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  • 1.
    Aldred, Nick
    et al.
    Newcastle University.
    Ekblad, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Clare, Anthony S.
    Newcastle University.
    Real-Time Quantification of Microscale Bioadhesion Events In situ Using Imaging Surface Plasmon Resonance (iSPR)2011In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 3, no 6, p. 2085-2091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From macro- to nanoscales, adhesion phenomena are all-pervasive in nature yet remain poorly understood. In recent years, studies of biological adhesion mechanisms, terrestrial and marine, have provided inspiration for "biomimetic" adhesion strategies and important insights for the development of fouling-resistant materials. Although the focus of most contemporary bioadhesion research is on large organisms such as marine mussels, insects and geckos, adhesion events on the micro/nanoscale are critical to our understanding of important underlying mechanisms. Observing and quantifying adhesion at this scale is particularly relevant for the development of biomedical implants and in the prevention of marine biofouling. However, such characterization has so far been restricted by insufficient quantities of material for biochemical analysis and the limitations of contemporary imaging techniques. Here, we introduce a recently developed optical method that allows precise determination of adhesive deposition by microscale organisms in situ and in real time; a capability not before demonstrated. In this extended study we used the cypris larvae of barnacles and a combination of conventional and imaging surface plasmon resonance techniques to observe and quantify adhesive deposition onto a range of model surfaces (CH(3)-, COOH-, NH(3)-, and mPEG-terminated SAMs and a PEGMA/HEMA hydrogel). We then correlated this deposition to passive adsorption of a putatively adhesive protein from barnacles. In this way, we were able to rank surfaces in order of effectiveness for preventing barnacle cyprid exploration and demonstrate the importance of observing the natural process of adhesion, rather than predicting surface effects from a model system. As well as contributing fundamentally to the knowledge on the adhesion and adhesives of barnacle larvae, a potential target for future biomimetic glues, this method also provides a versatile technique for laboratory testing of fouling-resistant chemistries.

  • 2.
    Apaydin, Dogukan H.
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Gora, Monika
    University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Portenkirchner, Engelbert
    University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Oppelt, Kerstin T.
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Neugebauer, Helmut
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Jakesoya, Marie
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Glowacki, Eric D.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kunze-Liebhaeuser, Julia
    University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Zagorska, Malgorzata
    Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Mieczkowski, Jozef
    University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Serdar Sariciftci, Niyazi
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Electrochemical Capture and Release of CO2 in Aqueous Electrolytes Using an Organic Semiconductor Electrode2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 15, p. 12919-12923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing efficient methods for capture and controlled release of carbon dioxide is crucial to any carbon. capture and utilization technology. Herein we present an approach using an organic. semiconductor electrode to electrochemically capture dissolved CO2 in aqueous electrolytes. The process relies on electrochemical reduction of a thin film of a naphthalene bisimide derivative, 2,7,bis (4-(2- (2-ethylhexyl)thiazol-4-yl)phenyObenzo [lmn][3,8] phenanthroline-1,3,6,8(2H,7H)-tetraone (NBIT). This molecule is specifically tailored to afford one-electron reversible and one-electron quasi-reversible reduction in aqueous conditions while, not dissolving or degrading. The reduced NBIT reacts with CO2 to form a stable aemicarbonate salt, which can be subsequently oxidized electrochemically to release CO2. The semicarbonate structure is confirmed by in situ IR spectroelectrochemistry. This process of capturing and releasing carbon dioxide can be realized in an oxygen-free environment under ambient pressure and temperature, with uptake efficiency for CO2 capture of similar to 2.3 mmol g(-1). This is on par with the best solution-phase amine chemical capture technologies available today.

  • 3.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Aix Marseille University, France.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cross-Linked Polyelectrolyte for Improved Selectivity and Processability of lontronic Systems2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 36, p. 30247-30252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-demand local release of biomolecules enables fine-tuned stimulation for the next generation of neuromodulation therapies. Such chemical stimulation is achievable using iontronic devices based on microfabricated, highly selective ion exchange membranes (IEMs). Current limitations in processability and performance of thin film LEMs hamper future developments of this technology. Here we address this limitation by developing a cationic IEM with excellent processability and ionic selectivity: poly(4-styrenesulfonic acidco-maleic acid) (PSS-co-MA) cross-linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG). This enables new design opportunities and provides enhanced compatibility with in vitro cell studies. PSSA-co-MA/PEG is shown to out-perform the cation selectivity of the previously used iontronic material.

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  • 4.
    Bakoglidis, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Manchester, England.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    dos Santos, Renato B.
    Univ Fed Bahia, Brazil.
    Rivelino, Roberto
    Univ Fed Bahia, Brazil.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueorguiev, Gueorgui Kostov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Self-Healing in Carbon Nitride Evidenced As Material Inflation and Superlubric Behavior2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 19, p. 16238-16243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All known materials wear under extended mechanical contacting. Superlubricity may present solutions, but is an expressed mystery in C-based materials. We report negative wear of carbon nitride films; a wear-less condition with mechanically induced material inflation at the nanoscale and friction coefficient approaching ultralow values (0.06). Superlubricity in carbon nitride is expressed as C-N bond breaking for reduced coupling between graphitic-like sheets and eventual N-2 desorption. The transforming surface layer acts as a solid lubricant, whereas the film bulk retains its high elasticity. The present findings offer new means for materials design at the atomic level, and for property optimization in wear-critical applications like magnetic reading devices or nanomachines.

  • 5.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. East China Normal University, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Yanqing
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Jianxin
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Duan, Chungang
    East China Normal University, Peoples R China.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy Level Alignment of N-Doping Fullerenes and Fullerene Derivatives Using Air-Stable Dopant2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 40, p. 35476-35482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Doping has been proved to be one of the powerful technologies to achieve significant improvement in the performance of organic electronic devices. Herein, we systematically map out the interface properties of solution-processed air-stable n-type (4(1,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)phenyl) doping fullerenes and fullerene derivatives and establish a universal energy level alignment scheme for this class of n-doped system. At low doping levels at which the charge-transfer doping induces mainly bound charges, the energy level alignment of the n-doping organic semiconductor can be described by combining integer charger transfer-induced shifts with a so-called double-dipole step. At high doping levels, significant densities of free charges are generated and the charge flows between the organic film and the conducting electrodes equilibrating the Fermi level in a classic "depletion layer" scheme. Moreover, we demonstrate that the model holds for both n- and p-doping of pi-backbone molecules and polymers. With the results, we provide wide guidance for identifying the application of the current organic n-type doping technology in organic electronics.

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  • 6.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Jianming
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Yanqing
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Jianxin
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Duan, Chungang
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Effect of Oxygen Uptake on Charge Injection Barriers in Conjugated Polymer Films2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 6491-6497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy offset between the electrode Fermi level and organic semiconductor transport levels is a key parameter controlling the charge injection barrier and hence efficiency of organic electronic devices. Here, we systematically explore the effect of in situ oxygen exposure on energetics in n-type conjugated polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) films. The analysis reveals that an interfacial potential step is introduced for a series of P(NDI2OD-T2) electrode contacts, causing a nearly constant downshift of the vacuum level, while the ionization energies versus vacuum level remain constant. These findings are attributed to the establishment of a so-called double-dipole step via motion of charged molecules and will modify the charge injection barriers at electrode contact. We further demonstrate that the same behavior occurs when oxygen interacts with p-type polymer TQ1 films, indicating it is possible to be a universal effect for organic semiconductOrs.

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  • 7.
    Ben Dkhil, Sadok
    et al.
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Gaceur, Meriem
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Karim Diallo, Abdou
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Didane, Yahia
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Margeat, Olivier
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Ackermann, Jorg
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Videlot-Ackermann, Christine
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Reduction of Charge-Carrier Recombination at ZnO Polymer Blend Interfaces in PTB7-Based Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Using Regular Device Structure: Impact of ZnO Nanoparticle Size and Surfactant2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 20, p. 17257-17265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cathode interfacial layers, also called electron extraction layers (EELs), based on zinc oxide (ZnO) have been studied in polymer-blend solar cells toward optimization of the opto-electric properties. Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on poly( {4, 8-bis [(2- ethylhexyl) oxy]b enzo [1,2- b :4,5-b dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]- thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediy1}) (PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) were realized in regular structure with all-solution-processed interlayers. A pair of commercially available surfactants, ethanolamine (EA) and ethylene glycol (EG), were used to modify the surface of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in alcohol-based dispersion. The influence of ZnO particle size was also studied by preparing dispersions of two NP diameters (6 versus 11 nm). Here, we show that performance improvement can be obtained in polymer solar cells via the use of solution-processed ZnO EELs based on surface-modified nanoparticles. By the optimizing of the ZnO dispersion, surfactant ratio, and the resulting morphology of EELs, PTB7/PC70BM solar cells with a power-conversion efficiency of 8.2% could be obtained using small sized EG-modified ZnO NPs that allow the clear enhancement of the performance of solution processed photovoltaic devices compared to state-of-the-art ZnO-based cathode layers.

