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  • 1.
    Anasori, Babak
    et al.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Xie, Yu
    Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37831 USA.
    Beidaghi, Majid
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hosler, Brian C.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kent, Paul R. C.
    Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37831 USA; Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37831 USA.
    Gogotsi, Yury
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Barsoum, Michel W.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Two-Dimensional, Ordered, Double Transition Metals Carbides (MXenes)2015In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 9, no 10, p. 9507-9516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The higher the chemical diversity and structural complexity of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the higher the likelihood they possess unique and useful properties. Herein, density functional theory (DFT) is used to predict the existence of two new families of 2D ordered, carbides (MXenes), MM-2 C-2 and MM-2 C-2(3), where M and M are two different early transition metals. In these solids, M layers sandwich M" carbide layers. By synthesizing Mo2TiC2Tx, Mo2Ti2C3Tx, and Cr2TiC2Tx (where T is a surface termination), we validated the DFT predictions. Since the Mo and Cr atoms are on the outside, they control the 2D flakes chemical and electrochemical properties. The latter was proven by showing quite different electrochemical behavior of Mo2TiC2Tx and Ti3C2Tx. This work further expands the family of 2D materials, offering additional choices of structures, chemistries, and ultimately useful properties.

  • 2.
    Belkin, Maxim
    et al.
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Chao, Shu-Han
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Dekker, Cees
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Aksimentiev, Aleksei
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Plasmonic Nanopores for Trapping, Controlling Displacement, and Sequencing of DNA2015In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 9, no 11, p. 10598-10611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the aim of developing a DNA sequencing methodology, we theoretically examine the feasibility of using nanoplasmonics to control the translocation of a DNA molecule through a solid-state nanopore and to read off sequence information using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that high-intensity optical hot spots produced by a metallic nanostructure can arrest DNA translocation through a solid-state nanopore, thus providing a physical knob for controlling the DNA speed. Switching the plasmonic field on and off can displace the DNA molecule in discrete steps, sequentially exposing neighboring fragments of a DNA molecule to the pore as well as to the plasmonic hot spot. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from the exposed DNA fragments contains information about their nucleotide composition, possibly allowing the identification of the nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule transported through the hot spot. The principles of plasmonic nanopore sequencing can be extended to detection of DNA modifications and RNA characterization.

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  • 3.
    Cai, Liangliang
    et al.
    Tongji Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Xin
    Tongji Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Mengxi
    Natl Ctr Nanosci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Qiang
    Tongji Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bao, Meiling
    Tongji Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zha, Zeqi
    Natl Ctr Nanosci and Technol, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Pan, Jinliang
    Natl Ctr Nanosci and Technol, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Ma, Honghong
    Tongji Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ju, Huanxin
    Univ Sci and Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Hu, Shanwei
    Univ Sci and Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Liang
    Tongji Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zou, Jiacheng
    Tongji Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yuan, Chunxue
    Tongji Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jacob, Timo
    Ulm Univ, Germany.
    Björk, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhu, Junfa
    Univ Sci and Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Qu, Xiaohui
    Natl Ctr Nanosci and Technol, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Wei
    Tongji Univ, Peoples R China.
    Direct Formation of C-C Double-Bonded Structural Motifs by On-Surface Dehalogenative Homocoupling of gem-Dibromomethyl Molecules2018In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 7959-7966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conductive polymers are of great importance in a variety of chemistry-related disciplines and applications. The recently developed bottom-up on-surface synthesis strategy provides us with opportunities for the fabrication of various nanostructures in a flexible and facile manner, which could be investigated by high-resolution microscopic techniques in real space. Herein, we designed and synthesized molecular precursors functionalized with benzal gem-dibromomethyl groups. A combination of scanning tunneling microscopy, noncontact atomic force microscopy, high-resolution synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations demonstrated that it is feasible to achieve the direct formation of C-C double-bonded structural motifs via on-surface dehalogenative homocoupling reactions on the Au(111) surface. Correspondingly, we convert the sp(3)-hybridized state to an sp(2)-hybridized state of carbon atoms, i.e., from an alkyl group to an alkenyl one. Moreover, by such a bottom-up strategy, we have successfully fabricated poly(phenylenevinylene) chains on the surface, which is anticipated to inspire further studies toward understanding the nature of conductive polymers at the atomic scale.

