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  • 1.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Seitanidou, Maria S.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Decade of Iontronic Delivery Devices2018In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 3, no 5, article id 1700360Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to electronic systems, biology rarely uses electrons as the signal to regulate functions, but rather ions and molecules of varying size. Due to the unique combination of both electronic and ionic/molecular conductivity in conjugated polymers and polyelectrolytes, these materials have emerged as an excellent tool for translating signals between these two realms, hence the field of organic bioelectronics. Since organic bioelectronics relies on the electron-mediated transport and compensation of ions (or the ion-mediated transport and compensation of electrons), a great deal of effort has been devoted to the development of so-called "iontronic" components to effect precise substance delivery/transport, that is, components where ions are the dominant charge carrier and where ionic-electronic coupling defines device functionality. This effort has resulted in a range of technologies including ionic resistors, diodes, transistors, and basic logic circuits for the precisely controlled transport and delivery of biologically active chemicals. This Research News article presents a brief overview of some of these "ion pumping" technologies, how they have evolved over the last decade, and a discussion of applications in vitro, in vivo, and in plantae.

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  • 2.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Anton I.
    INSERM, INS, Inst Neurosci Syst, Aix Marseille University, Marseille, France.
    Bernard, Christophe
    INSERM, INS, Inst Neurosci Syst, Aix Marseille University, Marseille, France.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Design and Operation of Hybrid Microfluidic Iontronic Probes for Regulated Drug Delivery2021In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 2001006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly controlled drug delivery devices play an increasingly important role in the development of new neuroengineering tools. Stringent - and sometimes contradicting - demands are placed on such devices, ranging from robustness in freestanding devices, to overall device miniaturization, while maintaining precise spatiotemporal control of delivery with high chemical specificity and high on/off ratio. Here, design principles of a hybrid microfluidic iontronic probe that uses flow for long-range pressure-driven transport in combination with an iontronic tip that provides electronically fine-tuned pressure-free delivery are explored. Employing a computational model, the effects of decoupling the drug reservoir by exchanging a large passive reservoir with a smaller microfluidic system are reported. The transition at the microfluidic-iontronic interface is found to require an expanded ion exchange membrane inlet in combination with a constant fluidic flow, to allow a broad range of device operation, including low source concentrations and high delivery currents. Complementary to these findings, the free-standing hybrid probe monitored in real time by an external sensor is demonstrated. From these computational and experimental results, key design principles for iontronic devices are outlined that seek to use the efficient transport enabled by microfluidics, and further, key observations of hybrid microfluidic iontronic probes are explained.

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  • 3.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Miniaturized Ionic Polarization Diodes for Neurotransmitter Release at Synaptic Speeds2020In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 1900750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current neural interfaces rely on electrical stimulation pulses to affect neural tissue. The development of a chemical delivery technology, which can stimulate neural tissue with the bodys own set of signaling molecules, would provide a new level of sophistication in neural interfaces. Such technology should ideally provide highly local chemical delivery points that operate at synaptic speed, something that is yet to be accomplished. Here, the development of a miniaturized ionic polarization diode that exhibits many of the desirable properties for a chemical neural interface technology is reported. The ionic diode shows proper diode rectification and the current switches from off to on in 50 mu s at physiologically relevant electrolyte concentrations. A device model is developed to explain the characteristics of the ionic diode in more detail. In combination with experimental data, the model predicts that the ionic polarization diode has a delivery delay of 5 ms to reach physiologically relevant neurotransmitter concentrations at subcellular spatial resolution. The model further predicts that delays of amp;lt;1 ms can be reached by further miniaturization of the diode geometry. Altogether, the results show that ionic polarization diodes are a promising building block for the next generation of chemical neural interfaces.

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  • 4.
    Boda, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Ersman, Peter Andersson
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fully Screen-Printed Stretchable Organic Electrochemical Transistors2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stretchable organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are promising for wearable applications within biosensing, bio-signal recording, and addressing circuitry. Efficient large-scale fabrication of OECTs can be performed with printing methods but to date there are no reports on high-performance fully printed stretchable OECTs. Herein, this challenge is addressed by developing fully screen-printed stretchable OECTs based on an architecture that minimizes electrochemical side reactions and improves long-term stability. Fabrication of the OECTs is enabled by in-house development of three stretchable functional screen-printing inks and related printing processes. The stretchable OECTs show good characteristics in terms of transfer curves, output characteristics, and transient response up to 100% static strain and 500 strain cycles at 25% and 50% strain. The strain insensitivity of the OECTs can be further improved by strain conditioning, resulting in stable performance up to 50% strain. Finally, an electrochromic smart pixel is demonstrated by connecting a stretchable OECT to a stretchable electrochromic display. It is believed that the development of screen-printed stretchable electrochemical devices, and OECTs in particular, will pave the way for their use in wearable applications and commercial products.