  • 8.
    Boda, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Screen-Printed Corrosion-Resistant and Long-Term Stable Stretchable Electronics Based on AgAu Microflake Conductors2023In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 12372-12382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-throughput production methods such as screen printing can bring stretchable electronics out of the lab into the market. Most stretchable conductor inks for screen printing are based on silver nanoparticles or flakes due to their favorable performance-to-cost ratio, but silver is prone to tarnishing and corrosion, thereby limiting the stability of such conductors. Here, we report on a cost-efficient and scalable approach to resolve this issue by developing screen printable inks based on silver flakes chemically coated by a thin layer of gold. The printed stretchable AgAu conductors reach a conductivity of 8500 S cm-1, remain conductive up to 250% strain, show excellent corrosion and tarnishing stability, and are used to demonstrate wearable LED and NFC circuits. The reported approach is attractive for smart clothing, as the long-term functionality of such devices is expected in a variety of environments.

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  • 9.
    Brodsky, Jan
    et al.
    Brno Univ Technol, Czech Republic; Inst Sci Instruments CAS, Czech Republic.
    Gablech, Imrich
    Brno Univ Technol, Czech Republic; Brno Univ Technol, Czech Republic.
    Migliaccio, Ludovico
    Brno Univ Technol, Czech Republic.
    Havlicek, Marek
    Brno Univ Technol, Czech Republic; Czech Metrol Inst, Czech Republic.
    Donahue, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Glowacki, Eric D.
    Brno Univ Technol, Czech Republic.
    Downsizing the Channel Length of Vertical Organic Electrochemical Transistors2023In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 15, no 22, p. 27002-27009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are promisingbuildingblocks for bioelectronic devices such as sensors and neural interfaces.While the majority of OECTs use simple planar geometry, there is interestin exploring how these devices operate with much shorter channelson the submicron scale. Here, we show a practical route toward theminimization of the channel length of the transistor using traditionalphotolithography, enabling large-scale utilization. We describe thefabrication of such transistors using two types of conducting polymers.First, commercial solution-processed poly-(dioxyethylenethiophene):poly-(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS. Next, we also exploit the short channel lengthto support easy in situ electropolymerization of poly-(dioxyethylenethiophene):tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate, PEDOT:PF6. Both variantsshow different promising features, leading the way in terms of transconductance(g (m)), with the measured peak g (m) up to 68 mS for relatively thin (280 nm) channel layerson devices with the channel length of 350 nm and with widths of 50,100, and 200 & mu;m. This result suggests that the use of electropolymerizedsemiconductors, which can be easily customized, is viable with verticalgeometry, as uniform and thin layers can be created. Spin-coated PEDOT:PSSlags behind with the lower values of g (m); however, it excels in terms of the speed of the device and alsohas a comparably lower off current (300 nA), leading to unusuallyhigh on/off ratio, with values up to 8.6 x 10(4). Ourapproach to vertical gap devices is simple, scalable, and can be extendedto other applications where small electrochemical channels are desired.

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  • 10.
    Byeon, Ayeong
    et al.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Korea Adv Institute Science and Technology, South Korea.
    Zhao, Meng-Qiang
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Ren, Chang E.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Halim, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Kota, Sankalp
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Urbankowski, Patrick
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Anasori, Babak
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Barsoum, Michel W.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Gogotsi, Yury
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Two-Dimensional Titanium Carbide MXene As a Cathode Material for Hybrid Magnesium/Lithium-Ion Batteries2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 4296-4300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As an alternative to pure lithium-ion, Lit, systems, a hybrid magnesium, Mg2+, and Li+ battery can potentially combine the high capacity, high voltage, and fast Li+ intercalation of Li-ion battery cathodes and the high capacity, low cost, and dendrite-free Mg metal anodes. Herein, we report on the use of two-dimensional titanium carbide, Ti3C2Tx (MXene), as a cathode in hybrid Mg2+/Li+ batteries, coupled with a Mg metal anode. Free-standing and flexible Ti3C2Tx/carbon nanotube composite "paper" delivered-,100 mAh at 0.1 C and similar to 50 mAh g(-1) at 10 C. At 1 C the capacity was maintained for amp;gt;500 cycles at 80 mAh g(-1). The Mo2CTx MXene also demonstrated good performance as a cathode material in this hybrid battery. Considering the variety of available MXenes, this work opens the door for exploring a new large family of 2D materials with high electrical conductivity and large intercalation capacity as cathodes for hybrid Mg2+/Li+ batteries.

  • 11.
    Cai, Yunhao
    et al.
    Beihang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Huotian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ye, Linglong
    Beihang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Rui
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Jinqiu
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Kangning
    Shandong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bi, Pengqing
    Shandong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Tengfei
    Peking Univ, Peoples R China.
    Weng, Kangkang
    Beihang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Ke
    Wuhan Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Xia, Jianlong
    Wuhan Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Bao, Qinye
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Feng
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Hao, Xiaotao
    Shandong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Tan, Songting
    Xiangtan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhan, Xiaowei
    Peking Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Yanming
    Beihang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Effect of the Energy Offset on the Charge Dynamics in Nonfullerene Organic Solar Cells2020In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 12, no 39, p. 43984-43991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy offset, considered as the driving force for charge transfer between organic molecules, has significant effects on both charge separation and charge recombination in organic solar cells. Herein, we designed material systems with gradually shifting energy offsets, including both positive and negative values. Time-resolved spectroscopy was used to monitor the charge dynamics within the bulk heterojunction. It is striking to find that there is still charge transfer and charge generation when the energy offset reached -0.10 eV (ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy data). This work not only indicates the feasibility of the free carrier generation and the following charge separation under the condition of a negative offset but also elucidates the relationship between the charge transfer and the energy offset in the case of polymer chlorination.

  • 12.
    Chen, Yingying
    et al.
    East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Yunyu
    Chinese Acad Fishery Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zou, Jiazhi
    East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Zeng, Kaiwen
    East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Baryshnikov, Glib
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Chengjie
    East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Xie, Yongshu
    East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Fluorenyl Indoline as an Efficient Electron Donor for Concerted Companion Dyes: Enhanced Light-Harvesting and Photocurrent2021In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 13, no 42, p. 49828-49839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerted companion dyes (CC dyes) like XW61 have been demonstrated to be an effective platform for developing efficient DSSCs. However, the moderated phenothiazine-based electron donor in XW61 results in unsatisfactory J(sc). To address this problem, a stronger fluorenyl indoline-based electron donor has been used to construct porphyrin dye XW68 and organic dyes Y1-Y2. The stronger electron-donating character of the fluorenyl indoline unit leads to an enhanced J(sc) value (20.48 mA.cm(-2)) for the individual dye XW68. On this basis, CC dyes XW69-XW70-C8 have been designed and synthesized by combining the frameworks of Y1 and Y2 with XW68. The complementary absorption characters of the porphyrin and the organic dye moieties lead to panchromatic absorption with a strong light-harvesting capability from 350 to 700 nm and the onset wavelength extended to ca. 840 nm in the IPCE curves. As a result, excellent J(sc) values have been achieved (>22 mA.cm(-2)). In addition to the advantages of high J(sc), bulky octyl groups have been introduced into the donor of XW70-C8 to reduce dye aggregation and suppress charge recombination. Finally, a highest PCE of 11.1% with a satisfactory J(sc) (22.25 mA.cm(-2)) and an enhanced V-oc (750 mV) has been achieved upon coadsorption of XW70-C8 with CDCA. In addition, the CC dye XW70-C8-based solar cells exhibit excellent long-term photostability. These results provide an effective method for rationally improving the photovoltaic behavior, especially the J(sc) of CC dyes, by introducing strong electron donor moieties with suitable substituents.

  • 13.
    Chen, Yongzhen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Understanding Interface Dipoles at an Electron Transport Material/Electrode Modifier for Organic Electronics2021In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 13, no 39, p. 47218-47225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interface dipoles formed at an electrolyte/electrode interface have been widely studied and interpreted using the "double dipole step" model, where the dipole vector is determined by the size and/or range of motion of the charged ions. Some electron transport materials (ETMs) with lone pairs of electrons on heteroatoms exhibit a similar interfacial behavior. However, the origin of the dipoles in such materials has not yet been explored in great depth. Herein, we systematically investigate the influence of the lone pair of electrons on the interface dipole through three pyridine derivatives B2-B4PyMPM. Experiments show that different positions of nitrogen atoms in the three materials give rise to different hydrogen bonds and molecular orientations, thereby affecting the areal density and direction of the lone pair of electrons. The interface dipoles of the three materials predicted by the "double dipole step" model are in good agreement with the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy results both in spin-coated and vacuum-deposited films. These findings help to better understand the ETMs/electrode interfacial behaviors and provide new guidelines for the molecular design of the interlayer.