  • 4.
    Charrier, Dimitri S. H.
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Smalbrugge, Barry E.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    de Vries, Tjibbe
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Janssen, Rene A. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Real versus measured surface potentials in scanning Kelvin probe microscopy2008In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 622-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noncontact potentiometry or scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) is a widely used technique to study charge injection and transport in (in)organic devices by measuring a laterally resolved local potential. This technique suffers from the significant drawback that experimentally obtained curves do not generally reflect the true potential profile in the device due to nonlocal coupling between the probing tip and the device. In this work, we quantitatively explain the experimental SKPM response and by doing so directly link theoretical device models to real observables. In particular, the model quantitatively explains the effects of the tip-sample distance and the dependence on the orientation of the probing tip with respect to the device.

  • 5.
    Dahlin, Andreas B.
    et al.
    Division of Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Jonsson, Peter
    Division of Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Jonsson, Magnus P.
    Division of Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Schmid, Emanuel
    Division of Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Zhou, Ye
    Division of Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Hook, Fredrik
    Division of Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Synchronized Quartz Crystal Microbalance and Nanoplasmonic Sensing of Biomolecular Recognition Reactions2008In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 2, no 10, p. 2174-2182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method providing synchronized measurements using the two techniques: quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). This was achieved by letting a thin gold film perforated with short-ranged ordered plasmon-active nanoholes act as one of the electrodes of a QCM-D crystal. This enabled transmission-mode optical spectroscopy to be used to temporally resolve colorimetric changes of the LSPR active substrate induced upon bionnolecular binding events. The LSPR response could thus be compared with simultaneously obtained changes in resonance frequency, Delta f, and energy dissipation, AD, of the QCM-D device. Since the LSPR technique is preferentially sensitive to changes within the voids of the nanoholes, while the QCM-D technique is preferentially sensitive to reactions on the planar region between the holes, a surface chemistry providing the same binding kinetics on both gold and silica was used. This was achieved by coating the substrate with poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG), which was shown to bind in the same manner on silica and gold modified with a carboxyl-terminated thiol. In this way, the combined setup provided new information about structural changes upon PLL-g-PEG adsorption. We also demonstrate subsequent binding of NeutrAvidin and an immunoreaction utilizing biotin-modified IgG. The combined information from the synchronized measurements was also used in a new way to estimate the sensing volume of the LSPR sensor.

  • 6.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petruhins, Andrejs
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Origin of Chemically Ordered Atomic Laminates (i-MAX): Expanding the Elemental Space by a Theoretical/Experimental Approach2018In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 7761-7770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increased chemical diversity and structural complexity comes the opportunities for innovative materials possessing advantageous properties. Herein, we combine predictive first-principles calculations with experimental synthesis, to explore the origin of formation of the atomically laminated i-MAX phases. By probing (Mo2/3M1/32)(2)AC (where M-2 = Sc, Y and A = Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, In), we predict seven stable i-MAX phases, five of which should have a retained stability at high temperatures. (Mo2/3Sc1/3)(2)GaC and (Mo2/3Y1/3)(2)GaC were experimentally verified, displaying the characteristic in-plane chemical order of Mo and Sc/Y and Kagome-like ordering of the A-element. We suggest that the formation of i-MAX phases requires a significantly different size of the two metals, and a preferable smaller size of the A-element. Furthermore, the population of antibonding orbitals should be minimized, which for the metals herein (Mo and Sc/Y) means that A elements from Group 13 (Al, Ga, In) are favored over Group 14 (Si, Ge, Sn). Using these guidelines, we foresee a widening of elemental space for the family of i-MAX phases and expect more phases to be synthesized, which will realize useful properties. Furthermore, based on i-MAX phases as parent materials for 2D MXenes, we also expect that the range of MXene compositions will be expanded.

