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  • 1.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Knight, Sean Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tran, Dat
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Richter, Steffen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Papamichail, Alexis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stokey, Megan
    Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Sorensen, Preston
    Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Kilic, Ufuk
    Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Lund Univ, Sweden; Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Electron effective mass in GaN revisited: New insights from terahertz and mid-infrared optical Hall effect2024In: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 021114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron effective mass is a fundamental material parameter defining the free charge carrier transport properties, but it is very challenging to be experimentally determined at high temperatures relevant to device operation. In this work, we obtain the electron effective mass parameters in a Si-doped GaN bulk substrate and epitaxial layers from terahertz (THz) and mid-infrared (MIR) optical Hall effect (OHE) measurements in the temperature range of 38-340 K. The OHE data are analyzed using the well-accepted Drude model to account for the free charge carrier contributions. A strong temperature dependence of the electron effective mass parameter in both bulk and epitaxial GaN with values ranging from (0.18 +/- 0.02) m(0) to (0.34 +/- 0.01) m(0) at a low temperature (38 K) and room temperature, respectively, is obtained from the THz OHE analysis. The observed effective mass enhancement with temperature is evaluated and discussed in view of conduction band nonparabolicity, polaron effect, strain, and deviations from the classical Drude behavior. On the other hand, the electron effective mass parameter determined by MIR OHE is found to be temperature independent with a value of (0.200 +/- 0.002) m(0). A possible explanation for the different findings from THz OHE and MIR OHE is proposed. (c) 2024 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

  • 2.
    Forsén, Rikard
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics.
    Schramm, I. C.
    Functional Materials, Department Materials Science, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O Å
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mücklich, F.
    Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nanostructuring and coherency strain in multicomponent hard coatings2014In: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 2, no 11, p. 116104-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lattice resolved and quantitative compositional characterizations of the microstructure in TiCrAlN wear resistant coatings emerging at elevated temperatures are performed to address the spinodal decomposition into nanometer-sized coherent cubic TiCr- and Al-rich domains. The domains coarsen during annealing and at 1100 ºC, the Al-rich domains include a metastable cubic Al(Cr)N phase containing 9 at.% Cr and a stable hexagonal AlN phase containing less than 1 at.% Cr. The cubic and the hexagonal phases form strained semi-coherent interfaces with each other.

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  • 3.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johnson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klenov, Dmitri
    FEI Company, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Demeulemeester, Jelly
    École Polytechnique de Montréal, Canada.
    Desjardins, Patrick
    École Polytechnique de Montréal, Canada.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nanolabyrinthine ZrAlN thin films by self-organization of interwoven single-crystal cubic and hexagonal phases2013In: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 022105-1-022105-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-organization on the nanometer scale is a trend in materials research. Thermodynamic driving forces may, for example, yield chessboard patterns in metal alloys[Y. Ni and A. G. Khachaturyan, Nature Mater. 8, 410–414 (2009)] or nitrides [P. H.Mayrhofer, A. Horling, L. Karlsson, J. Sj ¨ ol¨ en, T. Larsson, and C. Mitterer, Appl. ´Phys. Lett. 83, 2049 (2003)] during spinodal decomposition. Here, we explore theZrN-AlN system, which has one of the largest positive enthalpies of mixing amongthe transition metal aluminum nitrides [D. Holec, R. Rachbauer, L. Chen, L. Wang,D. Luefa, and P. H. Mayrhofer, Surf. Coat. Technol. 206, 1698–1704 (2011); B.Alling, A. Karimi, and I. Abrikosov, Surf. Coat. Technol. 203, 883–886 (2008)].Surprisingly, a highly regular superhard (36 GPa) two-dimensional nanolabyrinthinestructure of two intergrown single crystal phases evolves during magnetron sputter thin film synthesis of Zr0.64Al0.36N/MgO(001). The self-organization is surfacedriven and the synergistic result of kinetic limitations, where the enthalpy reductionbalances both investments in interfacial and elastic energies.

  • 4.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lind, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tasnadi, Ferenc
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anomalous epitaxial stability of (001) interfaces in ZrN/SiNx multilayers2014In: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 046106-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isostructural stability of B1-NaCl type SiN on (001) and (111) oriented ZrN surfaces is studied theoretically and experimentally. The ZrN/SiNx/ZrN superlattices with modulation wavelength of 3.76 nm (dSiNx similar to 0.4 nm) were grown by dc-magnetron sputtering on MgO(001) and MgO(111). The results indicate that 0.4 nm thin SiNx layers utterly influence the preferred orientation of epitaxial growth: on MgO(001) cube-on-cube epitaxy of ZrN/SiNx superlattices were realized whereas multilayers on MgO(111) surface exhibited an unexpected 002 texture with a complex fourfold 90 degrees-rotated in-plane preferred orientation. Density functional theory calculations confirm stability of a (001) interface with respect to a (111) which explains the anomaly.