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  • 14.
    Chen, Zhiwen
    et al.
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Fei, Siming
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Chenghao
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xin, Peijun
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Shoushuang
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Selegård, Linnéa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Integrated Design of Hierarchical CoSnO3@NC@MnO@NC Nanobox as Anode Material for Enhanced Lithium Storage Performance2020In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 12, no 17, p. 19768-19777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition-metal oxides (TMOs) are potential candidates for anode materials of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high theoretical capacity (similar to 1000 mA h/g) and enhanced safety from suppressing the formation of lithium dendrites. However, the poor electron conductivity and the large volume expansion during lithiation/delithiation processes are still the main hurdles for the practical usage of TMOs as anode materials. In this work, the CoSnO3@NC@ MnO@NC hierarchical nanobox (CNMN) is then proposed and fabricated to solve those issues. The as-prepared nanobox contains hollow cubic CoSnO3 as a core and dual N-doped carbon-"sandwiched" MnO particles as a shell. As anode materials of LIBs, the hollow and carbon interlayer structures effectively accommodate the volume expansion while dual active TMOs of CoSnO3 and Notably, the dual-layer structure of N-doped carbons plays a critical functional role MnO efficiently increase the specific capacity. in the incorporated composites, where the inner layer serves as a reaction substrate and a spatial barrier and the outer layer offers electron conductivity, enabling more effective involvement of active anode materials in lithium storage, as well as maintaining their high activity during lithium cycling. Subsequently, the as-prepared CNMN exhibits a high specific capacity of 1195 mA h/g after the 200th cycle at 0.1C and an excellent stable reversible capacity of about 876 mA h/g after the 300th cycle at 0.5C with only 0.07 mA h/g fade per cycle after 300 cycles. Even after a 250 times fast charging/discharging cycle both at SC, it still retains a reversible capacity of 422.6 mA h/g. We ascribe the enhanced lithium storage performances to the novel hierarchical architectures achieved from the rational design.

  • 15.
    Cheung Mak, Wing
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kwan Yee, Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Orban, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics.
    Lee, Chyan-Jang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Surface-Engineered Contact Lens as an Advanced Theranostic Platform for Modulation and Detection of Viral Infection2015In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 45, p. 25487-25494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated an entirely new concept of a wearable theranostic device in the form of a contact lens (theranostic lens) with a dual-functional hybrid surface to modulate and detect a pathogenic attack, using a the corneal HSV serotype-1 (HSV-1) model. The theranostic lenses were constructed using a facile layer-by-layer surface engineering technique, keeping the theranostic lenses with good surface wettability, optically transparency, and nontoxic toward human corneal epithelial cells. The theranostic lenses were used to capture and concentrate inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), which is upregulated during HSV-1 reactivation, for sensitive, noninvasive diagnostics. The theranostic lens also incorporated an antiviral coating to serve as a first line of defense to protect patients against disease. Our strategy tackles major problems in tear diagnostics that are mainly associated with the sampling of a relatively small volume of fluid and the low concentration of biomarkers. The theranostic lenses show effective anti-HSV-1 activity and good analytical performance for the detection of IL-1a, with a limit of detection of 1.43 pg mL(-1) and a wide linear range covering the clinically relevant region. This work offers a new paradigm for wearable noninvasive healthcare devices combining diagnosis and protection against disease, while supporting patient compliance. We believe that this approach holds immense promise as a next-generation point-of-care and decentralized diagnostic/theranostic platform for a range of biomarkers.

  • 16.
    Diacci, Chiara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Modena & Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Burtscher, Bernhard
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berto, Marcello
    Univ Modena & Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Ruoko, Tero-Petri
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tampere Univ, Finland.
    Lienemann, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greco, Pierpaolo
    Univ Ferrara, Italy; Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Borsari, Marco
    Univ Modena & Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bortolotti, Carlo A.
    Univ Modena & Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Biscarini, Fabio
    Univ Modena & Reggio Emilia, Italy; Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Organic Electrochemical Transistor Aptasensor for Interleukin-6 Detection2023In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) biosensor for the detection of interleukin 6 (IL6), an important biomarker associated with various pathological processes, including chronic inflammation, inflammaging, cancer, and severe COVID-19 infection. The biosensor is functionalized with oligonucleotide aptamers engineered to bind specifically IL6. We developed an easy functionalization strategy based on gold nanoparticles deposited onto a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) gate electrode for the subsequent electrodeposition of thiolated aptamers. During this functionalization step, the reduction of sulfide bonds allows for simultaneous deposition of a blocking agent. A detection range from picomolar to nanomolar concentrations for IL6 was achieved, and the selectivity of the device was assessed against Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF), another cytokine involved in the inflammatory processes.

  • 17.
    Ederth, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekblad, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pettitt, Michala E
    University of Birmingham.
    Conlan, Sheelagh L
    Newcastle University.
    Du, Chun-Xia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Callow, Maureen E
    University of Birmingham.
    Callow, James A
    University of Birmingham.
    Mutton, Robert
    Newcastle University.
    Clare, Anthony S
    Newcastle University.
    D`Souza, Fraddry
    TNO Science and Industry.
    Donnelly, Glen
    TNO Science and Industry.
    Bruin, Anouk
    TNO Science and Industry.
    Willemsen, Peter R
    TNO Science and Industry.
    Su, Xueju J
    University of Dundee.
    Wang, Su
    University of Dundee.
    Zhao, Qi
    University of Dundee.
    Hederos, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Resistance of Galactoside-Terminated Alkanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers to Marine Fouling Organisms2011In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 3, no 10, p. 3890-3901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of galactoside-terminated alkanethiols have protein-resistance properties which can be tuned via the degree of methylation [Langmuir 2005, 21, 2971-2980]. Specifically, a partially methylated compound was more resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption than the hydroxylated or fully methylated counterparts. We investigate whether this also holds true for resistance to the attachment and adhesion of a range of marine species, in order to clarify to what extent resistance to protein adsorption correlates with the more complex adhesion of fouling organisms. The partially methylated galactoside-terminated SAM was further compared to a mixed monolayer of omega-substituted methyl- and hydroxyl-terminated alkanethiols with wetting properties and surface ratio of hydroxyl to methyl groups matching that of the galactoside. The settlement (initial attachment) and adhesion strength of four model marine fouling organisms were investigated, representing both micro- and macrofoulers; two bacteria (Cobetia marina and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus), barnacle cypris larvae (Balanus amphitrite), and algal zoospores (Ulva linza). The minimum in protein adsorption onto the partially methylated galactoside surface was partly reproduced in the marine fouling assays, providing some support for a relationship between protein resistance and adhesion of marine fouling organisms. The mixed alkanethiol SAM, which was matched in wettability to the partially methylated galactoside SAM, consistently showed higher settlement (initial attachment) of test organisms than the galactoside, implying that both wettability and surface chemistry are insufficient to explain differences in fouling resistance. We suggest that differences in the structure of interfacial water may explain the variation in adhesion to these SAMs.

  • 18.
    Elfwing, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cai, Wanzhu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xia, Yuxin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tang, Zheng
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    DNA Based Hybrid Material for Interface Engineering in Polymer Solar Cells2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 9579-9586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new solution processable electron transport material (ETM) is introduced for use in photovoltaic devices, which consists of a metallic conjugated polyelectrolyte, poly(4-(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b]-[1,4]dioxin-2-yl-methoxy)-1-butanesulfonic acid (PEDOT-S), and surfactant-functionalized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (named DNA:CTMA:PEDOT-S). This ETM is demonstrated to effectively work for bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) based on different electron acceptor materials. The fill factor, the open circuit voltage, and the overall power conversion efficiency of the solar cells with a DNA:CTMA:PEDOT-S modified cathode are comparable to those of devices with a traditional lithium fluoride/aluminum cathode. The new electron transport layer has high optical transmittance, desired work function and selective electron transport. A dipole effect induced by the use of the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTMA) is responsible for lowering the electrode work function. The DNA:CTMA complex works as an optical absorption dilutor, while PEDOT-S provides the conducting pathway for electron transport, and allows thicker layer to be used, enabling printing. This materials design opens a new pathway to harness and optimize the electronic and optical properties of printable interface materials.

  • 19.
    Elie, Margaux
    et al.
    Normandie University, France.
    Sguerra, Fabien
    CEA, France.
    Di Meo, Florent
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Weber, Michael D.
    University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Marion, Ronan
    Normandie University, France.
    Grimault, Adele
    Normandie University, France.
    Lohier, Jean-Francois
    Normandie University, France.
    Stallivieri, Aurelie
    Normandie University, France.
    Brosseau, Arnaud
    Paris Saclay University, France; Paris Saclay University, France.
    Pansu, Robert B.
    Paris Saclay University, France; Paris Saclay University, France.
    Renaud, Jean-Luc
    Normandie University, France.
    Linares, Mathieu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hamel, Matthieu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. CEA, France.
    Costa, Ruben D.
    University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Gaillard, Sylvain
    Normandie University, France.
    Designing NHC-Copper(I) Dipyridylamine Complexes for Blue Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells2016In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 8, no 23, p. 14678-14691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the influence of various substituents on the photophysical features of heteroleptic copper(I) complexes bearing both N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and dipyridylamine (dpa = dipyridylamine skeleton corresponding to ligand L1) ligands. The luminescent properties have been compared to our recently reported archetypal blue emitting [Cu(IPr)(dpa)][PF6] complex. The choice of the substituents on both ligands has been guided to explore the effect of the electron donor/acceptor and "push-pull" on the emission wavelengths and photoluminescence quantum yields. A selection of the best candidates in terms of their photophysical features were applied for developing the first blue light emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) based on copper(I) complexes. The device analysis suggests that the main concern is the moderate redox stability of the complexes under high applied driving currents, leading to devices with moderate stabilities pointing to a proof-of-concept for further development. Nevertheless, under low applied driving currents the blue emission is stable, showing performance levels competitive to those reported for blue LECs baged on iridium(III) complexes. Overall, this work provides valuable guidelines to tackle the design of enhanced NHC copper complexes for lighting applications in the near future.

