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  • 1.
    Dorum, Guro
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway.
    Kling, Daniel
    Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway; Norwegian Institute Public Heatlh, Norway.
    Tillmar, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Dehli Vigeland, Magnus
    University of Oslo, Norway; Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Egeland, Thore
    Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway.
    Mixtures with relatives and linked markers2016In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 130, no 3, p. 621-634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixture DNA profiles commonly appear in forensic genetics, and a large number of statistical methods and software are available for such cases. However, most of the literature concerns mixtures where the contributors are assumed unrelated and the genetic markers are unlinked. In this paper, we consider mixtures of linked markers and related contributors. If no relationships are involved, linkage can be ignored. While unlinked markers can be treated independently, linkage introduces dependencies. The use of linked markers presents statistical and computational challenges, but may also lead to a considerable increase in power since the number of markers available is much larger if we do not require the markers to be unlinked. In addition, some cases that cannot be solved with an unlimited number of unlinked autosomal markers can be solved with linked markers. We focus on two special cases of linked markers: pairs of linked autosomal markers and X-chromosomal markers. A framework is presented for calculation of likelihood ratios for mixtures with general relationships and with linkage between any number of markers. Finally, we explore the effect of linkage disequilibrium, also called allelic association, on the likelihood ratio.

  • 2.
    Edston, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    van Hage, M
    Mast cell tryptase in postmortem serum - Reference values and confounders2007In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 121, no 4, p. 275-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the effects of some factors suspected of inducing spuriously increased tryptase concentrations, specifically sampling site, conjunctival petechial bleeding and prone position at the time of death as indicators of premortem asphyxia, and resuscitation efforts by external cardiac massage. Tryptase was measured in blood from the femoral vein in 60 deaths: 39 control cases who died rapidly (within minutes) from natural causes (sudden cardiac death and acute aortic dissection), 16 with death caused by prolonged asphyxia (traumatic compression of the chest and suffocation due to body position or smothering), and five anaphylactic deaths. In 44 of these cases, tryptase was measured in both heart and femoral blood. Mast cell tryptase was analyzed with a commercial FEIA method (Pharmacia Diagnostics AB, Uppsala, Sweden) measuring both a- and ß-tryptase. Assuming that tryptase values in the control group were gamma distributed, we calculated the upper normal limits for tryptase concentrations in femoral blood. It was found that 95% of the controls had values below 44.3 µg/l (femoral blood), SD 5.27 µg/l. All but one of the anaphylactic deaths had tryptase concentrations exceeding that limit. Tryptase was significantly elevated in femoral blood from anaphylactic deaths (p<0.007), compared with the controls. Also, in the cases where death had occurred due to asphyxia tryptase was elevated in femoral blood (p<0.04). A significant difference in tryptase concentrations was seen between blood from the heart and the femoral vessels (p<0.02) in the whole material (n=44). Tryptase concentrations in femoral blood were not influenced by prone position at death, or resuscitation efforts. It is concluded that asphyxia premortem seems to affect tryptase concentrations, that postmortem tryptase measurements should be done in serum from femoral blood, and that the normal upper limit, covering 95%, is 44.3 µg/l. © 2006 Springer-Verlag.

  • 3.
    Edston, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of health and environment.
    Grontoft, L.
    Johnsson, J.
    TUNEL: A useful screening method in sudden cardiac death2002In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 116, no 1, p. 22-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate if detection of apoptosis in the heart can be used to diagnose early myocardial ischaemia. The material consisted of myocardial tissue from autopsy cases: 10 cases with occlusive, thrombotic coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction, 10 cases of sudden cardiac death without coronary artery disease (CAD) and 8 controls without cardiovascular disease and with known causes of death. Necrotic changes in the myocardium were detected with hematoxylin-erythrosin-saffron, Mallory's PTAH stain and with antibodies against complement 9. Apoptotic nuclei were visualised with two different kits using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated desoxyuridinetriphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method on histological sections. In the patients with CAD, early myocardial infarction was found in one defined area of the ventricular wall, apoptotic myocyte nuclei were observed not in the necrotic lesions, but evenly spread usually without a gradient, all over the myocardium with a mean number per high power field of 29% (range 3-56%) of the total number of myocyte nuclei. In the sudden cardiac deaths without CAD, necrosis was scarce and distributed both focally and irregularly in both the left and right ventricular walls. With few exceptions, the percentage of apoptotic myocyte nuclei exceeded 20% in all sections (mean 24%, range 0-68%). No difference was seen between patients with CAD and those without CAD (p > 0.05). With the TUNEL method, positively stained nuclei were seen very early and extensively all over the myocardium. It is not certain that they represent true apoptosis induced by ischemia, but TUNEL appears to be a useful screening method in cases where sudden cardiac death is suspected.

