integration activities and critical dependencies in a project. Typically, they emphasize common understanding and comprehensibility over formalism and rigour. These alternative images seem to be resonant with how our mental cognitive apparatus conceives coordination, thus making it easier to manage complex development tasks.

  • 26.
    Taxén, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Daniel
    Volvo Information Technology, Industrial Solutions.
    Towards an Alternative Foundation for Managing Product Life-Cycles in Turbulent Environments2005In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 2, no 1-2, p. 24-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the deregulation of the markets and the introduction of new technologies, the need to manage diversification, change and complexity in product development has become crucial. To cope with this situation an alternative foundation for PLM is needed in which social issues are considered alongside with more traditional, technical ones. Such a major re-orientation of PLM needs to be informed by a theoretical perspective, which integrates social and technical issues into a coherent sociotechnical framework. To this end we propose the Activity Domain Theory. This theory has been used as a guide at the Ericsson telecommunication company in order to suggest an alternative foundation for PLM. Preliminary results are the enhancement of the organisational language with the construct of activity domains, a clean-up of fundamental categories in information management, a multi-domain product structure concept, an alternative business process model, an information system  managing core information elements and a strategy towards balancing centralised and decentralised control.

  • 27.
    Wikström, Kim
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland; PBI — Research Institute for Project-Based Industry, Finland.
    Artto, Karlos
    Aalto University, AALTO, Finland.
    Kujala, Jaakko
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Business models in project business2010In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 832-841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent management and business research has demonstrated the importance of business models for value creation and company performance. So far, extant research on business models has not investigated the particular requirements, characteristics and combinations of business models in project business. This paper seeks to fill this void. The paper reports on findings from an exploratory multiple case study comprising six project-based firms operating in such industries as shipbuilding, telecom, and power systems. 19 business models were identified and compared through a framework utilizing elements of business models. The identified business models are further grouped into three categories based on the organizational entity. The paper points out the diversity of business models in project business and their inclination to span organizational levels. The results demonstrate the importance of addressing the combination of business models across organizational boundaries.

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