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  • 7.
    Feuz, Laurent
    et al.
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Peter
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus P.
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hook, Fredrik
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Improving the Limit of Detection of Nanoscale Sensors by Directed Binding to High-Sensitivity Areas2010In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 2167-2177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The revelation of protein protein-interactions is one of the main preoccupations in the field of proteomics. Nanoplasmonics has emerged as an attractive surface-based technique because of its ability to sense protein binding under physiological conditions in a label-free manner. Here, we use short-range ordered holes with a diameter of similar to 150 nm and a depth of similar to 50 nm as a nanoplasmonic template. A similar to 40 nm high cylindrical region of Au is exposed on the walls of the holes only, while the rest of the surface consists of TiO(2). Since the sensitivity is confined to the nanometric holes, the use of two different materials for the sensor substrate offers the opportunity to selectively bind proteins to the most sensitive Au regions on the sensor surface. This was realized by applying material-selective poly(ethylene glycol)-based surface chemistry, restricting NeutrAvidin binding to surface-immobilized biotin on the Au areas only. We show that under mass-transport limited conditions (low nM bulk concentrations), the initial time-resolved response of uptake could be increased by a factor of almost 20 compared with the case where proteins were allowed to bind on the entire sensor surface and stress the generic relevance of this concept for nanoscale sensors. In the scope of further optimizing the limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor structure, we present finite-element (FE) simulations to unravel spatially resolved binding rates. These revealed that the binding rates in the holes occur in a highly inhomogeneous manner with highest binding rates observed at the upper rim of the holes and the lowest rates observed at the bottom of the holes. By assuming a plasmonic field distribution with enhanced sensitivity at the Au-TiO(2)interface, the FE simulations reproduced the experimental findings qualitatively.

  • 8.
    Filippov, Stanislav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puttisong, Yuttapoom
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huang, Yuqing
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Buyanova, Irina A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Suraprapapich, Suwaree
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, La Jolla, California, United States.
    Tu, Charles. W.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exciton Fine-Structure Splitting in Self-Assembled Lateral InAs/GaAs Quantum-Dot Molecular Structures2015In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 5741-5749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fine-structure splitting (FSS) of excitons in semiconductor nanostructures is a key parameter that has significant implications in photon entanglement and polarization conversion between electron spins and photons, relevant to quantum information technology and spintronics. Here, we investigate exciton FSS in self-organized lateral InAs/GaAs quantum-dot molecular structures (QMSs) including laterally aligned double quantum dots (DQDs), quantum-dot clusters (QCs), and quantum rings (QRs), by employing polarization-resolved microphotoluminescence (μPL) spectroscopy. We find a clear trend in FSS between the studied QMSs depending on their geometric arrangements, from a large FSS in the DQDs to a smaller FSS in the QCs and QRs. This trend is accompanied by a corresponding difference in the optical polarization directions of the excitons between these QMSs, namely, the bright-exciton lines are linearly polarized preferably along or perpendicular to the [11̅0] crystallographic axis in the DQDs that also defines the alignment direction of the two constituting QDs, whereas in the QCs and QRs, the polarization directions are randomly oriented. We attribute the observed trend in the FSS to a significant reduction of the asymmetry in the lateral confinement potential of the excitons in the QRs and QCs as compared with the DQDs, as a result of a compensation between the effects of lateral shape anisotropy and piezoelectric field. Our work demonstrates that FSS strongly depends on the geometric arrangements of the QMSs, which effectively tune the degree of the compensation effects and are capable of reducing FSS even in a strained QD system to a limit similar to strain-free QDs. This approach provides a pathway in obtaining high-symmetry quantum emitters desirable for realizing photon entanglement and spintronic devices based on such nanostructures, utilizing an uninterrupted epitaxial growth procedure without special requirements for lattice-matched materials combinations, specific substrate orientations, and nanolithography.

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  • 9.
    Foroughi, Javad
    et al.
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia; Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute (IHMRI), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Aziz, Shazed
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Mirabedini, Azadeh
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Jeiranikhameneh, Ali
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Wallace, Gordon G
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Kozlov, Mikhail E
    Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States.
    Baughman, Ray H
    Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States.
    Knitted Carbon-Nanotube-Sheath/Spandex-Core Elastomeric Yarns for Artificial Muscles and Strain Sensing2016In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly stretchable, actuatable, electrically conductive knitted textiles based on Spandex (SPX)/CNT (carbon nanotube) composite yarns were prepared by an integrated knitting procedure. SPX filaments were continuously wrapped with CNT aerogel sheets and supplied directly to an interlocking circular knitting machine to form the three-dimensional electrically conductive and stretchable textiles. By adjusting the SPX/CNT feed ratio, the fabric electrical conductivities could be tailored in the range of 870 to 7092 S/m. The electrical conductivity depended on tensile strain, with a linear and largely hysteresis-free resistance change occurring on loading and unloading between 0 and 80% strain. Electrothermal heating of the stretched fabric caused large tensile contractions of up to 33%, and generated a gravimetric mechanical work capacity during contraction of up to 0.64 kJ/kg and a maximum specific power output of 1.28 kW/kg, which far exceeds that of mammalian skeletal muscle. The knitted textile provides the combination of strain sensing and the ability to control dimensions required for smart clothing that simultaneously monitors the wearer's movements and adjusts the garment fit or exerts forces or pressures on the wearer, according to needs. The developed processing method is scalable for the fabrication of industrial quantities of strain sensing and actuating smart textiles.