  • 20.
    Fabiano, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ferroelectric Polarization Induces Electric Double Layer Bistability in Electrolyte-Gated Field-Effect Transistors2014In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 438-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dense surface charges expressed by a ferroelectric polymeric thin film induce ion displacement within a polyelectrolyte layer and vice versa. This is because the density of dipoles along the surface of the ferroelectric thin film and its polarization switching time matches that of the (Helmholtz) electric double layers formed at the ferroelectric/polyelectrolyte and polyelectrolyte/semiconductor interfaces. This combination of materials allows for introducing hysteresis effects in the capacitance of an electric double layer capacitor. The latter is advantageously used to control the charge accumulation in the semiconductor channel of an organic field-effect transistor. The resulting memory transistors can be written at a gate voltage of around 7 V and read out at a drain voltage as low as 50 mV. The technological implication of this large. difference between write and read-out voltages lies in the non-destructive reading of this ferroelectric memory.

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  • 21.
    Felekidis, Nikolaos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Melianas, Armantas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Design Rule for Improved Open-Circuit Voltage in Binary and Ternary Organic Solar Cells2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 42, p. 37070-37077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixing different compounds to improve functionality is one of the pillars of the organic electronics field. Here, the degree to which the charge transport properties of the constituent materials are simply additive when materials are mixed is quantified. It is demonstrated that in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, hole mobility in the donor phase depends critically on the choice of the acceptor material, which may alter the energetic disorder of the donor. The same holds for electron mobility and disorder in the acceptor. The associated mobility differences can exceed an order of magnitude compared to pristine materials. Quantifying these effects by a state-filling model for the open-circuit voltage (V-oc) of ternary Donor:Acceptor(l):Acceptor(2) (D:A(1):A(2)) organic solar cells leads to a physically transparent description of the surprising, nearly linear tunability of the Voc with the A(1):A(2) weight ratio. It is predicted that in binary OPV systems, suitably chosen donor and acceptor materials can improve the device power conversion efficiency (PCE) by several percentage points, for example from 11 to 13.5% for a hypothetical state-ofthe-art organic solar cell, highlighting the importance of this design rule.

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  • 22.
    Franco Gonzalez, Felipe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Autonomous Univ Madrid, Spain.
    Rolland, Nicolas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Substrate-Dependent Morphology and Its Effect on Electrical Mobility of Doped Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) Thin Films2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 34, p. 29115-29126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deposition dynamics, crystallization, molecular packing, and electronic mobility of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films are affected by the nature of the substrate. Computational microscopy has been carried out to reveal the morphology-substrate dependence for PEDOT thin films doped with molecular tosylate deposited on different substrates including graphite, Si3N4, silicon, and amorphous SiO2. It is shown that the substrate is instrumental in formation of the lamellar structure. PEDOT films on the ordered substrates (graphite, Si3N4, and silicon) exhibit preferential face-on orientation, with graphite showing the most ordered and pronounced face-on packing. In contrast, PEDOT on amorphous SiO2 exhibits the dominant edge-on orientation, except in the dry state where both packings are equally presented. The role of water and the porosity of the substrate in formation of the edge-on structure on SiO2 is outlined. On the basis of the calculated morphology, the multiscale calculations of the electronic transport and percolative analysis are performed outlining how the character of the substrate affects the electron mobility. It is demonstrated that good crystallinity (PEDOT on graphite substrate) and high content of edge-on (PEDOT on SiO2 substrate) are not enough to achieve the highest electrical in-plane mobility. Instead, the least ordered material with lower degree of the edge-on content (PEDOT on silicon substrate) provides the highest mobility because it exhibits an efficient network of pi-pi stacked chain extending throughout the entire sample.

  • 23.
    Fredj, Donia
    et al.
    Dracula Technol, France; Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Alkarsifi, Riva
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Pourcin, Florent
    Dracula Technol, France.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Boudjada, Nassira Chniba
    CNRS, France.
    Pierron, Pascal
    Dracula Technol, France.
    Nourdine, Ali
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Boujelbene, Mohamed
    Univ Sfax, Tunisia.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Videlot-Ackermann, Christine
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Flandin, Lionel
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Ben Dkhil, Sadok
    Dracula Technol, France.
    Margeat, Olivier
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Ackermann, Jorg
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    New Antimony-Based Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Material as Electron Extraction Layer for Efficient and Stable Polymer Solar Cells2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 47, p. 44820-44828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid organic-inorganic materials are a new class of materials used as interfacial layers (ILs) in polymer solar cells (PSCs). A hybrid material, composed of antimony as the inorganic part and diaminopyridine as the organic part, is synthesized and described as a new material for application as the electron extraction layer (EEL) in PSCs and compared to the recently demonstrated hybrid materials using bismuth instead of antimony. The hybrid compound is solution-processed onto the photoactive layer based on a classical blend, which is composed of a PTB7-Th low band gap polymer as the donor mixed with PC70BM fullerene as the acceptor material. By using a regular device structure and an aluminum cathode, the solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 8.42%, equivalent to the reference device using ZnO nanocrystals as the IL, and strongly improved compared to the bismuth-based hybrid material. The processing of extraction layers up to a thickness of 80 nm of such hybrid material reveals that the change from bismuth to antimony has strongly improved the charge extraction and transport properties of the hybrid materials. Interestingly, nanocomposites made of the hybrid material mixed with ZnO nanocrystals in a 1:1 ratio further improved the electronic properties of the extraction layers, leading to a power conversion efficiency of 9.74%. This was addressed to a more closely packed morphology of the hybrid layer, leading to further improved electron extraction. It is important to note that these hybrid EELs, both pure and ZnO-doped, also greatly improved the stability of solar cells, both under dark storage in air and under lighting under an inert atmosphere compared to solar cells treated with ZnO intermediate layers.

  • 24.
    Fredj, Donia
    et al.
    Univ Sfax, Tunisia.
    Pourcin, Florent
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Alkarsifi, Riva
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Kilinc, Volkan
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ben Dkhil, Sadok
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Boudjada, Nassira Chniba
    CNRS, France.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Videlot-Ackermann, Christine
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Margeat, Olivier
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Ackermann, Joerg
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Boujelbene, Mohamed
    Univ Sfax, Tunisia.
    Fabrication and Characterization of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Electron Extraction Layers for Polymer Solar Cells toward Improved Processing Robustness and Air Stability2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 20, p. 17309-17317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials composed of bismuth and diaminopyridine are studied as novel materials for electron extraction layers in polymer solar cells using regular device structures. The hybrid materials are solution processed on top of two different low band gap polymers (PTB7 or PTB7-Th) as donor materials mixed with fullerene PC70BM as the acceptor. The intercalation of the hybrid layer between the photoactive layer and the aluminum cathode leads to solar cells with a power conversion efficiency of 7.8% because of significant improvements in all photovoltaic parameters, that is, short-circuit current density, fill factor, and open-circuit voltage, similar to the reference devices using ZnO as the interfacial layer. However when using thick layers of such hybrid materials for electron extraction, only small losses in photocurrent density are observed in contrast to the reference material ZnO of pronounced losses because of optical spacer effects. Importantly, these hybrid electron extraction layers also strongly improve the device stability in air compared with solar cells processed with ZnO interlayers. Both results underline the high potential of this new class of hybrid materials as electron extraction materials toward robust processing of air stable organic solar cells.

  • 25.
    Gorbunov, Andrey V.
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Haedler, Andreas T.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Putzeys, Tristan
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Zha, R. Helen
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Schmidt, Hans-Werner
    University of Bayreuth, Germany.
    Kivala, Milan
    University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Urbanaviciute, Indre
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wubbenhorst, Michael
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Meijer, E. W.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Switchable Charge Injection Barrier in an Organic Supramolecular Semiconductor2016In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 8, no 24, p. 15535-15542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We disclose a supramolecular material that combines semiconducting and dipolar functionalities. The material consists of a discotic semiconducting carbonyl-bridged triarylamine core, which is surrounded by three dipolar amide groups. In thin films, the material self-organizes in a hexagonal columnar fashion through Jr-stacking of the molecular core and hydrogen bonding between the amide groups. Alignment by an electrical field in a simple metal/semiconductor/metal geometry induces a polar order in the interface layers near the metal contacts that can be reversibly switched, while the bulk material remains nonpolarized. On suitably chosen electrodes, the presence of an interfacial polarization field leads to a modulation of the barrier for charge injection into the semiconductor. Consequently, a reversible switching is possible between a high-resistance, injection-limited off-state and a low-resistance, space-charge-limited on-state. The resulting memory diode shows switchable rectification with on/off ratios of up to two orders of magnitude. This demonstrated multifunctionality of a single material is a promising concept toward possible application in lowcost, large-area, nonvolatile organic memories.