  • 4.
    Edston, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Perskvist , Nasrin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Histiocytoid cardiomyopathy and ventricular non-compaction in a case of sudden death in a female infant2009In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case of sudden infant death with histiocytoid cardiomyopathy and ventricular non-compaction was investigated with immunohistochemical methods. Histiocytoid cardiomyopathy is thought to be a developmental defect of the cardiomyocytes of the conduction system. In contrast to mature cardiomyocytes, the histiocytoid cells showed only weak reactions to desmin and myosin antibodies. They lacked cross-striation but reacted strongly to enolase and myoglobin antibodies. The protein Pax-7, seen only in cells undergoing differentiation, and the proliferation marker Ki-67 were not expressed in the histiocytoid cells. In areas of altered myocardium, clusters of CD4-, CD8-, and CD68-positive inflammatory cells were seen as well an abundance of mast cells. With the TUNEL method, it was found that many of the histiocytoid cells were undergoing apoptosis. Our results confirm that the histiocytoid cells are defective cardiomyocytes. The apoptotic and inflammatory changes point to a degenerative process rather than defective maturation of cardiomyocytes as has been suggested in some earlier studies. Ventricular non-compaction is a developmental defect of the subendocardial tissue with hypertrabeculation and weak development of the papillary muscles. Only one case combined with histiocytoid cardiomyopathy has been described previously. A causal connection between the two conditions cannot be established until more cases have been analyzed.

  • 5.
    Edston, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Forensic Medicine.
    Van Hage-Hamsten, M
    Death in anaphylaxis in a man with house dust mite allergy2003In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 117, no 5, p. 299-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Up to recently the post-mortem diagnosis of anaphylaxis has been based solely on circumstantial evidence. With the development of assays for mast cell tryptase it is now possible to verify cases of suspected anaphylaxis. Here we present one such case, which initially appeared to be due to sudden death of unknown cause. A 47-year-old farmer was found dead in his bathroom around midnight. Hospital records revealed that he had previously been diagnosed with an allergy to house dust mites. He had also had infrequent episodes of airway symptoms, nausea, hypotension and diarrhoea usually after going to bed. The forensic autopsy did not give any clue to the cause of death. Serum tryptase in post-mortem blood was found to be substantially elevated in two samples (170 and >200 ╡g/L). Analysis of allergen-specific IgE showed high values for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and farinae. High mite allergen levels were found in dust obtained from the patient's mattress. The results of the immunological tests support the assumption that he died of anaphylactic shock. The circumstances and the patient's history of previous attacks after going to bed point to the fact that exposure to mite contaminated food and/or exposure to mite allergens in bed might have caused his death.

