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  • 1.
    Mwevura, Haji
    et al.
    State University of Zanzibar, Tanzania.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vogt, Tash
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Issa, Massoud
    State University of Zanzibar, Tanzania.
    Organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments and polychaete worms from the west coast of Unguja island, Tanzania2020In: Regional Studies in Marine Science, ISSN 0080-0694, E-ISSN 2168-1376, Vol. 36, article id 101287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coastal areas of Stone Town, on the island of Unguja that is part of Zanzibar, are subjected to different anthropogenic activities and receive untreated municipal wastes that are likely to carry organic pollutants that can bio-accumulate in marine organisms. Sediments and polychaete worms Capitella capitata collected from coastal sites north and south of Stone Town were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using GC-MS to assess their pollution status in the coastal environment and uptake by the food web. The analysis revealed quantifiable concentrations of DDTs, cyclodienes, and HCHs, and six of the 11 USEPA-priority PAHs. The concentration ranges of ΣOCPs were 0.1–100 ng/g dm (dry mass) and 8.5–96 ng/g lm (lipid mass) in sediments and worms, respectively. The concentrations of ΣPAHs6 ranged from non-detectable to 27 ng/g dm in sediments and non-detectable to 18 ng/g lm (lipid mass) in worms. Malindi harbour was the most contaminated of all sites with respect to the pollutants we measured in both sediments and worms. The relative compositions of the OCPs suggest legacy use of DDT and technical HCH, and more recent use of lindane. The relatively higher proportion of low molecular mass PAHs to high molecular mass PAHs suggests major contributions from petrogenic sources in the study area. The results demonstrated bioavailability and uptake of OCPs and PAHs to the food web via C. capitata. Concentrations of DDTs, HCHs, and dieldrin exceed sediment quality guidelines, indicating risk to sediment-dwelling organisms, as well as organisms that eat them. It is likely that other toxic compounds are present, suggesting that the current assessment may underestimate the risk. Due to the indicated risk, further work is needed to look at coastal distributions, terrestrial concentrations, and accumulation of pollutants into higher trophic level organisms of Zanzibar and associated seas.

  • 2.
    Uren, Ryan
    et al.
    North-West University, South Africa.
    van der Lingen, Carl
    Department of the Environment, South Africa.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Concentrations and relative compositions of metallic elements differ between predatory squid and filter-feeding sardine from the Indian and South Atlantic oceans2020In: Regional Studies in Marine Science, ISSN 0080-0694, E-ISSN 2168-1376, Vol. 35, article id 101137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although metallic elements occur naturally, they can occur or accumulate in organisms at levels toxic to the organism and/or their consumers. Concentrations of twenty-nine metallic elements in muscle tissue from sardine Sardinops sagax and chokka squid Loligo reynaudii from South Atlantic and Indian Ocean waters off South Africa were established, for the first time, using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Chokka showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of B, Cr, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Cd, and Tl and significantly lower concentrations of V, Mn, Ti, and Mo compared to sardine. There were also significant differences in some metallic elements between the two oceans. Multivariate analyses indicated possible population structure of both species, suggesting that these analyses may be useful as a stock discrimination tool. Only two sardine samples contained quantifiable Hg. Based on South African estimated daily intake, total hazard quotient, and European Union limits for Hg, Cd, and Pb, we consider tissues from sardine and chokka in South African waters to be safe for human consumption.

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