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  • 26.
    Gryszel, Maciej
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sytnyk, Mykhailo
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany; Energie Campus Nurnberg EnCN, Germany.
    Jakesova, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Romanazzi, Giuseppe
    Politecn Bari, Italy.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Heiss, Wolfgang
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany; Energie Campus Nurnberg EnCN, Germany.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    General Observation of Photocatalytic Oxygen Reduction to Hydrogen Peroxide by Organic Semiconductor Thin Films and Colloidal Crystals2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 16, p. 13253-13257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-cost semiconductor photocatalysts offer unique possibilities for industrial chemical transformations and energy conversion applications. We report that a range of organic semiconductors are capable of efficient photocatalytic oxygen reduction to H2O2 in aqueous conditions. These semiconductors, in the form of thin films, support a 2-electron/2-proton redox cycle involving photoreduction of dissolved O-2 to H2O2, with the concurrent photooxidation of organic substrates: formate, oxalate, and phenol. Photochemical oxygen reduction is observed in a pH range from 2 to 12. In cases where valence band energy of the semiconductor is energetically high, autoxidation competes with oxidation of the donors, and thus turnover numbers are low. Materials with deeper valence band energies afford higher stability and also oxidation of H2O to O-2. We found increased H2O2 evolution rate for surfactant-stabilized nanoparticles versus planar thin films. These results evidence that photochemical O-2 reduction may be a widespread feature of organic semiconductors, and open potential avenues for organic semiconductors for catalytic applications.

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  • 27.
    Guo, Sisi
    et al.
    Shanghai Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Meng, Qiufeng
    Shanghai Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Qin, Jie
    Shanghai Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Du, Yong
    Shanghai Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Lei
    Shanghai Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermoelectric Characteristics of Self-Supporting WSe2-Nanosheet/PEDOT-Nanowire Composite Films2023In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 15, no 29, p. 35430-35438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanowires(PEDOTNWs) were synthesized by a modified self-assembled micellar soft-templatemethod, followed by fabrication by vacuum filtration of self-supportingexfoliated WSe2-nanosheet (NS)/PEDOT-NW composite films.The results showed that as the mass fractions of WSe2 NSsincreased from 0 to 20 wt % in the composite films, the electricalconductivity of the samples decreased from & SIM;1700 to & SIM;400S cm(-1), and the Seebeck coefficient increased from12.3 to 23.1 & mu;V K-1 at 300 K. A room-temperaturepower factor of 44.5 & mu;W m(-1) K-2 was achieved at 300 K for the sample containing 5 wt % WSe2 NSs, and a power factor of 67.3 & mu;W m(-1) K-2 was obtained at 380 K. The composite film containing5 wt % WSe2 NSs was mechanically flexible, as shown byits resistance change ratio of 7.1% after bending for 500 cycles ata bending radius of 4 mm. A flexible thermoelectric (TE) power generatorcontaining four TE legs could generate an output power of 52.1 nWat a temperature difference of 28.5 K, corresponding to a power densityof & SIM;0.33 W/m(2). This work demonstrates that the fabricationof inorganic nanosheet/organic nanowire TE composites is an approachto improve the TE properties of conducting polymers.

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  • 28.
    Guo, Yiting
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yanfeng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhu, Qinglian
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Cheng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puttisong, Yuttapoom
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Feng
    Hebei Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ma, Wei
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Weiwei
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Effect of Side Groups on the Photovoltaic Performance Based on Porphyrin-Perylene Bisimide Electron Acceptors2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 38, p. 32454-32461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we developed four porphyrin-based small molecular electron acceptors for non-fullerene organic solar cells, in which different side groups attached to the porphyrin core were selected in order to achieve optimized performance. The molecules contain porphyrin as the core, perylene bisimides as end groups, and the ethynyl unit as the linker. Four side groups, from 2,6-di(dodecyloxy)phenyl to (2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl, pentadecan-7-yl, and 3,5-di(dodecyloxy)phenyl unit, were applied into the electron acceptors. The new molecules exhibit broad absorption spectra from 300 to 900 nm and high molar extinction coefficients. The molecules as electron acceptors were applied into organic solar cells, showing increased power conversion efficiencies from 1.84 to 5.34%. We employed several techniques, including photoluminescence spectra, electroluminescence spectra, atomic force microscopy, and grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray to probe the blends to find the effects of the side groups on the photovoltaic properties. We found that the electron acceptors with 2,6-di(dodecyloxy)phenyl units show high-lying frontier energy levels, good crystalline properties, and low nonradiative recombination loss, resulting in possible large phase separation and low energy loss, which is responsible for the low performance. Our results provide a detailed study about the side groups of non-fullerene materials, demonstrating that porphyrin can be used to design electron acceptors toward near-infrared absorption.

  • 29.
    Hwang, Sunbin
    et al.
    KIST, South Korea.
    Jang, Sukjae
    KIST, South Korea.
    Kang, Minji
    KIST, South Korea.
    Bae, Sukang
    KIST, South Korea.
    Lee, Seoung-Ki
    KIST, South Korea.
    Hong, Jae-Min
    KIST, South Korea.
    Lee, Sang Hyun
    Chonnam Natl Univ, South Korea.
    Wang, Gunuk
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kim, Tae-Wook
    KIST, South Korea.
    Two-in-One Device with Versatile Compatible Electrical Switching or Data Storage Functions Controlled by the Ferroelectricity of P(VDF-TrFE) via Photocrosslinking2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 28, p. 25358-25368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronics demand new platforms that can make integrated circuits and undergo mass production while maintaining diverse functions with high performance. The field-effect transistor has great potential to be a multifunctional device capable of sensing, data processing, data storage, and display. Currently, transistor-based devices cannot be considered intrinsic multifunctional devices because all installed functions are mutually coupled. Such incompatibilities are a crucial barrier to developing an all-in-one multifunctional device capable of driving each function individually. In this study, we focus on the decoupling of electric switching and data storage functions in an organic ferroelectric memory transistor. To overcome the incompatibility of each function, the high permittivity needed for electrical switching and the ferroelectricity needed for data storage become compatible by restricting the motion of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) via photocrosslinking with bis-perfluorobenzoazide. The two-in-one device consisting of a photocrosslinked ferroelectric layer exhibits reversible and individual dual-functional operation as a typical transistor with nonvolatile memory. Moreover, a p-MOS depletion load inverter composed of the two transistors with different threshold voltages is also demonstrated by simply changing only one of the threshold voltages by polarization switching. We believe that the two-in-one device will be considered a potential component of integrated organic logic circuits, including memory, in the future.

  • 30.
    Isacsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Xin
    RISE Digital Syst, Sweden.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Bioecon & Hlth, Sweden.
    Mengistie, Desalegn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Calvie, Emilie
    Ahlstrom Munksjo Res Ctr, France.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Bioecon & Hlth, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Goran
    RISE Digital Syst, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Highly Conducting Nanographite-Filled Paper Fabricated via Standard Papermaking Techniques2020In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 12, no 43, p. 48828-48835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-friendly and cost-effective materials and processes to manufacture functional substrates are crucial to further advance the area of printed electronics. One potential key component in the printed electronics platform is an electrically functionalized paper, produced by simply mixing common cellulosic pulp fibers with high-performance electroactive materials. Herein, an electronic paper including nanographite has been prepared using a standardized and scalable papermaking technique. No retention aid was needed to achieve a conducting nanographite loading as high as 50 wt %. The spontaneous retention that provides the integrity and stability of the nanographite paper, likely originates partially from an observed water-stable adhesion of nanographite flakes onto the fiber surfaces. The resulting paper exhibits excellent electrical characteristics, such as an in-plane conductivity of 107 S/cm and an areal capacitance of 9.2 mF/cm(2), and was explored as the back-electrode in printed electrochromic displays.

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  • 31.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Jiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Time-Resolved Chemical Mapping in Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 2747-2757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An understanding of the doping and ion distributions in light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) is required to approach a realistic conduction model which can precisely explain the electrochemical reactions, p-n junction formation, and ion dynamics in the active layer and to provide relevant information about LECs for systematic improvement of function and manufacture. Here, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy is used to monitor anion density profile and polymer structure in situ and for time-resolved mapping of electrochemical doping in an LEC under bias. The results are in very good agreement with the electrochemical doping model with respect to ion redistribution and formation of a dynamic p-n junction in the active layer. We also physically slow ions by decreasing the working temperature and study frozen-junction formation and immobilization of ions in a fixed-junction LEC device by FTIR imaging. The obtained results show irreversibility of the ion redistribution and polymer doping in a fixed-junction device. In addition, we demonstrate that infrared microscopy is a useful tool for in situ characterization of electroactive organic materials.

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  • 32.
    Jian, Jingxin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shantou Univ, Peoples R China; Shantou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xie, Luo-Han
    Shantou Univ, Peoples R China; Shantou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Mumtaz, Asim
    Univ York, England.
    Baines, Tom
    Univ Liverpool, England.
    Major, Jonathan D.
    Univ Liverpool, England.
    Tong, Qing-Xiao
    Shantou Univ, Peoples R China; Shantou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Interface-Engineered Ni-Coated CdTe Heterojunction Photocathode for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Evolution2023In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 15, no 17, p. 21057-21065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting for hydrogen production using the CdTe photocathode has attracted much interest due to its excellent sunlight absorption property and energy band structure. This work presents a study of engineered interfacial energetics of CdTe photocathodes by deposition of CdS, TiO2, and Ni layers. A heterostructure CdTe/CdS/TiO2/Ni photocathode was fabricated by depositing a 100-nm n-type CdS layer on a p-type CdTe surface, with 50 nm TiO2 as a protective layer and a 10 nm Ni layer as a co-catalyst. The CdTe/CdS/TiO2/ Ni photocathode exhibits a high photocurrent density (Jph) of 8.16 mA/cm2 at 0 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (VRHE) and a positive-shifted onset potential (Eonset) of 0.70 VRHE for PEC hydrogen evolution under 100 mW/cm2 AM1.5G illumination. We further demonstrate that the CdTe/CdS p-n junction promotes the separation of photogenerated carriers, the TiO2 layer protects the electrode from corrosion, and the Ni catalyst improves the charge transfer across the electrode/electrolyte interface. This work provides new insights for designing noble metal-free photocathodes toward solar hydrogen development.