  • 10.
    Forro, Csaba
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Demko, Laszlo
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Weydert, Serge
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Voros, Janos
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Predictive Model for the Electrical Transport within Nanowire Networks2018In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 11080-11087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin networks of high aspect ratio conductive nanowires can combine high electrical conductivity with excellent optical transparency, which has led to a widespread use of nanowires in transparent electrodes, transistors, sensors, and flexible and stretchable conductors. Although the material and application aspects of conductive nanowire films have been thoroughly explored, there is still no model which can relate fundamental physical quantities, like wire resistance, contact resistance, and nanowire density, to the sheet resistance of the film. Here, we derive an analytical model for the electrical conduction within nanowire networks based on an analysis of the parallel resistor network. The model captures the transport characteristics and fits a wide range of experimental data, allowing for the determination of physical parameters and performance-limiting factors, in sharp contrast to the commonly employed percolation theory. The model thus constitutes a useful tool with predictive power for the evaluation and optimization of nanowire networks in various applications.

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  • 11.
    Gao, Feng
    et al.
    Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Li, Zhe
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Wang, Jianpu
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Rao, Akshay
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Howard, Ian A.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Abrusci, Agnese
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Massip, Sylvain
    University of Cambridge, England.
    McNeill, Christopher R.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Greenham, Neil C.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Trap-Induced Losses in Hybrid Photovoltaics2014In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 3213-3221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the loss mechanisms in hybrid photovoltaics based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) with CdSe nanocrystals of various sizes. By combining the spectroscopic and electrical measurements on working devices as well as films, we identify that high trap-mediated recombination is responsible for the loss of photogenerated charge carriers in devices with small nanocrystals. In addition, we demonstrate that the reduced open-circuit voltage for devices with small nanocrystals is also caused by the traps.

  • 12.
    Li, Youbing
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Li, Mian
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ma, Baokai
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Ningbo Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Zhipan
    Ningbo Univ, Peoples R China.
    Cheong, Ling-Zhi
    Ningbo Univ, Peoples R China.
    Luo, Kan
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zha, Xianhu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Ke
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shen, Cai
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Qigang
    Tongji Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xue, Jianming
    Peking Univ, Peoples R China.
    Du, Shiyu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Zhengren
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Chai, Zhifang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Qing
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Single-Atom-Thick Active Layers Realized in Nanolaminated Ti-3(AlxCu1-x)C-2 and Its Artificial Enzyme Behavior2019In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 9198-9205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Ti-3(AlxCu1-x)C-2 phase with Cu atoms with a degree of ordering in the A plane is synthesized through the A site replacement reaction in CuCl2 molten salt. The weakly bonded single -atom -thick Cu layers in a Ti-3(AlxCu1-x)C-2 MAX phase provide actives sites for catalysis chemistry. As -synthesized Ti-3(AlxCu1-x)C-2 presents unusual peroxidase-like catalytic activity similar to that of natural enzymes. A fabricated Ti-3(AlxCu1-x)C-2/chitosan/glassy carbon electrode biosensor prototype also exhibits a low detection limit in the electrochemical sensing of H2O2. These results have broad implications for property tailoring in a nanolaminated MAX phase by replacing the A site with late transition elements.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-07-22 15:15
  • 13.
    Maturova, Klara
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Janssen, Rene A. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Connecting Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy to Device Performance for Polymer: Fullerene Organic Solar Cells2010In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 1385-1392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy have been used to measure the local photovoltaic performance of prototypical polymer:fullerene (MDMO-PPV:PCBM) bulk heterojunction films with similar to 10 nm resolution. Fullerene-rich clusters are found to act as sinks, extracting electrons from a shell layer of a homogeneously mixed polymer:fullerene matrix, surrounding the fullerene cluster. The experimental results were quantitatively modeled with a drift-diffusion model that in first order accounts for the specific morphology. The same model has subsequently been used to calculate performance indicators of macroscopic solar cells as a function of film composition and characteristic size of the phase separation. As such, a first step has been set toward a quantitative correlation between nanoscopic and macroscopic device photovoltaic performance.

