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  • 1.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Meshkian, Rahele
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tao, Quanzheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Prediction and synthesis of a family of atomic laminate phases with Kagome-like and in-plane chemical ordering2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 7, article id e1700642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The enigma of MAX phases and their hybrids prevails. We probe transition metal (M) alloying in MAX phases for metal size, electronegativity, and electron configuration, and discover ordering in these MAX hybrids, namely, (V2/3Zr1/3)(2)AlC and (Mo2/3Y1/3)(2)AlC. Predictive theory and verifying materials synthesis, including a judicious choice of alloying M from groups III to VI and periods 4 and 5, indicate a potentially large family of thermodynamically stable phases, with Kagome-like and in-plane chemical ordering, and with incorporation of elements previously not known for MAX phases, including the common Y. We propose the structure to be monoclinic C2/c. As an extension of the work, we suggest a matching set of novel MXenes, from selective etching of the A-element. The demonstrated structural design on simultaneous two-dimensional (2D) and 3D atomic levels expands the property tuning potential of functional materials.

  • 2.
    Demchyshyn, Stepan
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; LIT, Austria.
    Melanie Roemer, Janina
    Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany; Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany.
    Groiss, Heiko
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Heilbrunner, Herwig
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Ulbricht, Christoph
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Apaydin, Dogukan
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Boehm, Anton
    Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany; Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany.
    Ruett, Uta
    DESY, Germany.
    Bertram, Florian
    DESY, Germany.
    Hesser, Guenter
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Clark Scharber, Markus
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Serdar Sariciftci, Niyazi
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Nickel, Bert
    Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany; Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany; Nanosyst Initiat Munich, Germany.
    Bauer, Siegfried
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kaltenbrunner, Martin
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; LIT, Austria.
    Confining metal-halide perovskites in nanoporous thin films2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 8, article id e1700738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlling the size and shape of semiconducting nanocrystals advances nanoelectronics and photonics. Quantumconfined, inexpensive, solution-derived metal halide perovskites offer narrowband, color-pure emitters as integral parts of next-generation displays and optoelectronic devices. We use nanoporous silicon and alumina thin films as templates for the growth of perovskite nanocrystallites directly within device-relevant architectures without the use of colloidal stabilization. We find significantly blue-shifted photoluminescence emission by reducing the pore size; normally infrared-emitting materials become visibly red, and green-emitting materials become cyan and blue. Confining perovskite nanocrystals within porous oxide thin films drastically increases photoluminescence stability because the templates auspiciously serve as encapsulation. We quantify the template-induced size of the perovskite crystals in nanoporous silicon with microfocus high-energy x-ray depth profiling in transmission geometry, verifying the growth of perovskite nanocrystals throughout the entire thickness of the nanoporous films. Low-voltage electroluminescent diodes with narrow, blue-shifted emission fabricated from nanocrystalline perovskites grown in embedded nanoporous alumina thin films substantiate our general concept for next-generation photonic devices.

  • 3.
    Fabiano, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abdollahi Sani, Negar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Kawahara, Jun
    RISE Acreo, Sweden; LINTEC Corp, Japan.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Aix Marseille University, France.
    Nissa, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ferroelectric polarization induces electronic nonlinearity in ion-doped conducting polymers2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 6, article id e1700345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is an organic mixed ion-electron conducting polymer. The PEDOT phase transports holes and is redox-active, whereas the PSS phase transports ions. When PEDOT is redox-switched between its semiconducting and conducting state, the electronic and optical properties of its bulk are controlled. Therefore, it is appealing to use this transition in electrochemical devices and to integrate those into large-scale circuits, such as display or memory matrices. Addressability and memory functionality of individual devices, within these matrices, are typically achieved by nonlinear current-voltage characteristics and bistability-functions that can potentially be offered by the semiconductor-conductor transition of redox polymers. However, low conductivity of the semiconducting state and poor bistability, due to self-discharge, make fast operation and memory retention impossible. We report that a ferroelectric polymer layer, coated along the counter electrode, can control the redox state of PEDOT. The polarization switching characteristics of the ferroelectric polymer, which take place as the coercive field is overcome, introduce desired nonlinearity and bistability in devices that maintain PEDOT in its highly conducting and fast-operating regime. Memory functionality and addressability are demonstrated in ferro-electrochromic display pixels and ferro-electrochemical transistors.