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  • 5.
    Cao, Danfeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hara, Emilio Satoshi
    Okayama Univ, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Variable Stiffness Actuators with Covalently Attached Nanofragments that Induce Mineralization2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft robotics has attracted great attention owing to their immense potential especially in human-robot interfaces. However, the compliant property of soft robotics alone, without stiff elements, restricts their applications under load-bearing conditions. Here, biohybrid soft actuators, that create their own bone-like rigid layer and thus alter their stiffness from soft to hard, are designed. Fabrication of the actuators is based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with an Au film to make a soft substrate onto which polypyrrole (PPy) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonic-co-maleic acid) sodium salt (PSA) is electropolymerized. The PDMS/Au/PPy(PSA) actuator is then functionalized, chemically and physically, with plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs) that induce bone formation within 3 days, without using cells. The resulting stiffness change decreased the actuator displacement; yet a thin stiff layer couldnot completely stop the actuators movement, while a relatively thick segment could, but resulted in partial delamination the actuator. To overcome the delamination, an additional rough Au layer was electroplated to improve the adhesion of the PPy onto the substrate. Finally, an alginate gel functionalized with PMNFs was used to create a thicker mineral layer mimicking the collagen-apatite bone structure, which completely suppressed the actuator movement without causing any structural damage.

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  • 6.
    Chennit, Khalil
    et al.
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Delavari, Najmeh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mekhmoukhen, Samia
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Boukraa, Rassen
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Fillaud, Laure
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Zrig, Samia
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Battaglini, Nicolas
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Piro, Benoit
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Noel, Vincent
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mattana, Giorgio
    Univ Paris Cite, France.
    Inkjet-Printed, Coplanar Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors on Flexible Substrates: Fabrication, Modeling, and Applications in Biodetection2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 2200300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first example of inkjet-printed, electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors, fabricated on flexible polyimide substrates is presented. The inter-digitated source and drain electrodes, and the coplanar gate electrodes, are inkjet-printed using a homemade gold nanoparticle ink. A semiconducting ink based on the p-type, organic semiconductor poly[2,5-(2-octyldodecyl)-3,6-diketopyrrolopyrrole-alt-5,5-(2,5-di(thien-2-yl)thieno [3,2-b] thiophene)] (DPP-DTT) is formulated and inkjet-printed onto the channel. The performances of inkjet-printed, coplanar devices are compared to those of transistors whose gate electrode consists in a metallic wire inserted in the electrolyte. Printed transistors show excellent electrical properties with field-effect mobility as high as 0.04 cm(2) V-1 s(-1). The electrical behavior of inkjet-printed, coplanar devices is also modeled using the Nernst-Planck-Poisson (NPP) equations, where the output and transfer curves are calculated based on the charge and potential distribution inside the device. Good quantitative agreement between the simulation and experiments is achieved, outlining the attainable use of NPP simulations as predictive tools for device design and optimization. To demonstrate an example of application, printed transistors are functionalized for the detection of complementary DNA strands. This study opens an avenue for the next generation of low-cost, flexible sensors and circuits, both through experimental studies and device modeling.

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  • 7.
    Conti, Silvia
    et al.
    Univ Pisa, Italy; CSIC, Spain.
    Martinez-Domingo, Carme
    CSIC, Spain.
    Lay, Makara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Teres, Lluis
    CSIC, Spain.
    Vilaseca, Fabiola
    Univ Girona, Spain; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Ramon, Eloi
    CSIC, Spain.
    Nanopaper-Based Organic Inkjet-Printed Diodes2020In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 5, no 6, article id 1900773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of internet of things (IoTs) applications has led to the development of a new generation of light-weight, flexible, and cost-effective electronics. These devices and sensors have to be simultaneously easily replaceable and disposable while being environmentally sustainable. Thus, the introduction of new functionalized materials with mechanical flexibility that can be processed using large-area and facile fabrication methods (as, for example, printing technologies) has become a matter of great interest in the scientific community. In this context, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) are renewable, affordable, robust, and nontoxic materials that are rapidly emerging as components for eco-friendly electronics. Their combination with conductive polymers (CPs) to obtain conductive nanopapers (CNPs) allows moving their functionality from just substrates to active components of the device. In this work, a route for the inkjet-printing of organic diodes is outlined. The proposed strategy is based on the use of CNPs as both substrates and bottom electrodes onto which insulator and organic semiconducting layers are deposited to fabricate novel diode structures. Remarkable rectification ratios of up to 1.2 x 10(3) at |3 V| and a current density up to 5.1 mu A cm(-2) are achieved. As a proof-of-concept of the potentiality of the approach for versatile, low-temperature, and disposable sensing applications, an NO2 gas sensor is presented.

  • 8.
    Diacci, Chiara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lee, Jee Woong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dufil, Gwennael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Méhes, Gábor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Real-Time Monitoring of Glucose Export from Isolated Chloroplasts Using an Organic Electrochemical Transistor2020In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 1900262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosensors based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECT) are attractive devices for real-time monitoring of biological processes. The direct coupling between the channel of the OECT and the electrolyte enables intimate interfacing with biological environments at the same time bringing signal amplification and fast sensor response times. So far, these devices are mainly applied to mammalian systems; cells or body fluids for the development of diagnostics and various health status monitoring technology. Yet, no direct detection of biomolecules from cells or organelles is reported. Here, an OECT glucose sensor applied to chloroplasts, which are the plant organelles responsible for the light-to-chemical energy conversion of the photosynthesis, is reported. Real-time monitoring of glucose export from chloroplasts in two distinct metabolic phases is demonstrated and the transfer dynamics with a time resolution of 1 min is quantified, thus reaching monitoring dynamics being an order of magnitude better than conventional methods.