  • 6.
    Grandell, Ida
    et al.
    National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Artillerigatan 12, SE-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Samara, Raed
    QIAGEN Science Inc, MD 21703 USA.
    Tillmar, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Artillerigatan 12, SE-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    A SNP panel for identity and kinship testing using massive parallel sequencing2016In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 130, no 4, p. 905-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within forensic genetics, there is still a need for supplementary DNA marker typing in order to increase the power to solve cases for both identity testing and complex kinship issues. One major disadvantage with current capillary electrophoresis (CE) methods is the limitation in DNA marker multiplex capability. By utilizing massive parallel sequencing (MPS) technology, this capability can, however, be increased. We have designed a customized GeneRead DNASeq SNP panel (Qiagen) of 140 previously published autosomal forensically relevant identity SNPs for analysis using MPS. One single amplification step was followed by library preparation using the GeneRead Library Prep workflow (Qiagen). The sequencing was performed on a MiSeq System (Illumina), and the bioinformatic analyses were done using the software Biomedical Genomics Workbench (CLC Bio, Qiagen). Forty-nine individuals from a Swedish population were genotyped in order to establish genotype frequencies and to evaluate the performance of the assay. The analyses showed to have a balanced coverage among the included loci, and the heterozygous balance showed to have less than 0.5 % outliers. Analyses of dilution series of the 2800M Control DNA gave reproducible results down to 0.2 ng DNA input. In addition, typing of FTA samples and bone samples was performed with promising results. Further studies and optimizations are, however, required for a more detailed evaluation of the performance of degraded and PCR-inhibited forensic samples. In summary, the assay offers a straightforward sample-to-genotype workflow and could be useful to gain information in forensic casework, for both identity testing and in order to solve complex kinship issues.

  • 7.
    Green, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Natl Board Forens Med, Dept Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Artillerigatan 12, S-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Natl Board Forens Med, Dept Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Artillerigatan 12, S-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Gisela
    Natl Board Forens Med, Sweden.
    Montelius, Kerstin
    Natl Board Forens Med, Dept Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Artillerigatan 12, S-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    The use of FTA cards to acquire DNA profiles from postmortem cases2019In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 133, no 6, p. 1651-1657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filter papers have been used for many years in different applications of molecular biology and have been proven to be a stable way to store DNA waiting to be analyzed. Sampling of DNA on FTA (Flinders Technology Associates) cards is convenient and cost effective compared to alternative approaches involving DNA extractions and storage of DNA extracts. FTA cards are analyzed at many forensic laboratories, and the way to perform direct genetic profiling on buccal swab cards has developed into an almost industrial process. The possibility to include postmortem (PM) samples into an FTA-based workflow would facilitate and speed up the genetic identification process compared to conventional methods, both on a regular basis and in a mass casualty event. In this study, we investigated if FTA cards may be used to carry tissue DNA from deceased and present a high-quality DNA profile from the individual in order to be useful for the identification process. The study also aimed to investigate if a specific body tissue would be preferable, and if decomposed tissue is suitable at all to put on an FTA card in order to obtain a DNA profile. We have compared the quality of the DNA profiles acquired from postmortem tissue on FTA cards, with the results acquired with conventional methods from reference bone/muscle samples from the same individual. Several types of tissues have been tested from different identification cases and scenarios. We concluded that tissue cells from inner organs are suitable to put on FTA cards, and that the obtained DNA profiles have the potential to serve as PM data for identification purposes. In cases including compromised samples, however, it is recommended to keep the tissue sample as a backup if further DNA has to be extracted.