  • 4.
    Gorbunov, Andrey V.
    et al.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Iglesias, Miguel Garcia
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Guilleme, Julia
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Cornelissen, Tim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Roelofs, W. S. Christian
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Torres, Tomas
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Spain; IM DEA Nanociencia, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Meijer, E. W.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Ferroelectric self-assembled molecular materials showing both rectifying and switchable conductivity2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 9, article id e1701017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced molecular materials that combine two or more physical properties are typically constructed by combining different molecules, each being responsible for one of the properties required. Ideally, single molecules could take care of this combined functionality, provided they are self-assembled correctly and endowed with different functional subunits whose strong electronic coupling may lead to the emergence of unprecedented and exciting properties. We present a class of disc-like semiconducting organic molecules that are functionalized with strong dipolar side groups. Supramolecular organization of these materials provides long-range polar order that supports collective ferroelectric behavior of the side groups as well as charge transport through the stacked semiconducting cores. The ferroelectric polarization in these supramolecular polymers is found to couple to the charge transport and leads to a bulk conductivity that is both switchable and rectifying. An intuitive model is developed and found to quantitatively reproduce the experimental observations. In a larger perspective, these results highlight the possibility of modulating material properties using the large electric fields associated with ferroelectric polarization.

  • 5.
    Iwamoto, Hideki
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Zhang, Yin
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Seki, Takahiro
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Yang, Yunlong
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Nakamura, Masaki
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Wang, Jian
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Yang, Xiaojuan
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Tongji Univ, Peoples R China.
    Torimura, Takuji
    Kurume Univ, Japan.
    Cao, Yihai
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Univ Leicester, England; Glenfield Hosp, England.
    PlGF-induced VEGFR1-dependent vascular remodeling determines opposing antitumor effects and drug resistance to Dll4-Notch inhibitors2015In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 1, no 3, article id e1400244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhibition of Dll4 (delta-like ligand 4)-Notch signaling-mediated tumor angiogenesis is an attractive approach in cancer therapy. However, inhibition of Dll4-Notch signaling has produced different effects in various tumors, and no biomarkers are available for predicting the anti-Dll4-Notch-associated antitumor activity. We show that human and mouse tumor cell-derived placental growth factor (PlGF) is a key determinant of the Dll4-Notch-induced vascular remodeling and tumor growth. In natural PlGF-expressing human tumors, inhibition of Dll4-Notch signaling markedly accelerated tumor growth by increasing blood perfusion in nonleaking tumor vasculatures. Conversely, in PlGF-negative tumors, Dll4 inhibition suppressed tumor growth by the formation of nonproductive and leaky vessels. Surprisingly, genetic inactivation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) completely abrogated the PlGF-modulated vascular remodeling and tumor growth, indicating a crucial role for VEGFR1-mediated signals in modulating Dll4-Notch functions. These findings provide mechanistic insights on PlGF-VEGFR1 signaling in the modulation of the Dll4-Notch pathway in angiogenesis and tumor growth, and have therapeutic implications of PlGF as a biomarker for predicting the antitumor benefits of Dll4 and Notch inhibitors.

  • 6.
    Jakesova, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Silverå Ejneby, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Derek, Vedran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Tony
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Gryszel, Maciej
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brask, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Schindl, Rainer
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optoelectronic control of single cells using organic photocapacitors2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 4, article id eaav5265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical control of the electrophysiology of single cells can be a powerful tool for biomedical research and technology. Here, we report organic electrolytic photocapacitors (OEPCs), devices that function as extracellular capacitive electrodes for stimulating cells. OEPCs consist of transparent conductor layers covered with a donor-acceptor bilayer of organic photoconductors. This device produces an open-circuit voltage in a physiological solution of 330 mV upon illumination using light in a tissue transparency window of 630 to 660 nm. We have performed electrophysiological recordings on Xenopus laevis oocytes, finding rapid (time constants, 50 mu s to 5 ms) photoinduced transient changes in the range of 20 to 110 mV. We measure photoinduced opening of potassium channels, conclusively proving that the OEPC effectively depolarizes the cell membrane. Our results demonstrate that the OEPC can be a versatile nongenetic technique for optical manipulation of electrophysiology and currently represents one of the simplest and most stable and efficient optical stimulation solutions.