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  • 9.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jung, Young Hoon
    Korea Adv Inst Sci & Technol KAIST, South Korea.
    Han, Jae Hyun
    Korea Adv Inst Sci & Technol KAIST, South Korea.
    Joe, Daniel Juhyung
    Korea Res Inst Stand & Sci KRISS, South Korea.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lee, Keon Jae
    Korea Adv Inst Sci & Technol KAIST, South Korea.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Autonomous Microcapillary Drug Delivery System Self-Powered by a Flexible Energy Harvester2021In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 6, no 11, article id 2100526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implantable bioelectronic devices pave the way for novel biomedical applications operating at high spatiotemporal resolution, which is crucial for neural recording and stimulation, drug delivery, and brain-machine interfaces. Before successful long-term implantation and clinical applications, these devices face a number of challenges, such as mechanical and operational stability, biocompatibility, miniaturization, and powering. To address two of these crucial challenges-miniaturization and powering-the development and characterization of an electrophoretic drug delivery device, manufactured inside fused quartz fibers (outer diameter of 125 mu m), which is self-powered by a flexible piezoelectric energy harvester, are reported. The resulting device-the first integration of piezoelectric charging with "iontronic" delivery-exhibits a high delivery efficiency (number of neurotransmitters delivered per charges applied) and a direct correlation between the piezoelectric charging and the amount delivered (number of dynamic bends versus pmols delivered).

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  • 10.
    Glowacki, Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khodagholy, Dion
    Columbia Univ, NY 10027 USA.
    Bioelectronics Research Reaches New Heights2020In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 2000106Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 11.
    Huniade, Claude
    et al.
    Univ Borås, Sweden.
    Melling, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vancaeyzeele, Cedric
    CY Cergy Paris Univ, France.
    Nguyen, Giao T-M
    CY Cergy Paris Univ, France.
    Vidal, Frederic
    CY Cergy Paris Univ, France.
    Plesse, Cedric
    CY Cergy Paris Univ, France.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    Univ Borås, Sweden.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Univ Borås, Sweden.
    Ionofibers: Ionically Conductive Textile Fibers for Conformal i-Textiles2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 2101692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rise of ion-based devices using soft ionic conductors, ionotronics show the importance of matching electronic and biological interfaces. Since textiles are conformal, an essential property for matching interfaces, light-weight and comfortable, they present as an ideal candidate for a new generation of ionotronics, i-textiles. As fibers are the building blocks of textiles, ionically conductive fibers, named ionofibers, are needed. However, ionofibers are not yet demonstrated to fulfill the fabric manufacturing requirements such as mechanical robustness and upscaled production. Considering that ionogels are known to be conformal films with high ionic conductivity, ionofibers are produced from commercial core yarns with specifically designed ionogel precursor solution via a continuous dip-coating process. These ionofibers are to be regarded as composites, which keep the morphology and improve the mechanical properties from the core yarns while adding the (ionic) conductive function. They keep their conductivity also after their integration into conformal fabrics; thus, an upscaled production is a likely outlook. The findings offer promising perspectives for i-textiles with enhanced textile properties and in-air electrochemical applications.

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  • 12.
    Ismailova, Esma
    et al.
    Ecole Natl Super Mines, France.
    Cramer, Tobias
    Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Special Issue on "Electronic Textiles"2018In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 3, no 10, article id 1800195Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue on electronic textiles was planned together with Wiley and the European Materials Research Society (E‐MRS) by the organizers of Symposium J “Electronic textiles” at the E‐MRS Spring 2017 meeting in Strasbourg, France. Advanced Materials Technologies is new to the Advanced Materials series at Wiley and focuses specifically on “advanced device design, fabrication and integration, as well as new technologies based on novel materials”. We thus see the journal as an ideal venue for this special issue on this emerging field....

  • 13.
    Janson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lee, Keon Jae
    Korea Adv Inst Sci and Technol, South Korea.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Ionic Capacitor for Integrated Iontronic Circuits2019In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 1800494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronics, in combination with custom polyelectrolytes, enables solid- and hydrogel-state circuit components using ionic charges in place of the electrons of traditional electronics. This growing field of iontronics leverages anion- and cation-exchange membranes as analogs to n-type and p-type semiconductors, and conjugated polymer electrodes as ion-to-electron converters. To date, the iontronics toolbox includes ionic resistors, ionic diodes, ionic transistors, and analog and digital circuits comprised thereof. Here, an ionic capacitor based on mixed electron-ion conductors is demonstrated. The ionic capacitor resembles the structure of a conventional electrochemical capacitor that is inverted, with an electronically conducting core and two electrolyte ionic conductors. The device is first verified as a capacitor, and then demonstrated as a smoothing element in an iontronic diode bridge circuit driving an organic electronic ion pump (ionic resistor). The ionic capacitor complements the existing iontronics toolbox, enabling more complex and functional ionic circuits, and will thus have implications in a variety of mixed electron-ion conduction technologies.