  • 8.
    Jackowski, C.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Wyss, M.
    Department of Preventive, Restorative and Paediatric Dentistry, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland.
    Persson, A.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology.
    Classens, M.
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Lindenhofspital, Bremgartenstrasse 117, 3001 Bern, Switzerland.
    Thali, M.J.
    Center of Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Bühlstreet 20, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.
    Lussi, A.
    Department of Preventive, Restorative and Paediatric Dentistry, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland.
    Ultra-high-resolution dual-source CT for forensic dental visualization - Discrimination of ceramic and composite fillings2008In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 122, no 4, p. 301-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental identification is the most valuable method to identify human remains in single cases with major postmortem alterations as well as in mass casualties because of its practicability and demanding reliability. Computed tomography (CT) has been investigated as a supportive tool for forensic identification and has proven to be valuable. It can also scan the dentition of a deceased within minutes. In the present study, we investigated currently used restorative materials using ultra-high-resolution dual-source CT and the extended CT scale for the purpose of a color-encoded, in scale, and artifact-free visualization in 3D volume rendering. In 122 human molars, 220 cavities with 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-mm diameter were prepared. With presently used filling materials (different composites, temporary filling materials, ceramic, and liner), these cavities were restored in six teeth for each material and cavity size (exception amalgam n=1). The teeth were CT scanned and images reconstructed using an extended CT scale. Filling materials were analyzed in terms of resulting Hounsfield units (HU) and filling size representation within the images. Varying restorative materials showed distinctively differing radiopacities allowing for CT-data-based discrimination. Particularly, ceramic and composite fillings could be differentiated. The HU values were used to generate an updated volume-rendering preset for postmortem extended CT scale data of the dentition to easily visualize the position of restorations, the shape (in scale), and the material used which is color encoded in 3D. The results provide the scientific background for the application of 3D volume rendering to visualize the human dentition for forensic identification purposes. © 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  • 9.
    Jackowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV.
    Letter: Comments on the paper entitled "Is post-mortem CT of the dentition adequate for correct forensic identification? comparison of dental computed tomograpy and visual dental record" by S. Kirchhoff et al.2010In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 124, no 3, p. 259-259Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 10.
    Jones, A Wayne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of clinical chemistry.
    Crème de la crème in forensic science and legal medicine: The most highly cited articles, authors and journals 1981-20032005In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance and prestige of a scientific journal is increasingly being judged by the number of times the articles it publishes are cited or referenced in articles published in other scientific journals. Citation counting is also used to assess the merits of individual scientists when academic promotion and tenure are decided. With the help of Thomson, Institute for Scientific Information (Thomson ISI) a citation database was created for six leading forensic science and legal medicine journals. This database was used to determine the most highly cited articles, authors, journals and the most prolific authors of articles in the forensic sciences. The forensic science and legal medicine journals evaluated were: Journal of Forensic Sciences (JFS), Forensic Science International (FSI), International Journal of Legal Medicine (IJLM), Medicine, Science and the Law (MSL), American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology (AJFMP), and Science and Justice (S&J). The resulting forensics database contained 14,210 papers published between 1981 and 2003. This in-depth bibliometric analysis has identified the crème de la crème in forensic science and legal medicine in a quantitative and objective way by citation analysis with focus on articles, authors and journals. © Springer-Verlag 2005.

  • 11.
    Jones, A Wayne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry.
    Ultra-rapid rate of ethanol elimination from blood in drunken drivers with extremely high blood-alcohol concentrations2008In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 129-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rate of alcohol elimination from blood was determined in drunken drivers by taking two blood samples about 1 h apart. These cases were selected because the individuals concerned had reached an extremely high blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) when they were apprehended. This suggests a period of continuous heavy drinking leading to the development of metabolic tolerance. Use of double blood samples to calculate the elimination rate of alcohol from blood is valid provided that drunken drivers are in the post-absorptive phase of the BAC curve, the time between sampling is not too short, and that zero-order elimination kinetics operates. Evidence in support of this came from other drunken drivers in which three consecutive blood samples were obtained at hourly intervals. The mean BAC (N=21) was 4.05 g/l (range, 2.71-5.18 g/l), and the average rate of alcohol elimination from blood was 0.33 g l-1 h -1 with a range of 0.20-0.62 g l-1 h-1. The possibility of ultra-rapid rates of ethanol elimination from blood in drunken drivers having extremely high BAC deserves to be considered in forensic casework, e.g., when retrograde extrapolations and other blood-alcohol calculations are made. The mechanism accounting for more rapid metabolism is probably related to induction of the microsomal enzyme (CYP2E1) pathway for ethanol oxidation, as one consequence of continuous heavy drinking. However, the dose of alcohol and the duration of drinking necessary to boost the activity of CYP2E1 enzymes in humans have not been established.