  • 14.
    McPhillips, John
    et al.
    Queens University of Belfast, North Ireland.
    Murphy, Antony
    Queens University of Belfast, North Ireland.
    Jonsson, Magnus P.
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hendren, William R.
    Queens University of Belfast, North Ireland.
    Atkinson, Ronald
    Queens University of Belfast, North Ireland.
    Hook, Fredrik
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zayats, Anatoly V.
    Queens University of Belfast, North Ireland.
    Pollard, Robert J.
    Queens University of Belfast, North Ireland.
    High-Performance Biosensing Using Arrays of Plasmonic Nanotubes2010In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 2210-2216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that aligned gold nanotube arrays capable of supporting plasmonic resonances can be used as high performance refractive index sensors in biomolecular binding reactions. A methodology to examine the sensing ability of the inside and outside walls of the nanotube structures is presented. The sensitivity of the plasmonic nanotubes is found to increase as the nanotube walls are exposed, and the sensing characteristic of the inside and outside walls is shown to be different. Finite element simulations showed good qualitative agreement with the observed behavior. Free standing gold nanotubes displayed bulk sensitivities in the region of 250 nm per refractive index unit and a signal-to-noise ratio better than 1000 upon protein binding which is highly competitive with state-of-the-art label-free sensors.

  • 15.
    Naguib, Michael
    et al.
    University of Penn.
    Mashtalir, Olha
    University of Penn.
    Carle, Joshua
    University of Penn.
    Presser, Volker
    University of Penn.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gogotsi, Yury
    University of Penn.
    Barsoum, Michel W
    University of Penn.
    Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Carbides2012In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 1322-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein we report on the synthesis of two-dimensional transition metal carbides and carbonitrides by immersing select MAX phase powders in hydrofluoric acid, HF. The MAX phases represent a large (andgt;60 members) family of ternary, layered, machinable transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides. Herein we present evidence for the exfoliation of the following MAX phases: Ti2AlC, Ta4AlC3, (Ti-0.5,Nb-0.5)(2)AlC, (V-0.5,Cr-0.5)(3)AlC2, and Ti3AlCN by the simple immersion of their powders, at room temperature, in HF of varying concentrations for times varying between 10 and 72 h followed by sonication. The removal of the "A" group layer from the MAX phases results in 2-D layers that we are labeling MXenes to denote the loss of the A element and emphasize their structural similarities with graphene. The sheet resistances of the MXenes were found to be comparable to multilayer graphene. Contact angle measurements with water on pressed MXene surfaces showed hydrophilic behavior.

  • 16.
    Pandya, Raj
    et al.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Steinmetz, Violette
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Puttisong, Yuttapoom
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dufour, Marion
    PSL Res Univ, France.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Richard Y. S.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Barisien, Thierry
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Sharma, Ashish
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Lakhwani, Girish
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Mitioglu, Anatolie
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Christianen, Peter C. M.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Legrand, Laurent
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Bernardot, Frederick
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Testelin, Christophe
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Chin, Alex W.
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Ithurria, Sandrine
    PSL Res Univ, France.
    Chamarro, Maria
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Rao, Akshay
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Fine Structure and Spin Dynamics of Linearly Polarized Indirect Excitons in Two-Dimensional CdSe/CdTe Colloidal Heterostructures2019In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 10140-10153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterostructured two-dimensional colloidal nanoplatelets are a class of material that has attracted great interest for optoelectronic applications due to their high photoluminescence yield, atomically tunable thickness, and ultralow lasing thresholds. Of particular interest are laterally heterostructured core-crown nanoplatelets with a type-II band alignment, where the in-plane spatial separation of carriers leads to indirect (or charge transfer) excitons with long lifetimes and bright, highly Stokes shifted emission. Despite this, little is known about the nature of the lowest energy exciton states responsible for emission in these materials. Here, using polarization-controlled, steady-state, and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements, at temperatures down to 1.6 K and magnetic fields up to 30 T, we study the exciton fine structure and spin dynamics of archetypal type-II CdSe/CdTe core-crown nanoplatelets. Complemented by theoretical modeling and zero-field quantum beat measurements, we find the bright-exciton fine structure consists of two linearly polarized states with a fine structure splitting similar to 50 mu eV and an indirect exciton Lande g-factor of 0.7. In addition, we show the exciton spin lifetime to be in the microsecond range with an unusual B-3 magnetic field dependence. The discovery of linearly polarized exciton states and emission highlights the potential for use of such materials in display and imaging applications without polarization filters. Furthermore, the small exciton fine structure splitting and a long spin lifetime are fundamental advantages when envisaging CdSe/CdTe nanoplatelets as elementary bricks for the next generation of quantum devices, particularly given their ease of fabrication.