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  • 14.
    Lay, Makara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. INM Leibniz Inst New Mat, Germany.
    Say, Mehmet Girayhan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Direct Ink Writing of Nanocellulose and PEDOT:PSS for Flexible Electronic Patterned and Supercapacitor Papers2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 18, article id 2300652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed electronic paper identifies its interest in flexible organic electronics and sustainable and clean energy applications because of its straightforward production method, cost-effectiveness, and positive environmental impact. However, current limitations include restricted material thickness and the use of supporting substrate for printing. Here, 2D and 3D electronic patterned paper are fabricated from direct ink writing (DIW) nanocellulose and PEDOT:PSS-based materials using syringe deposition and 3D printing. The conductor patterns are integrated in the bulk of the paper, while non-conductive sections are used as support to form free-standing paper. The strong interface between the patterns of electronic patterned paper gives mechanical stability for practical handling. The conductive paper-based electrode has 202 S cm(-1) and is capable of handling electric current up to 0.7 A, which can be used for high-power devices. Printed supercapacitor papers show high specific energy of 4.05 Wh kg(-1), specific power of 4615 W kg(-1) at 0.06 A g(-1), and capacitance retention above 95% after 2000 cycles. The new design structure of electronic patterned papers presents a solution for additive manufacturing of paper-based composites for supercapacitors, wearable electronics, or sensors for smart packaging.

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  • 15.
    Lienemann, Samuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Donahue, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zötterman, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Farnebo, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Soft and Stretchable Multielectrode Cuff for Selective Peripheral Nerve Stimulation2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 2201322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioelectronic medicine can treat diseases and disorders in humans by electrically interfacing with peripheral nerves. Multielectrode cuffs can be used for selective stimulation of portions of the nerve, which is advantageous for treatment specificity. The biocompatibility and conformability of cuffs can be improved by reducing the mechanical mismatch between nerve tissue and cuffs, but selective stimulation of nerves has yet to be achieved with soft and stretchable cuff electrodes. Here, this paper reports the development of a soft and stretchable multielectrode cuff (sMEC) for selective nerve stimulation. The device is made of 50 mu m thick silicone with embedded gold nanowire conductors, which renders it functional at 50% strain, and provides superior conformability for wrapping nerves. By using different stimulation protocols, high functional selectivity is achieved with the sMECs eight stimulation electrodes in a porcine sciatic nerve model. Finite element modeling is used to predict the potential distribution within the nerve, which correlate well with the achieved stimulation results. Recent studies are showing that mechanical softness is of outermost importance for reducing foreign body response. It is therefore believed that the soft high-performance sMEC technology is ideal for future selective peripheral nerve interfaces for bioelectronic medicine.

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  • 16.
    Liu, Lianlian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Lei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solin, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Quinones from Biopolymers and Small Molecules Milled into Graphite Electrodes2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 2001042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The redox reactions of quinones can be used in electrical energy storage systems. Biopolymers are one of the important sources for quinones due to sustainability and low cost. In this work, biomass materials that contain a large fraction of potential quinone groups are used to directly fabricate biomass/graphite hybrid material electrodes, without extraction or separation of the redox active components from other elements. Among these biomass electrodes based on barks, the bark from holm oak (Quercus ilex) and graphite hybrid electrode exhibits a discharge capacity of 20 mAh g(-1), with 68% capacity retention after 1000 cycles. Moreover, various quinone chemicals from the biological world are used to generate the quinone/graphite hybrid material electrodes that display higher quinone loadings at the carbon electrodes. The alizarin/graphite hybrid material electrode presents a capacity of 70 mAh g(-1), which is approximate to 30 times higher than that of the graphite electrode. It is demonstrated that barks and quinones are capable of exfoliating graphite into few-layer graphene sheets with reduced crystallite size. Processing into electrodes is facilitated by the use of another biopolymer, proteins in the form of misfolded protein fibrils, which also help to improve the available charge in electrodes formed from biomass or quinones.

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  • 17.
    Makhinia, Anatolii
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE Res Inst Sweden Digital Syst Smart Hardware, Sweden.
    Azizian, Pooya
    Leitat Technol Ctr, Spain; Tech Univ Catalonia, Spain.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Res Inst Sweden Digital Syst Smart Hardware, Sweden.
    Casals-Terre, Jasmina
    Tech Univ Catalonia, Spain.
    Cabot, Joan M.
    Leitat Technol Ctr, Spain.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE Res Inst Sweden Digital Syst Smart Hardware, Sweden.
    On-Demand Inkjet Printed Hydrophilic Coatings for Flow Control in 3D-Printed Microfluidic Devices Embedded with Organic Electrochemical Transistors2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfluidic surface chemistry can enable control of capillary-driven flow without the need for bulky external instrumentation. A novel pondered nonhomogeneous coating defines regions with different wetting properties on the microchannel walls. It changes the curvature of the liquid-air meniscus at various channel cross-sections and consequently leads to different capillary pressures, which is favorable in the strive toward automatic flow control. This is accomplished by the deposition of hydrophilic coatings on the surface of multilevel 3D-printed (3DP) microfluidic devices via inkjet printing, thereby retaining the surface hydrophilicity for at least 6 months of storage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of capillary flow control in 3DP microfluidics enabled by inkjet printing. The method is used to create "stop" and "delay" valves to enable preprogrammed capillary flow for sequential release of fluids. To demonstrate further utilization in point-of-care sensing applications, screen printed organic electrochemical transistors are integrated within the microfluidic chips to sense, sequentially and independently from external actions, chloride anions in the (1-100) x 10(-3) m range. The results present a cost-effective fabrication method of compact, yet comprehensive, all-printed sensing platforms that allow fast ion detection (<60 s), including the capability of automatic delivery of multiple test solutions.