  • 7.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mutgan, Selcan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Urban scaling and the regional divide2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 1, article id eaav0042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superlinear growth in cities has been explained as an emergent consequence of increased social interactions in dense urban environments. Using geocoded microdata from Swedish population registers, we remove population composition effects from the scaling relation of wage income to test how much of the previously reported superlinear scaling is truly attributable to increased social interconnectivity in cities. The Swedish data confirm the previously reported scaling relations on the aggregate level, but they provide better information on the micromechanisms responsible for them. We find that the standard interpretation of urban scaling is incomplete as social interactions only explain about half of the scaling parameter of wage income and that scaling relations substantively reflect differences in cities sociodemographic composition. Those differences are generated by selective migration of highly productive individuals into larger cities. Big cities grow through their attraction of talent from their hinterlands and the already-privileged benefit disproportionally from urban agglomeration.

  • 8.
    Lan, Yang
    et al.
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Dringoli, Benjamin J.
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Valverde-Chavez, David A.
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Ponseca, Carlito
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sutton, Mark
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    He, Yihui
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Cooke, David G.
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Ultrafast correlated charge and lattice motion in a hybrid metal halide perovskite2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 5, article id eaaw5558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites have shown remarkable optoelectronic properties, exhibiting an impressive tolerance to defects believed to originate from correlated motion of charge carriers and the polar lattice forming large polarons. Few experimental techniques are capable of directly probing these correlations, requiring simultaneous sub-millielectron volt energy and femtosecond temporal resolution after absorption of a photon. Here, we use time-resolved multi-THz spectroscopy, sensitive to the internal excitations of the polaron, to temporally and energetically resolve the coherent coupling of charges to longitudinal optical phonons in single-crystal CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPI). We observe room temperature intraband quantum beats arising from the coherent displacement of charge from the coupled phonon cloud. Our measurements provide strong evidence for the existence of polarons in MAPI at room temperature, suggesting that electron/hole-phonon coupling is a defining aspect of the hybrid metal-halide perovskites contributing to the protection from scattering and enhanced carrier lifetimes that define their usefulness in devices.

  • 9.
    Nagi, Saad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Marshall, Andrew G.
    Univ Manchester, England; Liverpool John Moores Univ, England.
    Makdani, Adarsh
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, England.
    Jarocka, Ewa
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Liljencrantz, Jaquette
    Natl Ctr Complementary and Integrat Hlth, MD 20892 USA; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ridderstrom, Mikael
    Umea Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Shaikh, Sumaiya
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Sydney, Australia.
    ONeill, Francis
    Univ Liverpool, England.
    Saade, Dimah
    NINDS, MD 20892 USA.
    Donkervoort, Sandra
    NINDS, MD 20892 USA.
    Foley, A. Reghan
    NINDS, MD 20892 USA.
    Minde, Jan
    Umea Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Trulsson, Mats
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Cole, Jonathan
    Bournemouth Univ, England.
    Bonnemann, Carsten G.
    NINDS, MD 20892 USA.
    Chesler, Alexander T.
    Natl Ctr Complementary and Integrat Hlth, MD 20892 USA.
    Bushnell, M. Catherine
    Natl Ctr Complementary and Integrat Hlth, MD 20892 USA.
    McGlone, Francis
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, England; Univ Liverpool, England.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology.
    An ultrafast system for signaling mechanical pain in human skin2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 7, article id eaaw1297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The canonical view is that touch is signaled by fast-conducting, thickly myelinated afferents, whereas pain is signaled by slow-conducting, thinly myelinated ("fast" pain) or unmyelinated ("slow" pain) afferents. While other mammals have thickly myelinated afferents signaling pain (ultrafast nociceptors), these have not been demonstrated in humans. Here, we performed single-unit axonal recordings (microneurography) from cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents in healthy participants. We identified A-fiber high-threshold mechanoreceptors (A-HTMR5) that were insensitive to gentle touch, encoded noxious skin indentations, and displayed conduction velocities similar to A-fiber low-threshold mechanoreceptors. Intraneural electrical stimulation of single ultrafast A-HTMRs evoked painful percepts. Testing in patients with selective deafferentation revealed impaired pain judgments to graded mechanical stimuli only when thickly myelinated fibers were absent. This function was preserved in patients with a loss-of-function mutation in mechanotransduction channel PIEZO2.These findings demonstrate that human mechanical pain does not require PIEZO2 and can be signaled by fast-conducting, thickly myelinated afferents.