  • 12.
    Karlsson, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Green, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zackrisson, Anna Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Finn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jakobsen Falk, I
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Ahlner, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kugelberg, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    ABCB1 gene polymorphisms are associated with fatal intoxications involving venlafaxine but not citalopram2013In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 127, no 3, p. 579-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the ABCB1/MDR1 gene, is a drug transporter at the blood–brain barrier. Several polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene are known to affect the activity and/or expression of P-gp, thereby influencing the treatment response and toxicity of P-gp substrates like citalopram and venlafaxine. In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of ABCB1 genotypes in forensic autopsy cases involving these two antidepressants. Further, the distribution of ABCB1 genotypes in deaths related to intoxication was compared to cases not associated to drug intoxication. The study included 228 forensic autopsy cases with different causes and manners of deaths. The ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) G1199A, C1236T, C3435T and G2677T/A for these individuals were determined. The SNPs C1236T and C3435T in venlafaxine-positive cases were significantly different between the intoxication cases and non-intoxications. This was not seen for cases involving citalopram, indicating that the effect of genetic variants might be substrate specific. This novel finding should, however, be confirmed in future studies with larger number of cases.

  • 13.
    Kling, Daniel
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute Public Heatlh, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway.
    Tillmar, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Egeland, Thore
    Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway; Norwegian Institute Public Heatlh, Norway.
    Mostad, Petter
    Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A general model for likelihood computations of genetic marker data accounting for linkage, linkage disequilibrium, and mutations2015In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 129, no 5, p. 943-954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several applications necessitate an unbiased determination of relatedness, be it in linkage or association studies or in a forensic setting. An appropriate model to compute the joint probability of some genetic data for a set of persons given some hypothesis about the pedigree structure is then required. The increasing number of markers available through high-density SNP microarray typing and NGS technologies intensifies the demand, where using a large number of markers may lead to biased results due to strong dependencies between closely located loci, both within pedigrees (linkage) and in the population (allelic association or linkage disequilibrium (LD)). We present a new general model, based on a Markov chain for inheritance patterns and another Markov chain for founder allele patterns, the latter allowing us to account for LD. We also demonstrate a specific implementation for X chromosomal markers that allows for computation of likelihoods based on hypotheses of alleged relationships and genetic marker data. The algorithm can simultaneously account for linkage, LD, and mutations. We demonstrate its feasibility using simulated examples. The algorithm is implemented in the software FamLinkX, providing a user-friendly GUI for Windows systems (FamLinkX, as well as further usage instructions, is freely available at www.famlink.se). Our software provides the necessary means to solve cases where no previous implementation exists. In addition, the software has the possibility to perform simulations in order to further study the impact of linkage and LD on computed likelihoods for an arbitrary set of markers.

  • 14.
    Kugelberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Anita
    National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden .
    Eklund, Arne
    National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jones, Alan Wayne
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forensic toxicology findings in deaths involving gamma-hydroxybutyrate2010In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 124, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of the illicit drug gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) were determined in femoral venous blood and urine obtained at autopsy in a series of GHB-related deaths (N = 49). The analysis of GHB was done by gas chromatography after conversion to gamma-butyrolactone and quantitation of the latter with a flame ionization detector. The cutoff concentration of GHB in femoral blood or urine for reporting positive results was 30 mg/L. The deceased were mainly young men (86%) aged 26.5 +/- 7.2 years (mean +/- SD), and the women (14%) were about 5 years younger at 21.4 +/- 5.0 years. The mean, median, and highest concentrations of GHB in femoral blood (N = 37) were 294, 190, and 2,200 mg/L, respectively. The mean urine-to-blood ratio of GHB was 8.8, and the median was 5.2 (N = 28). In 12 cases, the concentrations of GHB in blood were negative (less than 30 mg/L) when the urine contained 350 mg/L on average (range 31-1,100 mg/L). Considerable poly-drug use was evident in these GHB-related deaths: ethanol (18 cases), amphetamine (12 cases), and various prescription medications (benzodizepines, opiates, and antidepressants) in other cases. Interpreting the concentrations of GHB in postmortem blood is complicated because of concomitant use of other psychoactive substances, variable degree of tolerance to centrally acting drugs, and the lack of reliable information about survival time after use of the drug.