  • 18.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Asadi, Milad
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of Core Yarn on Linear Actuation of Electroactive Polymer Coated Yarn Actuators2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 18, article id 2300460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart textiles combine the features of conventional textiles with promising properties of smart materials such as electromechanically active polymers, resulting in textile actuators. Textile actuators comprise of individual yarn actuators, so understanding their electro-chemo-mechanical behavior is of great importance. Herein, this study investigates the effect of inherent structural and mechanical properties of commercial yarns, that form the core of the yarn actuators, on the linear actuation of the conducting-polymer-based yarn actuators. Commercial yarns were coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to make them conductive. Then polypyrrole (PPy) that provides the electromechanical actuation is electropolymerized on the yarn surface under controlled conditions. The linear actuation of the yarn actuators is investigated in aqueous electrolyte under isotonic and isometric conditions. The yarn actuators generated an isotonic strain up to 0.99% and isometric force of 95 mN. The isometric strain achieved in this work is more than tenfold and threefold greater than the previously reported yarn actuators. The isometric actuation force shows an increase of nearly 11-fold over our previous results. Finally, a qualitative mechanical model is introduced to describe the actuation behavior of yarn actuators. The strain and force created by the yarn actuators make them promising candidates for wearable actuator technologies.

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  • 19.
    Oikonomou, Vasileios
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dreier, Till
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Excillum AB, Sweden.
    Sandéhn, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mohammadi, Mohsen
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Christensen, Jakob Lonborg
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Dahl, Vedrana Andersen
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Bech, Martin
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Elucidating the Bulk Morphology of Cellulose-Based Conducting Aerogels with X-Ray Microtomography2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting cellulose composites are promising sustainable functional materials that have found application in energy devices, sensing and water purification. Herein, conducting aerogels are fabricated based on nanofibrillated cellulose and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate, using the ice templating technique, and their bulk morphology is characterized with X-ray microtomography. The freezing method (-20 degrees C in a freezer vs liquid nitrogen) does not impact the mean porosity of the aerogels but the liquid-N2 aerogels have smaller pores. The integration of carbon fibers as addressing electrodes prior to freezing results in increased mean porosity and pore size in the liquid-N2 aerogels signifying that the carbon fibers alter the morphology of the aerogels when the freezing is fast. Spatially resolved porosity and pore size distributions also reveal that the liquid-N2 aerogels are more inhomogeneous. Independent of the freezing method, the aerogels have similar electrochemical properties. For aerogels without carbon fibers, freezer-aerogels have higher compression modulus and are less stable under cycling compression fatigue test. This can be explained by higher porosity with larger pores in the center of liquid-N2 aerogels and thinner pore walls. This work demonstrates that micro-CT is a powerful tool for characterizing the morphology of aerogels in a non-destructive and spatially resolved manner. Conducting aerogels based on nanofibrillated cellulose and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate are fabricated with the ice templating technique and their bulk morphology is characterized in a spatially resolved manner with X-ray microtomography. The effect of the freezing temperature and the integration of carbon fibers electrodes prior to freezing on the morphology, mechanical, and electrochemical properties is examined.

  • 20.
    Parizkova, Barbora
    et al.
    Palacky Univ, Czech Republic; Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Antoniadi, Ioanna
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karady, Michal
    Palacky Univ, Czech Republic; Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zatloukal, Marek
    Palacky Univ, Czech Republic.
    Strnad, Miroslav
    Palacky Univ, Czech Republic; Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Dolezal, Karel
    Palacky Univ, Czech Republic; Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic; Palacky Univ, Czech Republic.
    Novak, Ondrej
    Palacky Univ, Czech Republic; Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Ljung, Karin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    iP & OEIP - Cytokinin Micro Application Modulates Root Development with High Spatial Resolution2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 2101664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State-of-the-art technology based on organic electronics can be used as a flow-free delivery method for organic substances with high spatial resolution. Such highly targeted drug micro applications can be used in plant research for the regulation of physiological processes on tissue and cellular levels. Here, for the first time, an organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) is reported that can transport an isoprenoid-type cytokinin, N-6-isopentenyladenine (iP), to intact plants. Cytokinins (CKs) are plant hormones involved in many essential physiological processes, including primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development. Using the Arabidopsis thaliana root as a model system, efficient iP delivery is demonstrated with a biological output - cytokinin-related PR and LR growth inhibition. The spatial resolution of iP delivery, defined for the first time for an organic compound, is shown to be less than 1 mm, exclusively affecting the OEIP-targeted LR. Results from the application of the high-resolution OIEP treatment method confirm previously published findings showing that the influence of CKs may vary at different stages of LR development. Thus, OEIP-based technologies offer a novel, electronically controlled method for phytohormone delivery that could contribute to unraveling cytokinin functions during different developmental processes with high specificity.