  • 10.
    Ottosson, Nina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Silverå Ejneby, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wu, Xiongyu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Samira
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Erik
    Stockholm University, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    A drug pocket at the lipid bilayer-potassium channel interface2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 10, article id e1701099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many pharmaceutical drugs against neurological and cardiovascular disorders exert their therapeutic effects by binding to specific sites on voltage-gated ion channels of neurons or cardiomyocytes. To date, all molecules targeting known ion channel sites bind to protein pockets that are mainly surrounded by water. We describe a lipid-protein drug-binding pocket of a potassium channel. We synthesized and electrophysiologically tested 125 derivatives, analogs, and related compounds to dehydroabietic acid. Functional data in combination with docking and molecular dynamics simulations mapped a binding site for small-molecule compounds at the interface between the lipid bilayer and the transmembrane segments S3 and S4 of the voltage-sensor domain. This fundamentally new binding site for small-molecule compounds paves the way for the design of new types of drugs against diseases caused by altered excitability.

  • 11.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.
    Wei, B.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.
    Kuo, C.-C.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.
    Pathak, S.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, College Park, PA, United States.
    Farrell, B.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.
    Martin, D.C.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.
    Enhanced PEDOT adhesion on solid substrates with electrografted P(EDOT-NH2)2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 3, article id e1600448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers, such as poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT), have emerged as promising materials for interfacing biomedical devices with tissue because of their relatively soft mechanical properties, versatile organic chemistry, and inherent ability to conduct both ions and electrons. However, their limited adhesion to substrates is a concern for in vivo applications. We report an electrografting method to create covalently bonded PEDOT on solid substrates. An amine-functionalized EDOT derivative (2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-2-yl)methanamine (EDOT-NH2), was synthesized and then electrografted onto conducting substrates including platinum, iridium, and indium tin oxide. The electrografting process was performed under slightly basic conditions with an overpotential of ~2 to 3 V. A nonconjugated, cross-linked, and well-adherent P(EDOT-NH2)–based polymer coating was obtained. We found that the P(EDOT-NH2) polymer coating did not block the charge transport through the interface. Subsequent PEDOT electrochemical deposition onto P(EDOT-NH2)–modified electrodes showed comparable electroactivity to pristine PEDOT coating. With P(EDOT-NH2) as an anchoring layer, PEDOT coating showed greatly enhanced adhesion. The modified coating could withstand extensive ultrasonication (1 hour) without significant cracking or delamination, whereas PEDOT typically delaminated after seconds of sonication. Therefore, this is an effective means to selectively modify microelectrodes with highly adherent and highly conductive polymer coatings as direct neural interfaces. © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Parks, Matthew M.
    et al.
    Weill Cornell Med, NY 10065 USA.
    Kurylo, Chad M.
    Weill Cornell Med, NY 10065 USA.
    Dass, Randall A.
    Weill Cornell Med, NY 10065 USA.
    Bojmar, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Weill Cornell Med, NY 10065 USA; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Lyden, David
    Weill Cornell Med, NY 10065 USA; Mem Sloan Kettering Canc Ctr, NY 10065 USA.
    Vincent, C. Theresa
    Weill Cornell Med, NY 10065 USA; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Blanchard, Scott C.
    Weill Cornell Med, NY 10065 USA.
    Variant ribosomal RNA alleles are conserved and exhibit tissue-specific expression2018In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, no 2, article id eaao0665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ribosome, the integration point for protein synthesis in the cell, is conventionally considered a homogeneous molecular assembly that only passively contributes to gene expression. Yet, epigenetic features of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) operon and changes in the ribosomes molecular composition have been associated with disease phenotypes, suggesting that the ribosome itself may possess inherent regulatory capacity. Analyzing whole-genome sequencing data from the 1000 Genomes Project and the Mouse Genomes Project, we find that rDNA copy number varies widely across individuals, and we identify pervasive intra-and interindividual nucleotide variation in the 5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes of both human and mouse. Conserved rRNA sequence heterogeneities map to functional centers of the assembled ribosome, variant rRNA alleles exhibit tissue-specific expression, and ribosomes bearing variant rRNA alleles are present in the actively translating ribosome pool. These findings provide a critical framework for exploring the possibility that the expression of genomically encoded variant rRNA alleles gives rise to physically and functionally heterogeneous ribosomes that contribute to mammalian physiology and human disease.