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  • 33.
    Jiang, Haiying
    et al.
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Zhen
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Lianjie
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Zhong, Anxing
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xuncheng
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Pan, Feilong
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wanzhu, Cai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Yi
    Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, CA 94720 USA.
    Chen, Junwu
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Cao, Yong
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    A Highly Crystalline Wide-Band-Gap Conjugated Polymer toward High-Performance As-Cast Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 41, p. 36061-36069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new wide-band-gap conjugated polymer PBODT was successfully synthesized that showed high crystallinity and was utilized as, the active material in nonfullerene bulk-heterojunction, polymer solar cells (PSCs). The photovoltaic devices based on the as-cast blend films of PBODT with ITIC and IDIC acceptors showed notable power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 7.06% and 9:09%, with high open-circuit voltages of 1.00 and 0.93 V that correspond to low energy losses of 0.59 and 0.69 eV, respectively. In the case of PBODT:ITIC, lower exciton quenching efficiency and monomolecular recombination are found for devices with small driving force. On the other hand, the relatively higher driving force and suppressed monomolecular recombination for PBODT:IDIC devices are identified to be the reason for their higher short-circuit current density (J(sc)) and higher PCEs. In addition, when processed with the nonchlorinated solvent 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, a good, PCE of 8.19% was still, achieved for the IDIC-based device. Our work shows that such wide-band-gap polymers have great potential for the environmentally friendly fabrication of highly efficient PSCs.

  • 34.
    Jiang, Huanxiang
    et al.
    College of Textiles & Clothing, State Key Laboratory of Bio-Fibers and Eco-Textiles, Collaborative Innovation Center for Eco-Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Li, Xiaoming
    College of Textiles & Clothing, State Key Laboratory of Bio-Fibers and Eco-Textiles, Collaborative Innovation Center for Eco-Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, China.
    Wang, Huan
    College of Textiles & Clothing, State Key Laboratory of Bio-Fibers and Eco-Textiles, Collaborative Innovation Center for Eco-Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, China.
    Huang, Gongyue
    Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices (Ministry of Education), School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, China.
    Chen, Weichao
    College of Textiles & Clothing, State Key Laboratory of Bio-Fibers and Eco-Textiles, Collaborative Innovation Center for Eco-Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, China.
    Zhang, Rui
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Renqiang
    Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices (Ministry of Education), School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Appropriate Molecular Interaction Enabling Perfect Balance Between Induced Crystallinity and Phase Separation for Efficient Photovoltaic Blends2020In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 12, no 23, p. 26286-26292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorination is a promising modification method to adjust the photophysical profiles of organic semiconductors. Notably, the fluorine modification on donor or acceptor materials could impact the molecular interaction, which is strongly related to the morphology of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) blends and the resultant device performance. Therefore, it is essential to investigate how the molecular interaction affects the morphology of BHJ films. In this study, a new fluorinated polymer PBDB-PSF is synthesized to investigate the molecular interaction in both nonfluorinated (ITIC) and fluorinated (IT-4F) systems. The results reveal that the F-F interaction in the PBDB-PSF:IT-4F system could effectively induce the crystallization of IT-4F while retaining the ideal phase separation scale, resulting in outstanding charge transport. On the contrary, poor morphology can be observed in the PBDB-PSF:ITIC system because of the unbalanced molecular interaction. As a consequence, the PBDB-PSF:IT-4F device delivers an excellent power conversion efficiency of 13.63%, which greatly exceeds that of the PBDB-PSF:ITIC device (9.84%). These results highlight manipulating the micromorphology with regard to molecular interaction.

  • 35.
    Jo, Young Jin
    et al.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ SKKU, South Korea.
    Kwon, Ki Yoon
    Sungkyunkwan Univ SKKU, South Korea.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kim, Tae-il
    Sungkyunkwan Univ SKKU, South Korea.
    Gelatin Hydrogel-Based Organic Electrochemical Transistors and Their Integrated Logic Circuits2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 45, p. 39083-39090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We suggest gelatin hydrogel as an electrolyte and demonstrate organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) based on a sheet of gelatin. We also modulate electrical characteristics of the OECT with respect to pH condition of the gelatin hydrogel from acid to base and analyze its characteristics based on the electrochemical theory. Moreover, we extend the gelatin-based OECT to electrochemical logic circuits, for example, NOT, NOR, and NAND gates.

  • 36.
    Kesters, Jurgen
    et al.
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Govaerts, Sanne
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Pirotte, Geert
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Drijkoningen, Jeroen
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Chevrier, Michele
    University of Montpellier, France; University of Mons UMONS, Belgium.
    Van den Brande, Niko
    Vrije University of Brussel, Belgium.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Van Mele, Bruno
    Vrije University of Brussel, Belgium.
    Lutsen, Laurence
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Vanderzande, Dirk
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Manca, Jean
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Clement, Sebastien
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Von Hauff, Elizabeth
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Maes, Wouter
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    High-Permittivity Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Interlayers for High-Performance Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells2016In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 8, no 10, p. 6309-6314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE) interfacial layers present a powerful way to boost the I-V characteristics of organic photovoltaics. Nevertheless, clear guidelines with respect to the structure of high-performance interlayers are still lacking. In this work, impedance spectroscopy is applied to probe the dielectric permittivity of a series of polythiophene-based CPEs. The presence of ionic pendant groups grants the formation of a capacitive double layer, boosting the charge extraction and device efficiency. A counteracting effect is the diminishing affinity with the underlying photoactive layer. To balance these two effects, we found copolymer structures containing nonionic side chains to be beneficial.

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  • 37.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems.
    Falk, Daniel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems.
    Bengtsson, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Patterning highly conducting conjugated polymer electrodes for soft and flexible microelectrochemical devices2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 17, p. 14978-14985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for soft actuators in various biomedical applications in order to manipulate delicate objects such as cells and tissues. Soft actuators are able to adapt to any shape and limit the stress applied to delicate objects. Conjugated polymer actuators, especially in the so-called trilayer configuration, are interesting candidates for driving such micromanipulators. However, challenges involved in patterning the electrodes in a trilayer with individual contact have prevented further development of soft micromanipulators based on conjugated polymer actuators. To allow such patterning, two printing-based patterning techniques have been developed. First an oxidant layer is printed using either syringe-based printing or micro-contact printing, followed by vapor phase polymerization of the conjugated polymer. Sub-millimeter patterns with electronic conductivities of 800 Scm-1 are obtained. Next, laser ablation is used to cleanly cut the final device structures including the printed patterns, resulting in fingers with individually controllable digits and miniaturized hands. The methods presented in this paper will enable integration of patterned electrically active conjugated polymer layers in many types of complex 3-D structures.

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  • 38.
    Ki, Taeyoon
    et al.
    Gwangju Inst Sci & Technol GIST, South Korea.
    Jang, Chelim
    Gwangju Inst Sci & Technol GIST, South Korea.
    Jin, Jong Sung
    Korea Basic Sci Inst KBSI, South Korea.
    Kim, Jehan
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Kim, Nara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moon, Heehun
    Korea Basic Sci Inst KBSI, South Korea.
    Jang, Soo-Young
    Gwangju Inst Sci & Technol GIST, South Korea.
    Kwon, Sooncheol
    Dongguk Univ Seoul, South Korea.
    Jang, Jubin
    Gwangju Inst Sci & Technol GIST, South Korea.
    Kang, Hongkyu
    Gwangju Inst Sci & Technol GIST, South Korea.
    Lee, Kwanghee
    Gwangju Inst Sci & Technol GIST, South Korea.
    In Situ Doping of the PEDOT Top Electrode for All-Solution-Processed Semitransparent Organic Solar Cells2023In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 15, no 40, p. 47317-47326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of an ideal solution-processable transparent electrode has been a challenge in the field of all-solution-processed semitransparent organic solar cells (ST-OSCs). We present a novel poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) top electrode for all-solution-processed ST-OSCs through in situ doping of PEDOT:PSS. A strongly polarized long perfluoroalkyl (n = 8) chain-anchored sulfonic acid effectively eliminates insulating PSS and spontaneously crystallizes PEDOT at room temperature, leading to outstanding electrical properties and transparency of PEDOT top electrodes. Doped PEDOT-based ST-OSCs yield a high power conversion efficiency of 10.9% while providing an average visible transmittance of 26.0% in the visible range. Moreover, the strong infrared reflectivity of PEDOT enables ST-OSCs to reject 62.6% of the heat emitted by sunlight (76.7% from infrared radiation), outperforming the thermal insulation capability of commercial tint films. This light management approach using PEDOT enables ST-OSCs to simultaneously provide energy generation and energy savings, making it the first discovery toward sustainable energy in buildings.