  • 17.
    Pearce, Ruth
    et al.
    National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the Differing Sensitivity to Chemical Gating of Single and Double Layer Epitaxial Graphene Explored Using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy2013In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 4647-4656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using environmental scanning Kelvin probe microscopy we show that the position of the Fermi level of single layer graphene is more sensitive to chemical gating than that of double layer graphene. We calculate that the difference in sensitivity to chemical gating is not entirely due to the difference in band structure of 1 and 2 layer graphene. The findings are important for gas sensing where the sensitivity of the electronic properties to gas adsorption are monitored and suggest that single layer graphene could make a more sensitive gas sensor than double layer graphene. We propose that the difference in surface potential between adsorbate-free single and double layer graphene, measured using scanning kelvin probe microscopy, can be used as a non-invasive method of estimating substrate-induced doping in epitaxial graphene.

  • 18.
    Rong, Yu
    et al.
    University of Washington, WA USA .
    Wu, Changfeng
    Jilin University, Peoples R China .
    Yu, Jiangbo
    University of Washington, WA USA .
    Zhang, Xuanjun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ye, Fangmao
    University of Washington, WA USA .
    Zeigler, Maxwell
    University of Washington, WA USA .
    Gallina, Maria Elena
    University of Washington, WA USA .
    Wu, I-Che
    University of Washington, WA USA .
    Zhang, Yong
    University of Washington, WA USA .
    Chan, Yang-Hsiang
    University of Washington, WA USA .
    Sun, Wei
    University of Washington, WA USA .
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chiu, Daniel T.
    University of Washington, WA USA .
    Multicolor Fluorescent Semiconducting Polymer Dots with Narrow Emissions and High Brightness2013In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 376-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorescent semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) have attracted great interest because of their superior characteristics as fluorescent probes, such as high fluorescence brightness, fast radiative rates, and excellent photostability. However, currently available Pdots generally exhibit broad emission spectra, which significantly limit their usefulness in many biological applications Involving multiplex detections. Here, we describe the design and development of multicolor narrow emissive Pdots based on different boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) units. BODIPY-containing semiconducting polymers emitting at multiple wavelengths were synthesized and used as precursors for preparing the Pdots, where intraparticle energy transfer led to highly bright, narrow emissions. The emission full width at half-maximum of the resulting Pdots varies from 40 to 55 nm, which is 15-2 times narrower than those of conventional semiconducting polymer dots. BODIPY 520 Pdots were about an order of magnitude brighter than commercial Qdot 525 under identical laser excitation conditions. Fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry experiments indicate that the narrow emissions from these bright Pdots are promising for multiplexed biological detections.

  • 19.
    Tiefenauer, Raphael F.
    et al.
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. ETH, Switzerland.
    Aramesh, Morteza
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Voros, Janos
    ETH, Switzerland.
    Fast and Versatile Multiscale Patterning by Combining Template-Stripping with Nanotransfer Printing2018In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 2514-2520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal nanostructures are widely used in plasmonic and electronic applications due to their inherent properties. Often, the fabrication of such nanostructures is limited to small areas, as the processing is costly, low throughput, and comprises harsh fabrication conditions. Here, we introduce a template-stripping based nanotransfer printing method to overcome these limitations. This versatile technique enables the transfer of arbitrary thin film metal structures onto a variety of substrates, including glass, Kapton, silicon, and PDMS. Structures can range from tens of nanometers to hundreds of micrometers over a wafer scale area. The process is organic solvent-free, multilayer compatible, and only takes minutes to perform. The stability of the transferred gold structures on glass exceeds by far those fabricated by e-beam evaporation. Therefore, an adhesion layer is no longer needed, enabling a faster and cheaper fabrication as well as the production of superior nanostructures. Structures can be transferred onto curved substrates, and the technique is compatible with roll-to-roll fabrication; thus, the process is suitable for flexible and stretchable electronics.