  • 13.
    Reusch, Thorsten B. H.
    et al.
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Germany.
    Dierking, Jan
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Germany.
    Andersson, Helen C.
    Swedish Meteorol and Hydrol Inst, Sweden.
    Bonsdorff, Erik
    Abo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Carstensen, Jacob
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Casini, Michele
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Czajkowski, Mikolaj
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Hasler, Berit
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Hinsby, Klaus
    Geol Survey Denmark and Greenland, Denmark.
    Hyytiainen, Kari
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jomaa, Seifeddine
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Jormalainen, Veijo
    Univ Turku, Finland.
    Kuosa, Harri
    Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Finland.
    Kurland, Sara
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    MacKenzie, Brian R.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Margonski, Piotr
    Natl Marine Fisheries Res Inst, Poland.
    Melzner, Frank
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Germany.
    Oesterwind, Daniel
    Inst Balt Sea Fisheries, Germany.
    Ojaveer, Henn
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Refsgaard, Jens Christian
    Geol Survey Denmark and Greenland, Denmark.
    Sandstrom, Annica
    Lulea Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Gerald
    Thuenen Inst Farm Econ, Germany.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Zandersen, Marianne
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    The Baltic Sea as a time machine for the future coastal ocean2018In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, no 5, article id eaar8195Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal global oceans are expected to undergo drastic changes driven by climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressures in coming decades. Predicting specific future conditions and assessing the best management strategies to maintain ecosystem integrity and sustainable resource use are difficult, because of multiple interacting pressures, uncertain projections, and a lack of test cases for management. We argue that the Baltic Sea can serve as a time machine to study consequences and mitigation of future coastal perturbations, due to its unique combination of an early history of multistressor disturbance and ecosystem deterioration and early implementation of cross-border environmental management to address these problems. The Baltic Sea also stands out in providing a strong scientific foundation and accessibility to long-term data series that provide a unique opportunity to assess the efficacy of management actions to address the breakdown of ecosystem functions. Trend reversals such as the return of top predators, recovering fish stocks, and reduced input of nutrient and harmful substances could be achieved only by implementing an international, cooperative governance structure transcending its complex multistate policy setting, with integrated management of watershed and sea. The Baltic Sea also demonstrates how rapidly progressing global pressures, particularly warming of Baltic waters and the surrounding catchment area, can offset the efficacy of current management approaches. This situation calls for management that is (i) conservative to provide a buffer against regionally unmanageable global perturbations, (ii) adaptive to react to new management challenges, and, ultimately, (iii) multisectorial and integrative to address conflicts associated with economic trade-offs.

  • 14.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chemical potential-electric double layer coupling in conjugated polymer-polyelectrolyte blends2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 12, article id eaao3659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymer-polyelectrolyte blends combine and couple electronic semiconductor functionality with selective ionic transport, making them attractive as the active material in organic biosensors and bioelectronics, electrochromic displays, neuromorphic computing, and energy conversion and storage. Although extensively studied and explored, fundamental knowledge and accurate quantitative models of the coupled ion-electron functionality and transport are still lacking to predict the characteristics of electrodes and devices based on these blends. We report on a two-phase model, which couples the chemical potential of the holes, in the conjugated polymer, with the electric double layer residing at the conjugated polymer-polyelectrolyte interface. The model reproduces a wide range of experimental charging and transport data and provides a coherent theoretical framework for the system as well as local electrostatic potentials, energy levels, and charge carrier concentrations. This knowledge is crucial for future developments and optimizations of bioelectronic and energy devices based on the electronic-ionic interaction within these materials.

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