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  • 21.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    et al.
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhong, Yong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Univ Toulouse, France.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Actuating Textiles: Next Generation of Smart Textiles2018In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 3, no 10, article id 1700397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart textiles have been around for some decades. Even if interactivity is central to most definitions, the emphasis so far has been on the stimuli/input side, comparatively little has been reported on the responsive/output part. This study discusses the actuating, mechanical, output side in what could be called a second generation of smart textiles-this in contrast to a first generation of smart textiles devoted to sensorics. This mini review looks at recent progress within the area of soft actuators and what from there that is of relevance for smart textiles. It is found that typically still forces exerted are small, so are strains for many of the actuators types (such as electroactive polymers) that could be considered for textile integration. On the other side, it is argued that for many classes of soft actuators-and, in the extension, soft robotics-textiles could play an important role. The potential of weaving for stress and knitting for strain amplification is shown. Textile processing enables effective production, as is analyzed. Textile systems are made showing automatic actuation asked for in stand-alone solutions. It is envisioned that soft exoskeletons could be an achievable goal for this second generation of smart textiles.

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  • 22.
    Phelipot, Jonathan
    et al.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Ledos, Nicolas
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Dombray, Thomas
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Duffy, Matthew P.
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Denis, Mathieu
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Wang, Ting
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Didane, Yahia
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Gaceur, Meriem
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Bao, Qinye
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Delugas, Pietro
    Ist Off Mat CNR IOM Cagliari, Italy.
    Mattoni, Alessandro
    Ist Off Mat CNR IOM Cagliari, Italy.
    Tondelier, Denis
    IP Paris, France.
    Geffroy, Bernard
    IP Paris, France; Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bouit, Pierre-Antoine
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Margeat, Olivier
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Ackermann, Joerg
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Hissler, Muriel
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Highly Emissive Layers based on Organic/Inorganic Nanohybrids Using Aggregation Induced Emission Effect2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 2100876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorescent nanohybrids, based on pi-extended hydroxyoxophosphole ligands grafted onto ZnO nanoparticles, are designed and studied. The restriction of the intramolecular motions of the organic fluorophore, through either aggregates formation in solution or processing into thin films, forms highly emissive materials due to a strong aggregation induced emission effect. Theoretical calculations and XPS analyses were performed to analyze the interactions between the organic and inorganic counterparts. Preliminary results on the use of these nanohybrids as solution-processed emissive layers in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) illustrate their potential for lighting applications.

  • 23.
    Riera-Galindo, Sergi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leonardi, Francesca
    Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Pfattner, Raphael
    Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Mas-Torrent, Marta
    Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Organic Semiconductor/Polymer Blend Films for Organic Field-Effect Transistors2019In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 4, no 9, article id 1900104Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of low-cost printed organic electronics entails the processing of active organic semiconductors (OSCs) through solution-based techniques. However, the preparation of large-area uniform and reproducible films based on OSC inks can be very challenging due to the low viscosity of their solutions, which causes dewetting problems, the low stability of OSC polymer solutions, or the difficulty in achieving appropriate crystal order. To circumvent this, a promising route is the use of blends of OSCs and insulating binding polymers. This approach typically gives rise to films with an enhanced crystallinity and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with significantly improved device performance. Recent progress in the fabrication of OFETs based on OSC/binding polymer inks is reviewed, highlighting the main morphological and structural features that play a major role in determining the final electrical properties and some future perspectives. Undoubtedly, the use of these types of blends results in more reliable and reproducible devices that can be fabricated on large areas and at low cost and, thus, this methodology brings great expectations for the implementation of OSCs in real-world applications.

  • 24.
    Say, Mehmet Girayhan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sahalianov, Ihor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Brno Univ Technol, Czech Republic.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Res Inst Sweden Digital Syst Smart Hardware, Sweden.
    Migliaccio, Ludovico
    Brno Univ Technol, Czech Republic.
    Glowacki, Eric D.
    Brno Univ Technol, Czech Republic.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Donahue, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ultrathin Paper Microsupercapacitors for Electronic Skin Applications2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 8, article id 2101420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrathin devices are rapidly developing for skin-compatible medical applications and wearable electronics. Powering skin-interfaced electronics requires thin and lightweight energy storage devices, where solution-processing enables scalable fabrication. To attain such devices, a sequential deposition is employed to achieve all spray-coated symmetric microsupercapacitors (mu SCs) on ultrathin parylene C substrates, where both electrode and gel electrolyte are based on the cheap and abundant biopolymer, cellulose. The optimized spraying procedure allows an overall device thickness of approximate to 11 mu m to be obtained with a 40% active material volume fraction and a resulting volumetric capacitance of 7 F cm(-3). Long-term operation capability (90% of capacitance retention after 10(4) cycles) and mechanical robustness are achieved (1000 cycles, capacitance retention of 98%) under extreme bending (rolling) conditions. Finite element analysis is utilized to simulate stresses and strains in real-sized mu SCs under different bending conditions. Moreover, an organic electrochromic display is printed and powered with two serially connected mu-SCs as an example of a wearable, skin-integrated, fully organic electronic application.