  • 39.
    Li, Baoying
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jian, Jingxin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Jianbin
    Qilu Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Xuelian
    China Univ Geosci, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nanoporous 6H-SiC Photoanodes with a Conformal Coating of Ni-FeOOH Nanorods for Zero-Onset-Potential Water Splitting2020In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 7038-7046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A surface-nanostructured semiconductor photoelectrode is highly desirable for photo-electrochemical (PEC) solar-to-fuel production due to its large active surface area, efficient light absorption, and significantly reduced distance for charge transport. Here, we demonstrate a facile approach to fabricate a nanoporous 6H-silicon carbide (6H-SiC) photoanode with a conformal coating of Ni-FeOOH nanorods as a water oxidation cocatalyst. Such a nanoporous photoanode shows significantly enhanced photocurrent density (j(ph)) with a zero-onset potential. A dendritic porous 6H-SiC with densely arranged holes with a size of similar to 40 nm on the surface is fabricated by an anodization method, followed by the hydrothermal deposition of FeOOH nanorods and electrodeposition of NiOOH. Under an illumination of AM1.5G 100 mW/cm(2), the Ni-FeOOH-coated nanoporous 6H-SiC photoanode exhibits an onset potential of 0 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (V-RHE) and a high j(ph) of 0.684 mA/cm(2) at 1 V-RHE, which is 342 times higher than that of the Ni-FeOOH-coated planar 6H-SiC photoanode. Moreover, the nanoporous photoanode shows a maximum applied-bias-photon-to-current efficiency (ABPE) of 0.58% at a very low bias of 0.36 V-RHE, distinctly outperforming the planar counterpart. The impedance measurements demonstrate that the nanoporous photoanode possesses a significantly reduced charge-transfer resistance, which explains the dramatically enhanced PEC water-splitting performance. The reported approach here can be widely used to fabricate other nanoporous semiconductors for solar energy conversion.

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  • 40.
    Li, Hao
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Highly Selective Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction to CH4 by Ball-Milled Cubic Silicon Carbide Nanoparticles under Visible-Light Irradiation2021In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 5073-5078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimate goal of photocatalytic CO2 reduction is to achieve high selectivity for a single product with high efficiency. One of the most significant challenges is that expensive catalysts prepared through complex processes are usually used. Herein, gram-scale cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) nanoparticles are prepared through a top-down ball-milling approach from low-priced 3C-SiC powders. This facile mechanical milling strategy ensures large-scale production of 3C-SiC nanoparticles with an amorphous silicon oxide (SiOx) shell and simultaneously induces abundant surface states. The surface states are demonstrated to trap the photogenerated carriers, thus remarkably enhancing the charge separation, while the thin SiOx shell prevents 3C-SiC from corrosion under visible light. The unique electronic 3C-SiC tackles the challenge associated with low selectivity of photocatalytic CO2 reduction to C-1 compounds. In conjugation with efficient water oxidation, 3C-SiC nanoparticles can reduce CO2 into CH4 with selectivity over 90%.

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  • 41.
    Li, Wei
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden; S China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Daojuan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ma, Wei
    Xi An Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China.
    Hedstrom, Svante
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ian James, David
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Xu, Xiaofeng
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Persson, Petter
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huang, Fei
    S China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    One-Step Synthesis of Precursor Oligomers for Organic Photovoltaics: A Comparative Study between Polymers and Small Molecules2015In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 49, p. 27106-27114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two series of oligomers TQ and rhodanine end-capped TQ-DR were synthesized using a facile one-step method. Their optical, electrical, and thermal properties and photovoltaic performances were systematically investigated and compared. The TQ series of oligomers were found to be amorphous, whereas the TQ-DR series are semicrystalline. For the TQ oligomers, the results obtained in solar cells show that as the chain length of the oligomers increases, an increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) is obtained. However, when introducing 3-ethylrhodanine into the TQ oligomers as end groups, the PCE of the TQ-DR series of oligomers decreases as the chain length increases. Moreover, the TQ-DR series of oligomers give much higher performances compared to the original amorphous TQ series of oligomers owing to the improved extinction coefficient (epsilon) and crystallinity afforded by the rhodanine. In particular, the highly crystalline oligomer TQ5-DR, which has the shortest conjugation length shows a high hole mobility of 0.034 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) and a high PCE of 3.14%, which is the highest efficiency out of all of the six oligomers. The structure-property correlations for all of the oligomers and the TQ1 polymer demonstrate that structural control of enhanced intermolecular interactions and crystallinity is a key for small molecules/oligomers to achieve high mobilities, which is an essential requirement for use in OPVs.

  • 42.
    Li, Xiaodong
    et al.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Wenjun
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Xueyan
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fang, Junfeng
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Disodium Edetate As a Promising Interfacial Material for Inverted Organic Solar Cells and the Device Performance Optimization2014In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 6, no 23, p. 20569-20573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disodium edetate (EDTA-Na), a popular hexadentate ligand in analytical chemistry, was successfully introduced in organic solar cells (OSCs) as cathode interfacial layer. The inverted OSCs with EDTA-Na showed superior performance both in power conversion efficiency and devices stability compared with conventional devices. Interestingly, we found that the performance of devices with EDTA-Na could be optimized through external bias treatment. After optimization, the efficiency of inverted OSCs with device structure of ITO/EDTA-Na/polymer thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7):PC71BM/MoO3/Al was significantly increased to 8.33% from an initial value of 6.75%. This work introduces a new class of interlayer materials, small molecule electrolytes, for organic solar cells.

  • 43.
    Lin, Dongxu
    et al.
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Xin
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Jiming
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Tiankai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sun Yat Sen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xie, Fangyan
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gong, Li
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Jian
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Shi, Tingting
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Shi, Jifu
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Pengyi
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xie, Weiguang
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China; Sun Yat Sen Univ, Peoples R China; Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Construction of an Iodine Diffusion Barrier Using Network Structure Silicone Resin for Stable Perovskite Solar Cells2021In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 8138-8146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term stability of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is inhibited by ion diffusion. Herein, we introduce a thermally stable and hydrophobic silicone resin layer with a network structure as an interfacial layer between the perovskite and the hole-transporting layer ( HTL). Experimental and theoretical investigations confirm that the small Si-O-Si unit in the network forms both Si-I and Pb-O bonds with the perovskite surface, which physically and chemically inhibit the diffusion and self-release of iodine. Besides, the silicone resin layer suppresses the thermal crystallization of spiro-OMeTAD and optimizes the interfacial energy level alignment for hole extraction. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a perovskite solar cell with a silicone resin layer is improved to 21.11%. The device maintains more than 90.1% of its original PCE after 1200 h under 85 degrees C thermal stress, 99.6% after 2000 h under RH similar to 55 +/- 5%, and 83% of its original PCE after light soaking in air for 1037 h.

  • 44.
    Liu, Alei
    et al.
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zheng, Wenhao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yin, Xiaolong
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Junyu
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Lin, Yuanbao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Cai, Wanzhu
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Xiaomin
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liang, Quanbin
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    He, Zhicai
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Hongbin
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Li, Yang
    Wuyi Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Manipulate Micrometer Surface and Nanometer Bulk Phase Separation Structures in the Active Layer of Organic Solar Cells via Synergy of Ultrasonic and High-Pressure Gas Spraying2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 10777-10784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For organic solar cells, the vertical and lateral micro-/nanometer-scale structure in the active layer largely determines the device performance. In this work, the surface and bulk domain size of the photoactive layer are successfully manipulated with a facile two-step spraying method, that is, an ultrathin active layer by high-pressure spraying is deliberately stacked on top of the thick active layer by ultrasonic spraying. Thus, the morphology is effectively optimized with the comprehensive study of optical and electrical characteristics, such as photon absorption, exciton dissociation efficiency, and bimolecular recombination. Moreover, the novel method can be used not only in the fullerene system but also in the nonfullerene system, demonstrating the remarkable universality through this synergy method. This work provides an easy and reliable strategy to improve photovoltaic device performance in the industrial large-area spray-coating process.

  • 45.
    Liu, Feng
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Jianyun
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yuming
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Shanshan
    Ulsan Natl Inst Sci and Technol, South Korea.
    Zhou, Zichun
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Changduk
    Ulsan Natl Inst Sci and Technol, South Korea.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhu, Xiaozhang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Modulating Structure Ordering via Side-Chain Engineering of Thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-Based Electron Acceptors for Efficient Organic Solar Cells with Reduced Energy Losses2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 38, p. 35193-35200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonfullerene-based organic solar cells (OSCs) have made a huge breakthrough in the recent years. Introducing a proper side chain on the pi-conjugated backbone plays a vital role for further improving the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of OSCs due to easy tuning of the physical properties of the molecule such as absorption, energetic level, solid-state stacking, and charge transportation. More importantly, the side chain significantly affected the blend films morphology and thus determined the PCEs of the devices. In this work, two low-band-gap nonfullerene acceptors, ATT-4 and ATT-5, with an alkyl or branched alkyl substitute on indacenodithiophene (IDT) and thieno[3,4-b]thiophene (TbT) backbone were synthesized for investigating the effect of the substituent on the performance of the nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs). In comparison to ATT-1 with p-hexylphenyl-substituted IDT and n-octyl-substituted TbT moieties, ATT-4 and ATT-5 exhibit better crystallinity with shorter interchain distance and ordered molecular structure in neat and the corresponding blend films. The tailored ATT-5 exhibits a high PCE of 12.36% with a V-oc of 0.93 V, J(sc) of 18.86 mA cm(-2), and fill factor (FF) of 0.71, blending with a wide-band-gap polymer donor PBDB-T. Remarkably, although ATT-4 and ATT-5 exhibit broader light absorption, the devices obtained higher V-oc than that of ATT-1 mainly due to the reduced nonradiative recombination in the blend films. These results implied that side-chain engineering is an efficient approach to regulate the electronic structure and molecular packing of NFAs, which can well match with polymer donor, and obtain high PCEs of the OSCs with improved V-oc, J(sc), and FF, simultaneously.