  • 5.
    Ghezellou, Misagh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kumar, Piyush
    Advanced Power Semiconductor Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Bathen, Marianne E.
    Advanced Power Semiconductor Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Karsthof, Robert
    Department of Physics, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Einar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Science Institute, University of Iceland, IS-107 Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Grossner, Ulrike
    Advanced Power Semiconductor Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vines, Lasse
    Department of Physics, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of boron related defects in limiting charge carrier lifetime in 4H–SiC epitaxial layers2023In: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 031107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main challenges in realizing 4H–SiC (silicon carbide)-based bipolar devices is the improvement of minority carrier lifetime in as-grown epitaxial layers. Although Z1/2 has been identified as the dominant carrier lifetime limiting defect, we report on B-related centers being another dominant source of recombination and acting as lifetime limiting defects in 4H–SiC epitaxial layers. Combining time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurement in near band edge emission and 530 nm, deep level transient spectroscopy, and minority carrier transient spectroscopy (MCTS), it was found that B related deep levels in the lower half of the bandgap are responsible for killing the minority carriers in n-type, 4H–SiC epitaxial layers when the concentration of Z1/2 is already low. The impact of these centers on the charge carrier dynamics is investigated by correlating the MCTS results with temperature-dependent TRPL decay measurements. It is shown that the influence of shallow B acceptors on the minority carrier lifetime becomes neutralized at temperatures above ∼422 K. Instead, the deep B related acceptor level, known as the D-center, remains active until temperatures above ∼570 K. Moreover, a correlation between the deep level concentrations, minority carrier lifetimes, and growth parameters indicates that intentional nitrogen doping hinders the formation of deep B acceptor levels. Furthermore, tuning growth parameters, including growth temperature and C/Si ratio, is shown to be crucial for improving the minority carrier lifetime in as-grown 4H–SiC epitaxial layers.

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  • 6.
    Kindlund, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sangiovanni, Davide
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Martínez-de-Olcoz, L.
    Grupo de Capas Finas e Ingeniería de Superficies, Facultad de Física, Dep. Física Aplicada y Óptica, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and the Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Greene, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and the Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Toughness Enhancement in Hard Ceramic Thin Films by Alloy Design2013In: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 042104-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hardness is an essential property for a wide range of applications. However, hardness alone, typically accompanied by brittleness, is not sufficient to prevent failure in ceramic films exposed to high stresses. Using VN as a model system, we demonstrate with experiment and density functional theory (DFT) that refractory VMoN alloys exhibit not only enhanced hardness, but dramatically increased ductility. V0.5Mo0.5N hardness is 25% higher than that of VN. In addition, while nanoindented VN, as well as TiN reference samples, suffer from severe cracking typical of brittle ceramics, V0.5Mo0.5N films do not crack. Instead, they exhibit material pile-up around nanoindents, characteristic of plastic flow in ductile materials. Moreover, the wear resistance of V0.5Mo0.5N is considerably higher than that of VN. DFT results show that tuning the occupancy of d-t2g metallic bonding states in VMoN facilitates dislocation glide, and hence enhances toughness, via the formation of stronger metal/metal bonds along the slip direction and weaker metal/N bonds across the slip plane.

  • 7.
    Lai, Chung-Chuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tao, Quanzheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fashandi, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wiedwald, Ulf
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany; Natl Univ Sci and Technol MISIS, Russia.
    Salikhov, Ruslan
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany.
    Farle, Michael
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany; Immanuel Kant Balt Fed Univ, Russia.
    Petruhins, Andrejs
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magnetic properties and structural characterization of layered (Cr0.5Mn0.5)(2)AuC synthesized by thermally induced substitutional reaction in (Cr0.5Mn0.5)(2)GaC2018In: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 026104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The magnetic properties of the new phase (Cr0.5Mn0.5)(2)AuC are compared to the known MAX-phase (Cr0.5Mn0.5)(2)GaC, where the former was synthesized by thermally induced substitution reaction of Au for Ga in (Cr0.5Mn0.5)(2)GaC. The reaction introduced a lattice expansion of similar to 3% along the c-axis, an enhancement of the coercive field from 30 mT to 140 mT, and a reduction of the Curie temperature and the saturation magnetization. Still, (Cr0.5Mn0.5)(2)AuC displays similar features in the magnetic field-and temperature-dependent magnetization curves as previously reported magnetic MAX phases, e.g., (Cr0.5Mn0.5)(2)GaC and (Mo0.5Mn0.5)(2)GaC. Thework suggests a pathway for tuning the magnetic properties of MAX phases. (c) 2018 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

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  • 8.
    Meshkian, Rahele
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ingason, Arni Sigurdur
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arnalds, U. B.
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Magnus, F.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A magnetic atomic laminate from thin film synthesis: (Mo0.5Mn0.5)2GaC2015In: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 3, no 7, article id 076102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present synthesis and characterization of a new magnetic atomic laminate: (Mo0.5Mn0.5)(2)GaC. High quality crystalline films were synthesized on MgO(111) substrates at a temperature of similar to 530 degrees C. The films display a magnetic response, evaluated by vibrating sample magnetometry, in a temperature range 3-300 K and in a field up to 5 T. The response ranges from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic with change in temperature, with an acquired 5T-moment and remanent moment at 3 K of 0.66 and 0.35 mu(B) per metal atom (Mo and Mn), respectively. The remanent moment and the coercive field (0.06 T) exceed all values reported to date for the family of magnetic laminates based on so called MAX phases.