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  • 25.
    Silverå Ejneby, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Migliaccio, Ludovico
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gicevicius, Mindaugas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Vilnius Univ, Lithuania.
    Derek, Vedran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jakesova, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Extracellular Photovoltage Clamp Using Conducting Polymer-Modified Organic Photocapacitors2020In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 1900860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optoelectronic control of physiological processes accounts for new possibilities ranging from fundamental research to treatment of disease. Among nongenetic light-driven approaches, organic semiconductor-based device platforms such as the organic electrolytic photocapacitor (OEPC) offer the possibility of localized and wireless stimulation with a minimal mechanical footprint. Optimization of efficiency hinges on increasing effective capacitive charge delivery. Herein, a simple strategy to significantly enhance the photostimulation performance of OEPC devices by employing coatings of the conducting polymer formulation poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate), or PEDOT:PSS is reported. This modification increases the charge density of the stimulating photoelectrodes by a factor of 2-3 and simultaneously decreases the interfacial impedance. The electrophysiological effects of PEDOT:PSS-derivatized OEPCs on Xenopus laevis oocyte cells on membrane potential are measured and voltage-clamp techniques are used, finding an at-least twofold increase in capacitive coupling. The large electrolytic capacitance of PEDOT:PSS allows the OEPC to locally alter the extracellular voltage and keep it constant for long periods of time, effectively enabling a unique type of light-controlled membrane depolarization for measurements of ion channel opening. The finding that PEDOT:PSS-coated OEPCs can remain stable after a 50-day accelerated ageing test demonstrates that PEDOT:PSS modification can be applied for fabricating reliable and efficient optoelectronic stimulation devices.

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  • 26.
    Spyropoulos, George D.
    et al.
    Columbia Univ, NY 10027 USA.
    Savarin, Jeremy
    Columbia Univ, NY 10027 USA.
    Gomez, Eliot
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gelinas, Jennifer N.
    Columbia Univ, NY 10032 USA.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khodagholy, Dion
    Columbia Univ, NY 10027 USA.
    Transcranial Electrical Stimulation and Recording of Brain Activity using Freestanding Plant-Based Conducting Polymer Hydrogel Composites2020In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, no 3, article id 1900652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcranial electrical stimulation is a noninvasive neurostimulation technique with a wide range of therapeutic applications. However, current electrode materials are typically not optimized for this abiotic/biotic interface which requires high charge capacity, operational stability, and conformability. Here, a plant-based composite electrode material based on the combination of aloe vera (AV) hydrogel and a conducting polymer (CP; poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate, PEDOT:PSS) is reported. This material system is fabricated into films and provides biocompatibility, conformability, and stability, while offering desirable electrical properties of the PEDOT:PSS. AVCP films are also molded onto the rough surface of the skull leading to a mechanically stable and robust interface. The in vivo efficacy of the AVCP films is verified to function as stimulating and recording electrodes by placing them on the skull of a rat and concomitantly inducing focal seizures and acquiring the evoked neural activity. AVCP films pave the way for high-quality biological interfaces that are broadly applicable and can facilitate advances in closed-loop responsive stimulation devices.

  • 27.
    Stauffer, Flurin
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Zhang, Qiang
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Zambrano, Byron Llerena
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Hengsteler, Julian
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Stoll, Andre
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Trueeb, Camill
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Hagander, Michael
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Sujata, Jean-Marc
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Hoffmann, Felix
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Stekhoven, Joy Schuurmans
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Quack, Josefine
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Zilly, Hannes
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Goedejohann, Johannes
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Schneider, Marc P.
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland; Univ Zurich, Switzerland; Univ Bern, Switzerland.
    Kessler, Thomas M.
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland.
    Taylor, William R.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Kueng, Roland
    Zurich Univ Appl Sci, Switzerland.
    Voeroes, Janos
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Soft Electronic Strain Sensor with Chipless Wireless Readout: Toward Real-Time Monitoring of Bladder Volume2018In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 3, no 6, article id 1800031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensing mechanical tissue deformation in vivo can provide detailed information on organ functionality and tissue states. To bridge the huge mechanical mismatch between conventional electronics and biological tissues, stretchable electronic systems have recently been developed for interfacing tissues in healthcare applications. A major challenge for wireless electronic implants is that they typically require microchips, which adds complexity and may compromise long-term stability. Here, a chipless wireless strain sensor technology based on a novel soft conductor with high cyclic stability is reported. The composite material consists of gold-coated titanium dioxide nanowires embedded in a soft silicone elastomer. The implantable strain sensor is based on an resonant circuit which consists of a stretchable plate capacitor and a coil for inductive readout of its resonance frequency. Successful continuous wireless readout during 50% strain cycles is demonstrated. The sensor element has a Youngs modulus of 260 kPa, similar to that of the bladder in order to not impair physiological bladder expansion. A proof-of-principle measurement on an ex vivo porcine bladder is presented, which shows the feasibility of the presented materials and devices for continuous, wireless strain monitoring of various tissues and organs in vivo.