  • 46.
    Liu, Jian
    et al.
    Chinese Academic Science, Changchun, China.
    Wu, Jiang
    Chinese Academic Science, Changchun, China.
    Shao, Shuyan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Deng, Yunfeng
    Chinese Academic Science, Changchun, China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Beijing, China.
    Meng, Bin
    Chinese Academic Science, Changchun, China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Beijing, China.
    Xie, Zhiyuan
    Chinese Academic Science, Changchun, China.
    Geng, Yanhou
    Chinese Academic Science, Changchun, China.
    Wang, Lixiang
    Chinese Academic Science, Changchun, China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Printable highly conductive conjugated polymer sensitized ZnO NCs as cathode interfacial layer for efficient polymer solar cells2014In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 8237-8245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a facile way to produce printable highly conductive cathode interfacial layer (CIL) for efficient polymer solar cells (PSCs) by sensitizing ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) with a blue fluorescent conjugated polymer, poly(9, 9-bis-(6-diethoxylphosphorylhexyl) fluorene) (PFEP). Herein, PFEP plays dual distinctive roles in the composite. Firstly, PFEP chains can effectively block the aggregation of ZnO NCs, leading to uniform and smooth film during solution processing via assembly on ZnO NC surfaces through their pending phosphonate groups. Secondly, PFEP can greatly improve the conductivity of ZnO NCs by charge transfer doping, that is the charge transfer from the sensitizer driven by electron-chemical potential equilibrium, which could be even more pronounced under light illumination because of light excitation of PFEP sensitizer. The increased conductivity in ZnO-PFEP layer renders more efficient electron transport and extraction compared to pristine ZnO layer. This ZnO-PFEP CIL was successfully applied to PSCs based on three polymer donor systems with different band-gaps, and efficiency enhancements from 44 to 70% were observed compared to those PSCs with pristine ZnO CIL. The highest efficiency of 7.56% was achieved in P(IID-DTC):PC70BM-based PSCs by using ZnO-PFEP film as CIL. Moreover, the enhanced conductivity due to the charge-transfer doping effect allows thick ZnO-PFEP film to be used as CIL in high-performance PSCs. Both the high conductivity and good film-forming properties of ZnO-PFEP CIL are favorable for large-scale printable PSCs, which is also verified by high-efficiency PSCs with ZnO-PFEP CIL fabricated using doctor-blading, a large-scale processing technique. The work provides an efficient printable cathode interfacial material for efficient PSCs.

  • 47.
    Liu, Jiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organic Reprogrammable Circuits Based on Electrochemically-Formed Diodes2014In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 6, no 15, p. 13266-13270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To simplify the integration of organic electronics, we demonstrate a method for constructing reprogrammable circuits based on organic diodes. The organic p‐n junction diodes consisting of an organic polymers poly[2‐methoxy‐5‐(2‐ethylhexyloxy)‐1,4‐phenylenevinylene and an electrolyte were formed by electrochemical doping at 70 °C, and stabilized at ‐30 °C. The reversible electrochemical reaction allows for the in‐situ change of the polarity of the organic p‐n junction. By forming diodes with different polarity at different locations, several circuits can be created, such as, logic gates, voltage limiter and AC/DC converter. The as‐made circuitry can be erased and turned into circuitry with other functionality. For example, the diodes of an AND gate can be re‐programmed to form an OR gate. The reprogrammable circuits contain merely two core layers, electrodes and active material, which is promising for large‐area and fully‐printed reconfigurable circuits with facile fabrication.

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  • 48.
    Liu, Juanjuan
    et al.
    Donghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Huajie
    Donghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Siddique, Farhan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Baryshnikov, Glib
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wu, Hongwei
    Donghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Photoinduced Carbonyl Radical Luminescence in Host-Guest Systems2023In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 15, no 50, p. 58888-58896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing a free radical emission system in different states, especially in water, is highly challenging and desired. Herein, a host-guest coassembly strategy was used to protect the in situ photoactivated radical emission of carbonyl compounds in solid and aqueous solutions by doping them into a series of small molecules with hydroxyl groups. The intermolecular interactions between host and guest and the electron-donating ability of the hydroxyl group can significantly promote the formation and stabilization of luminescence by carbonyl radicals. Accordingly, the stimuli-responsive property of the free radical system was investigated in detail, and the self-assembled aggregates showed photoactive and thermoresponsive behaviors. In addition, an advanced ammonia compound identification system can be built based on a radical emission system. Our design strategy sheds light on developing free radical systems that can emit in various states, which will greatly broaden the application range of free radicals.

  • 49.
    Meng, Lingyin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Cranfield Univ, England.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conducting Polymer-Reinforced Laser-Irradiated Graphene as a Heterostructured 3D Transducer for Flexible Skin Patch Biosensors2021In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 13, no 45, p. 54456-54465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible skin patch biosensors are promising for the noninvasive determination of physiological parameters in perspiration for fitness and health monitoring. However, various prerequisites need to be met for the development of such biosensors, including the creation of a flexible conductive platform, bending/contact stability, fast electrochemical kinetics, and immobilization of biomolecules. Here, we describe a conducting polymer-reinforced laser-irradiated graphene (LIG) network as a heterostructured three-dimensional (3D) transducer for flexible skin patch biosensors. LIG with a hierarchically interconnected graphene structure is geometrically patterned on polyimide via localized laser irradiation as a flexible conductive platform, which is then reinforced by poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as a conductive binder (PEDOT/LIG) with improved structural/contact stability and electrochemical kinetics. The interconnected pores of the reinforced PEDOT/LIG function as a 3D host matrix for high loading of "artificial" (Prussian blue, PB) and natural enzymes (lactate oxidase, LOx), forming a compact and heterostructured 3D transducer (LOx/PB-PEDOT/LIG) for lactate biosensing with excellent sensitivity (11.83 mu A mM-1). We demonstrated the fabrication of flexible skin patch biosensors comprising a custom-built integrated three-electrode system achieve amperometric detection of lactate in artificial sweat over a wide physiological linear range of 0-18 mM. The advantage of this facile and versatile transducer is further illustrated by the development of a folded 3D wristband lactate biosensor and a dual channel biosensors for simultaneous monitoring of lactate and glucose. This innovative design concept of a heterostructured transducer for flexible biosensors combined with a versatile fabrication approach could potentially drive the development of new wearable and skin-mountable biosensors for monitoring various physiological parameters in biofluids for noninvasive fitness and health management.

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  • 50.
    Meng, Lingyin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Cranfield Univ, England.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modulating Electrode Kinetics for Discrimination of Dopamine by a PEDOT:COOH Interface Doped with Negatively Charged Tricarboxylate2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 37, p. 34497-34506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapidly developing field of conducting polymers in organic electronics has many implications for bioelectronics. For biosensing applications, tailoring the functionalities of the conducting polymers surface is an efficient approach to improve both sensitivity and selectivity. Here, we demonstrated a facile and economic approach for the fabrication of a high-density, negatively charged carboxylic-acid-group-functionalized PEDOT (PEDOT:COOH) using an inexpensive ternary carboxylic acid, citrate, as a dopant. The polymerization efficiency was significantly improved by the addition of LiClO4 as a supporting electrolyte yielding a dense PEDOT:COOH sensing interface. The resulting PEDOT:COOH interface had a high surface density of carboxylic acid groups of 0.129 mu mol/cm(2) as quantified by the toluidine blue O (TBO) staining technique. The dopamine response measured with the PEDOT:COOH sensing interface was characterized by cyclic voltammetry with a significantly reduced Delta E-p of 90 mV and a 3-fold increase in the I-pa value compared with those of the nonfunctionalized PEDOT sensing interface. Moreover, the cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results demonstrated the increased electrode kinetics and highly selective discrimination of dopamine (DA) in the presence of the interferents ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA), which resulted from the introduction of negatively charged carboxylic acid groups. The negatively charged carboxylic acid groups could favor the transfer, preconcentration, and permeation of positively charged DA to deliver improved sensing performance while repelling the negatively charged AA and UA interferents. The PEDOT:COOH interface facilitated measurement of dopamine over the range of 1-85 mu M, with a sensitivity of 0.228 mu A mu M-1, which is 4.1 times higher than that of a nonfunctionalized PEDOT electrode (0.055 mu A mu M-1). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a simple and economic fabrication of a high-density PEDOT:COOH interface for chemical sensing, which also has the potential for coupling with other biorecognition molecules via carboxylic acid moieties for the development of a range of advanced PEDOT-based biosensors.

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