  • 15.
    Malmqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Culture and Aesthetics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Furberg, Elisabeth
    Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala Sweden.
    Sandman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Boras, Sweden.
    Ethical aspects of medical age assessment in the asylum process: a Swedish perspective.2018In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 132, no 3, p. 815-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to European regulations and the legislations of individual member states, children who seek asylum have a different set of rights than adults in a similar position. To protect these rights and ensure rule of law, migration authorities are commonly required to assess the age of asylum seekers who lack reliable documentation, including through various medical methods. However, many healthcare professionals and other commentators consider medical age assessment to be ethically problematic. This paper presents a simplified and amended account of the main findings of a recent ethical analysis of medical age assessment in the asylum process commissioned by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. A number of ethical challenges related to conflicting goals, equality and fairness, autonomy and informed consent, privacy and integrity, and professional values and roles are identified and analysed. It is concluded that most of these challenges can be met, but that this requires a system where the assessment is sufficiently accurate and where adequate safeguards are in place. Two important ethical questions are found to warrant further analysis. The first is whether asylum seekers' consent to the procedure can be considered genuinely voluntary. The second is whether and how medical age assessments could affect negative public attitudes towards asylum seekers or discriminatory societal views more generally.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Gunnel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kugelberg, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ahlner, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kronstrand, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of zopiclone, N-desmethylzopiclone and 2-amino-5-chloropyridine in whole blood and its application to estimate the original zopiclone concentration in stored specimens2015In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 269-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    2-amino-5-chloropyridine (ACP) is a degradation product of zopiclone (ZOP) and may be formed when blood specimens are stored. ZOP instability in blood makes interpretation of concentrations difficult especially in cases of prolonged sample storage. This study investigated how ACP could be used to estimate the original concentration of ZOP in authentic samples. For that purpose, an analytical LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of ACP, ZOP and the metabolite Ndesmethylzopiclone (NDZOP) in blood was validated. The method was then applied to investigate ACP formation, ZOP and NDZOP degradation in stored ZOP post-dosed authentic whole blood and two mathematical models were used to calculate the original concentration of ZOP. During storage, ACP was formed in amounts equimolar to the ZOP and NDZOP degradation. Results from samples in which ACP had been formed were used to test two models to estimate the original ZOP concentration. The correlation tests of the models showed strong correlations to the original ZOP concentration (r=0.960 and r=0.955) with p<0.01. This study showed that the equimolar degradation of ZOP and NDZOP to ACP could be used to estimate the original concentration of the unstable ZOP.

  • 17.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Baeckmann, John
    Natl Board Forens Med Linkoping, Dept Forens Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Berge, Johan
    Natl Board Forens Med Linkoping, Dept Forens Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Jackowski, Christian
    Univ Bern, Switzerland.
    Warntjes, Marcel Jan Bertus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Zech, Wolf-Dieter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Natl Board Forens Med Linkoping, Dept Forens Med, Linkoping, Sweden; Univ Bern, Switzerland.
    Temperature-corrected postmortem 3-T MR quantification of histopathological early acute and chronic myocardial infarction: a feasibility study2018In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 132, no 2, p. 541-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate if quantitative postmortem cardiac 3-T magnetic resonance (QPMCMR) T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density values of histopathological early acute and chronic myocardial infarction differ to the quantitative values of non-pathologic myocardium and other histopathological age stages of myocardial infarction with regard to varying corpse temperatures. In 60 forensic corpses (25 female, 35 male), a cardiac 3-T MR quantification sequence was performed prior to autopsy and cardiac dissection. Core body temperature was assessed during MR examinations. Focal myocardial signal alterations in synthetically generated MR images were measured for their T1, T2, and proton density (PD) values. Locations of signal alteration measurements in PMCMR were targeted at heart dissection, and myocardial tissue specimens were taken for histologic examinations. Quantified signal alterations in QPMCMR were correlated to their according histologic age stage of myocardial infarction, and quantitative values were corrected for a temperature of 37 A degrees C. In QPMCMR, 49 myocardial signal alterations were detected in 43 of 60 investigated hearts. Signal alterations were diagnosed histologically as early acute (n = 16), acute (n = 10), acute with hemorrhagic component (n = 9), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 11) myocardial infarction. Statistical analysis revealed that based on their temperature-corrected quantitative T1, T2, and PD values, a significant difference between early acute, acute, and chronic myocardial infarction can be determined. It can be concluded that quantitative 3-T postmortem cardiac MR based on temperature-corrected T1, T2, and PD values may be feasible for pre-autopsy diagnosis of histopathological early acute, acute, and chronic myocardial infarction, which needs to be confirmed histologically.