  • 20.
    Zhang, Xuanjun
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Yu, Jiangbo
    Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Wu, Chengfen g
    Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Jin, Yuhui
    Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Rong, Yu
    Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Ye, Fangmao
    Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Chiu, Daniel T
    Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Importance of having low-density functional groups for generating high-performance semiconducting polymer dots2012In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 5429-5439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semiconducting polymers with low-density side-chain carboxylic acid groups were synthesized to form stable, functionalized, and highly fluorescent polymer dots (Pdots). The influence of the molar fraction of hydrophilic side-chains on Pdot properties and performance was systematically investigated. Our results show that the density of side-chain carboxylic acid groups significantly affects Pdot stability, internal structure, fluorescence brightness, and nonspecific binding in cellular labeling. Fluorescence spectroscopy, single-particle imaging, and a dye-doping method were employed to investigate the fluorescence brightness and the internal structure of the Pdots. The results of these experiments indicate that semiconducting polymers with low density of side-chain functional groups can form stable, compact, and highly bright Pdots as compared to those with high density of hydrophilic side-chains. The functionalized polymer dots were conjugated to streptavidin (SA) by carbodiimide-catalyzed coupling and the Pdot-SA probes effectively and specifically labeled the cancer cell-surface marker Her2 in human breast cancer cells. The carboxylate-functionalized polymer could also be covalently modified with small functional molecules to generate Pdot probes for click chemistry-based bio-orthogonal labeling. This study presents a promising approach for further developing functional Pdot probes for biological applications.

  • 21.
    Zhou, Jie
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zha, Xian-Hu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Yildizhan Özyar, Melike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xue, Jianming
    Peking Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liao, Meiyong
    NIMS, Japan.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Du, Shiyu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Qing
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Two-Dimensional Hydroxyl-Functionalized and Carbon-Deficient Scandium Carbide, ScCxOH, a Direct Band Gap Semiconductor2019In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 1195-1203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted intense attention in nanoscience and nanotechnology due to their outstanding properties. Among these materials, the emerging family of 2D transition metal carbides, carbonitrides, and nitrides (referred to as MXenes) stands out because of the vast available chemical space for tuning materials chemistry and surface termination, offering opportunities for property tailoring. Specifically, semiconducting properties are needed to enable utilization in optoelectronics, but direct band gaps are experimentally challenging to achieve in these 2D carbides. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of 2D hydroxyl-functionalized and carbon-deficient scandium carbide, namely, ScCxOH, by selective etching of a layered parent ScAI(3)C(3) compound. The 2D configuration is determined as a direct band gap semiconductor, with an experimentally measured band gap approximated at 2.5 eV. Furthermore, this ScCxOH-based device exhibits excellent photoresponse in the ultraviolet-visible light region (responsivity of 0.125 A/W at 360 nm/10 V, and quantum efficiency of 43%). Thus, this 2D ScCxOH direct band gap semiconductor may find applications in visible light detectors, photocatalytic chemistry, and optoelectronic devices.

  • 22.
    Zhou, Jie
    et al.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Zha, Xianhu
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Zhou, Xiaobing
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Fanyan
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Guoliang
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Shuwei
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Shen, Cai
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Tao
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Zhi, Chunyi
    City University of Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Du, Shiyu
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Xue, Jianming
    Peking University, Peoples R China.
    Shi, Weiqun
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Chai, Zhifang
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Qing
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Two-Dimensional Hafnium Carbide2017In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 3841-3850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate fabrication of a two-dimensional Hf-containing MXene, Hf3C2Tz, by selective etching of a layered parent Hf-3[Al(Si)](4)C-6 compound. A substitutional solution of Si on Al sites effectively weakened the interfacial adhesion between Hf-C and Al(Si)-C sublayers within the unit cell of the parent compound, facilitating the subsequent selective etching. The underlying mechanism of the Si-alloying-facilitated etching process is thoroughly studied by first-principles density functional calculations. The result showed that more valence electrons of Si than Al weaken the adhesive energy of the etching interface. The MXenes were determined to be flexible and conductive. Moreover, this 2D Hf-containing MXene material showed reversible volumetric capacities of 1567 and 504 mAh cm(-3) for lithium and sodium ions batteries, respectively, at a current density of 200 mAg(-1) after 200 cycles. Thus, Hf3C2Tz MXenes with a 2D structure are candidate anode materials for metal-ion intercalation, especially for applications where size matters.

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