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  • 9.
    Persson, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Inst Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hofmann, Tino
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Origin of layer decoupling in ordered multilayer graphene grown by high-temperature sublimation on C-face 4H-SiC2020In: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 011104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the origin of layer decoupling in ordered multilayer graphene grown by high temperature sublimation on C-face 4H-SiC. The mid-infrared optical Hall effect technique is used to determine the magnetic field dependence of the inter-Landau level transition energies and their optical polarization selection rules, which unambiguously show that the multilayer graphene consists of electronically decoupled layers. Transmission electron microscopy reveals no out-of-plane rotational disorder between layers in the stack, which is in contrast to what is typically observed for C-face graphene grown by low temperature sublimation. It is found that the multilayer graphene maintains AB-stacking order with increased interlayer spacing by 2.4%-8.4% as compared to highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping reveals Si atoms trapped in between layers, which are proposed to be the cause for the observed increased interlayer spacing leading to layer decoupling. Based on our results, we propose a defect-driven growth evolution mechanism for multilayer graphene on C-face SiC via high temperature sublimation.

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  • 10.
    Tao, Quanzheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Salikhov, R.
    University of Duisburg Essen, Germany.
    Mockuté, Aurelija
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Farle, M.
    University of Duisburg Essen, Germany; IKBFU, Russia.
    Wiedwald, U.
    University of Duisburg Essen, Germany.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thin film synthesis and characterization of a chemically ordered magnetic nanolaminate (V,Mn)(3)GaC22016In: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 4, no 8, article id 086109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on synthesis and characterization of a new magnetic nanolaminate (V,Mn)(3)GaC2, which is the first magnetic MAX phase of a 312 stoichiometry. Atomically resolved energy dispersive X-ray mapping of epitaxial thin films reveals a tendency of alternate chemical ordering between V and Mn, with atomic layers composed of primarily one element only. Magnetometry measurements reveal a ferromagnetic response between 50 K and 300 K, with indication of a magnetic ordering temperature well above room temperature. (C) 2016 Author(s).

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  • 11.
    Thorsteinsson, E. B.
    et al.
    Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elsukova, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petruhins, Andrejs
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ingason, A. S.
    Grein Res ehf, Iceland.
    Magnus, F.
    Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Room temperature ferromagnetism in the nanolaminated MAX phase (Mn1−xCrx)2GaC2023In: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 121102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MAX phases are a class of intrinsically nanolaminated materials, which combine features of metals and ceramics, owing to the alternating metallic and covalent bonding between atomic layers. Magnetic MAX phases have been known for a decade, but ferromagnetism at room temperature in this highly anisotropic system has been elusive, limiting their value as magnets in practice. Here, we show that a MAX phase with a strong ferromagnetic response is obtained by substituting Mn with Cr on the M-site in the well-known Mn2GaC. The ferromagnetic response is observed in (Mn1-xCrx)(2)GaC with 0.06 < x < 0.29 up to temperatures well exceeding room temperature (489 K). The strongest magnetization is achieved with x = 0.12, reaching a saturation moment of 1.25 mu B and a remanence of 0.67 mu(B) per M-atom at 3 K and maintaining 0.90 and 0.44 mu(B) per M-atom, respectively, at 300 K. This is the first experimental report of a significant ferromagnetic response in a MAX phase at room temperature. The results open the door to the use of MAX phases in a broad range of applications, from bulk magnets in power electronics to spintronic devices.(c) 2023 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

  • 12.
    Vidarsson, Arnar M.
    et al.
    Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Persson, Axel R.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Jr-Tai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SweGaN, Olaus Magnusvag 48A, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Haasmann, Daniel
    Griffith Univ, Australia.
    Ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dimitrijev, Sima
    Griffith Univ, Australia; Griffith Univ, Australia.
    Rorsman, Niklas
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Einar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Observations of very fast electron traps at SiC/high-κ dielectric interfaces2023In: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 11, no 11, article id 111121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Very fast interface traps have recently been suggested to be the main cause behind poor channel-carrier mobility in SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors. It has been hypothesized that the NI traps are defects located inside the SiO2 dielectric with energy levels close to the SiC conduction band edge and the observed conductance spectroscopy signal is a result of electron tunneling to and from these defects. Using aluminum nitride and aluminum oxide as gate dielectrics instead of SiO2, we detect NI traps at these SiC/dielectric interfaces as well. A detailed investigation of the NI trap density and behavior as a function of temperature is presented and discussed. Advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy reveals no SiO2 at the interfaces. This strongly suggests that the NI traps are related to the surface region of the SiC rather than being a property of the gate dielectric.

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