  • 18.
    Rutty, Guy N.
    et al.
    University of Leicester, England .
    Brogdon, Gil
    University of S Alabama, AL USA .
    Dedouit, Fabrice
    CHU Toulouse Rangueil, France .
    Grabherr, Silke
    University of Centre Legal Med, Switzerland .
    Hatch, Gary M.
    University of New Mexico, NM USA .
    Jackowski, Christian
    University of Bern, Switzerland .
    Leth, Peter
    University of So Denmark, Denmark .
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    D Ruder, Thomas
    University of Zurich, Switzerland .
    Shiotani, Seiji
    Tsukuba Medical Centre Hospital, Japan .
    Takahashi, Naoya
    Niigata City Gen Hospital, Japan .
    Thali, Michael J.
    University of Zurich, Switzerland .
    Wozniak, Krzysztof
    Jagiellonian University, Poland .
    Yen, Kathrin
    Heidelberg University, Germany .
    Morgan, Bruno
    University of Leicester, England .
    Letter: Terminology used in publications for post-mortem cross-sectional imaging2013In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 127, no 2, p. 465-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 19.
    Schwendener, Nicole
    et al.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Jackowski, Christian
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Schuster, Frederick
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Warntjes, Marcel Jan Bertus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Zech, Wolf-Dieter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Temperature-corrected post-mortem 1.5 T MRI quantification of non-pathologic upper abdominal organs2017In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 131, no 5, p. 1369-1376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to evaluate if simultaneous temperature-corrected T1, T2, and proton density (PD) 1.5 T post-mortem MR quantification [quantitative post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (QPMMRI)] is feasible for characterizing and discerning non-pathologic upper abdominal organs (liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney) with regard to varying body temperatures. QPMMRI was performed on 80 corpses (25 females, 55 males; mean age 56.2 years, SD 17.2) prior to autopsy. Core body temperature was measured during QPMMRI. Quantitative T1, T2, and PD values were measured in the liver, pancreas, spleen, and left kidney and temperature corrected to 37 A degrees C. Histologic examinations were conducted on each measured organ to determine non-pathologic organs. Quantitative T1, T2, and PD values of non-pathologic organs were ANOVA tested against values of other non-pathologic organ types. Based on temperature-corrected quantitative T1, T2, and PD values, ANOVA testing verified significant differences between the non-pathologic liver, spleen, pancreas, and left kidneys. Temperature-corrected 1.5 T QPMMRI based on T1, T2, and PD values may be feasible for characterization and differentiation of the non-pathologic liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidney. The results may provide a base for future specific pathology diagnosis of upper abdominal organs in post-mortem imaging.

  • 20.
    Tillmar, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Coble, Michael D
    Armed Forces DNA Identificat Lab, Rockville, MD USA .
    Wallerstrom, Thomas
    Norwegian University Science and Technology.
    Holmlund, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Homogeneity in mitochondrial DNA control region sequences in Swedish subpopulations2010In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 91-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to promote mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing in Sweden we have typed 296 Swedish males, which will serve as a Swedish mtDNA frequency database. The tested males were taken from seven geographically different regions representing the contemporary Swedish population. The complete mtDNA control region was typed and the Swedish population was shown to have high haplotype diversity with a random match probability of 0.5%. Almost 47% of the tested samples belonged to haplogroup H and further haplogroup comparison with worldwide populations clustered the Swedish mtDNA data together with other European populations. AMOVA analysis of the seven Swedish subregions displayed no significant maternal substructure in Sweden (F (ST) = 0.002). Our conclusion from this study is that the typed Swedish individuals serve as good representatives for a Swedish forensic mtDNA database. Some caution should, however, be taken for individuals from the northernmost part of Sweden (provinces of Norrbotten and Lapland) due to specific demographic conditions. Furthermore, our analysis of a small sample set of a Swedish Saami population confirmed earlier findings that the Swedish Saami population is an outlier among European populations.