  • 28.
    Waldherr, Linda
    et al.
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Seitanidou, Maria S
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jakesova, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Handl, Verena
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Honeder, Sophie
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Nowakowska, Marta
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Tomin, Tamara
    Med Univ Graz, Austria; Tech Univ Wien, Austria.
    Karami Rad, Meysam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Tony
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Distl, Joachim
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth
    Med Univ Graz, Austria; Tech Univ Wien, Austria.
    Campe, Gord
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Schafer, Ute
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rinner, Beate
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Asslaber, Martin
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Ghaffari-Tabrizi-Wizsy, Nassim
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Patz, Silke
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schindl, Rainer
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Targeted Chemotherapy of Glioblastoma Spheroids with an Iontronic Pump2021In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 6, no 5, article id 2001302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most lethal tumor of the brain, is presently hampered by (i) the limits of safe surgical resection and (ii) "shielding" of residual tumor cells from promising chemotherapeutic drugs such as Gemcitabine (Gem) by the blood brain barrier (BBB). Here, the vastly greater GBM cell-killing potency of Gem compared to the gold standard temozolomide is confirmed, moreover, it shows neuronal cells to be at least 10(4)-fold less sensitive to Gem than GBM cells. The study also demonstrates the potential of an electronically-driven organic ion pump ("GemIP") to achieve controlled, targeted Gem delivery to GBM cells. Thus, GemIP-mediated Gem delivery is confirmed to be temporally and electrically controllable with pmol min(-1) precision and electric addressing is linked to the efficient killing of GBM cell monolayers. Most strikingly, GemIP-mediated GEM delivery leads to the overt disintegration of targeted GBM tumor spheroids. Electrically-driven chemotherapy, here exemplified, has the potential to radically improve the efficacy of GBM adjuvant chemotherapy by enabling exquisitely-targeted and controllable delivery of drugs irrespective of whether these can cross the BBB.

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  • 29.
    Zabihipour, Marzieh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strandberg, Jan
    Rise Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ersman, Peter Andersson
    Rise Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    High-Gain Logic Inverters based on Multiple Screen-Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 2101642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronic circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are attracting great attention due to their printability, flexibility, and low voltage operation. Inverters are the building blocks of digital logic circuits (e.g., NAND gates) and analog circuits (e.g., amplifiers). However, utilizing OECTs in electronic logic circuits is challenging due to the resulting low voltage gain and low output voltage levels. Hence, inverters capable of operating at relatively low supply voltages, yet offering high voltage gain and larger output voltage windows than the respective input voltage window are desired. Herein, inverters realized from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate-based OECTs are designed and explored, resulting in logic inverters exhibiting high voltage gains, enlarged output voltage windows, and tunable switching points. The inverter designs are based on multiple screen-printed OECTs and a resistor ladder, where one OECT is the driving transistor while one or two additional OECTs are used as variable resistors in the resistor ladder. The inverters performances are investigated in terms of voltage gain, output voltage levels, and switching point. Inverters, operating at +/-2.5 V supply voltage and an input voltage window of 1 V, that can achieve an output voltage window with similar to 110% increment and a voltage gain up to 42 are demonstrated.

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  • 30.
    Zabihipour, Marzieh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ersman, Peter Andersson
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Designing Inverters Based on Screen Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors Targeting Low-Voltage and High-Frequency Operation2021In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 6, article id 2100555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-voltage operating organic electronic circuits with long-term stability characteristics are receiving increasing attention because of the growing demands for power efficient electronics in Internet of Things applications. To realize such circuits, inverters, the fundamental constituents of many circuits, with stable transfer characteristics should be designed to provide low-power consumption. Here, a rational inverter design, based on fully screen printed p-type organic electrochemical transistors with a channel size of 150 x 80 mu m(2), is explored for driving conditions with input voltage levels that differs of about 1 V. Further, three different inverter circuits are explored, including resistor ladders with resistor values ranging from tens of k ohm to a few M ohm. The performance of single inverters, 3-stage cascaded inverters and 3-stage ring oscillators are characterized with respect to output voltage levels, propagation delay, static power consumption, voltage gain, and operational frequency window. Depending on the application, the key performance parameters of the inverter can be optimized by the specific combination of the input voltage levels and the resistor ladder values. A few of the inverters are in fact fully functional up to 30 Hz, even when using input voltage levels as low as (0 V, 1 V).

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  • 31.
    Zhong, Yong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Versatile Flexible Polymer Actuator System for Pumps, Valves, and Injectors Enabling Fully Disposable Active Microfluidics2021In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 2000769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To control and manipulate fluids in lab‐on‐a‐chip (LOC) devices, active components such as pumps, valves, and injectors are necessary. However, such components are often complex and expensive to fabricate, limiting integration in disposable LOCs. A new type of flexible, all‐polymer diaphragm actuator system, called Double Diaphragm Active Polymer Actuator (DDAPA), is presented as a single modular unit that can be repurposed to diverse active microfluidic components. To demonstrate the versatility of the DDAPA concept, the DDAPA devices are investigated in three different configurations: as a single operation microinjector, as a flow regulating element, and as a pump in a hybrid configuration with unibody‐LOC unidirectional systems. The working principle, fabrication process, and the three examples of microfluidic components are presented. The trilayer diaphragm actuator is realized using the conductive polymer poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate as the actuating material and thiol‐acrylate‐based ionogels as solid‐state electrolyte and base material. The three demonstrators show the feasibility of using the DDAPA module to inject liquids, regulate flow, and unidirectionally pump fluids up to 112 µL min−1 when coupled with a 3D printed unibody check valve. Hence, the presented concept with a simple mechanism and easy manufacturability, broadens the choice of disposable actuators compatible with fully disposable autonomous LOC solutions.

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