  • 21.
    Tillmar, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Artillerigatan 12, SE-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kling, Daniel
    Norwegian Institute Public Heatlh, Norway.
    Letter: Comments on "Kinship analysis: assessment of related vs unrelated based on defined pedigrees" by S. Turrina et al. in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE, vol 130, issue 4, pp 949-9512016In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 130, no 4, p. 949-951Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 22.
    Zech, Wolf-Dieter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Hottinger, Anna-Lena
    Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Schwendener, Nicole
    Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Schuster, Frederick
    Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, University of Bern, Inselspital, Bern, Switzerland.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Warntjes, Marcel Jan Bertus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Jackowski, Christian
    Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Post-mortem 1.5T MR quantification of regular anatomical brain structures2016In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 130, no 4, p. 1071-1080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, post-mortem MR quantification has been introduced to the field of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging. By usage of a particular MR quantification sequence, T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density (PD) of tissues and organs can be quantified simultaneously. The aim of the present basic research study was to assess the quantitative T1, T2, and PD values of regular anatomical brain structures for a 1.5T application and to correlate the assessed values with corpse temperatures. In a prospective study, 30 forensic cases were MR-scanned with a quantification sequence prior to autopsy. Body temperature was assessed during MR scans. In synthetically calculated T1, T2, and PD-weighted images, quantitative T1, T2 (both in ms) and PD (in %) values of anatomical structures of cerebrum (Group 1: frontal gray matter, frontal white matter, thalamus, internal capsule, caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus) and brainstem/cerebellum (Group 2: cerebral crus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, pons, cerebellar hemisphere, and superior cerebellar peduncle) were assessed. The investigated brain structures of cerebrum and brainstem/cerebellum could be characterized and differentiated based on a combination of their quantitative T1, T2, and PD values. MANOVA testing verified significant differences between the investigated anatomical brain structures among each other in Group 1 and Group 2 based on their quantitative values. Temperature dependence was observed mainly for T1 values, which were slightly increasing with rising temperature in the investigated brain structures in both groups. The results provide a base for future computer-aided diagnosis of brain pathologies and lesions in post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging.

  • 23.
    Zech, Wolf-Dieter
    et al.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Schwendener, Nicole
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Warntjes, Marcel Jan Bertus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Riva, Fabiano
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Schuster, Frederick
    University of Bern, Switzerland; Hospital and University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Jackowski, Christian
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Postmortem quantitative 1.5-T MRI for the differentiation and characterization of serous fluids, blood, CSF, and putrefied CSF2015In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1437-1596, Vol. 129, no 5, p. 1127-1136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether serous fluids, blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and putrefied CSF can be characterized and differentiated in synthetically calculated magnetic resonance (MR) images based on their quantitative T (1), T (2), and proton density (PD) values. Images from 55 postmortem short axis cardiac and 31 axial brain 1.5-T MR examinations were quantified using a quantification sequence. Serous fluids, fluid blood, sedimented blood, blood clots, CSF, and putrefied CSF were analyzed for their mean T (1), T (2), and PD values. Body core temperature was measured during the MRI scans. The fluid-specific quantitative values were related to the body core temperature. Equations to correct for temperature differences were generated. In a 3D plot as well as in statistical analysis, the quantitative T (1), T (2) and PD values of serous fluids, fluid blood, sedimented blood, blood clots, CSF, and putrefied CSF could be well differentiated from each other. The quantitative T (1) and T (2) values were temperature-dependent. Correction of quantitative values to a temperature of 37 A degrees C resulted in significantly better discrimination between all investigated fluid mediums. We conclude that postmortem 1.5-T MR quantification is feasible to discriminate between blood, serous fluids, CSF, and putrefied CSF. This finding provides a basis for the computer-aided diagnosis and detection of fluids and hemorrhages.

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