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  • 1.
    Amirhosseini, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bernhardsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lång, Pernilla
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Andersson, Göran
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Flygare, Johan
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Gene Therapy, Lund Stem Cell Center, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Fahlgren, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Cyclin-dependent kinase 8/19 inhibition suppresses osteoclastogenesis by downregulating RANK and promotes osteoblast mineralization and cancellous bone healing.2019In: Journal of Cellular Physiology, ISSN 0021-9541, E-ISSN 1097-4652, Vol. 234, no 9, p. 16503-16516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) is a mediator complex-associated transcriptional regulator that acts depending on context and cell type. While primarily under investigation as potential cancer therapeutics, some inhibitors of CDK8-and its paralog CDK19-have been reported to affect the osteoblast lineage and bone formation. This study investigated the effects of two selective CDK8/19 inhibitors on osteoclastogenesis and osteoblasts in vitro, and further evaluated how local treatment with a CDK8/19 inhibitor affects cancellous bone healing in rats. CDK8/19 inhibitors did not alter the proliferation of neither mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) nor primary mouse osteoblasts. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κΒ (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis from mouse BMMs was suppressed markedly by inhibition of CDK8/19, concomitant with reduced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen levels. This was accompanied by downregulation of PU.1, RANK, NF-κB, nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 (NFATc1), dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), TRAP, and cathepsin K in RANKL-stimulated BMMs. Downregulating RANK and its downstream signaling in osteoclast precursors enforce CDK8/19 inhibitors as anticatabolic agents to impede excessive osteoclastogenesis. In mouse primary osteoblasts, CDK8/19 inhibition did not affect differentiation but enhanced osteoblast mineralization by promoting alkaline phosphatase activity and downregulating osteopontin, a negative regulator of mineralization. In rat tibiae, a CDK8/19 inhibitor administered locally promoted cancellous bone regeneration. Our data indicate that inhibitors of CDK8/19 have the potential to develop into therapeutics to restrict osteolysis and enhance bone regeneration.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-21 12:44
  • 2.
    Amirhosseini, Mehdi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Madsen, Rune V.
    Hosp Special Surg, NY 10021 USA.
    Escott, K. Jane
    AstraZeneca, England.
    Bostrom, Mathias P.
    Hosp Special Surg, NY 10021 USA.
    Ross, F. Patrick
    Hosp Special Surg, NY 10021 USA.
    Fahlgren, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    GSK-3 beta inhibition suppresses instability-induced osteolysis by a dual action on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation2018In: Journal of Cellular Physiology, ISSN 0021-9541, E-ISSN 1097-4652, Vol. 233, no 3, p. 2398-2408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, there are no medications available to treat aseptic loosening of orthopedic implants. Using osteoprotegerin fusion protein (OPG-Fc), we previously blocked instability-induced osteoclast differentiation and peri-prosthetic osteolysis. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, which regulates OPG secretion from osteoblasts, also modulates the bone tissue response to mechanical loading. We hypothesized that activating Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3 beta) would reduce instability-induced bone loss through regulation of both osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. We examined effects of GSK-3 beta inhibition on regulation of RANKL and OPG in a rat model of mechanical instability-induced peri-implant osteolysis. The rats were treated daily with a GSK-3 beta inhibitor, AR28 (20 mg/kg bw), for up to 5 days. Bone tissue and blood serum were assessed by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA on days 3 and 5, and by micro-CT on day 5. After 3 days of treatment with AR28, mRNA levels of beta-catenin, Runx2, Osterix, Col1 alpha 1, and ALP were increased leading to higher osteoblast numbers compared to vehicle-treated animals. BMP-2 and Wnt16 mRNA levels were downregulated by mechanical instability and this was rescued by GSK-3 beta inhibition. Osteoclast numbers were decreased significantly after 3 days of GSK-3 beta inhibition, which correlated with enhanced OPG mRNA expression. This was accompanied by decreased serum levels of TRAP5b on days 3 and 5. Treatment with AR28 upregulated osteoblast differentiation, while osteoclastogenesis was blunted, leading to increased bone mass by day 5. These data suggest that GSK-3 beta inactivation suppresses osteolysis through regulating both osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation in a rat model of instability-induced osteolysis.

  • 3.
    Aslan, Cynthia
    et al.
    Tabriz Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Maralbashi, Sepideh
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Salari, Farhad
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Kahroba, Houman
    Tabriz Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Sigaroodi, Faraz
    Tabriz Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Kazemi, Tohid
    Tabriz Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Kharaziha, Pedram
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical genetics.
    Tumor-derived exosomes: Implication in angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis cancer therapy2019In: Journal of Cellular Physiology, ISSN 0021-9541, E-ISSN 1097-4652, Vol. 234, no 10, p. 16885-16903Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tumor cells utilize different strategies to communicate with neighboring tissues for facilitating tumor progression and invasion, one of these strategies has been shown to be the release of exosomes. Exosomes are small nanovesicles secreted by all kind of cells in the body, especially cancer cells, and mediate cell to cell communications. Exosomes play an important role in cancer invasiveness by harboring various cargoes that could accelerate angiogenesis. Here first, we will present an overview of exosomes, their biology, and their function in the body. Then, we will focus on exosomes derived from tumor cells as tumor angiogenesis mediators with a particular emphasis on the underlying mechanisms in various cancer origins. Also, exosomes derived from stem cells and tumor-associated macrophages will be discussed in this regard. Finally, we will discuss the novel therapeutic strategies of exosomes as drug delivery vehicles against angiogenesis.

  • 4.
    Bratengeier, Cornelia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bakker, Astrid D.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands; Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Fahlgren, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Mechanical loading releases osteoclastogenesis-modulating factors through stimulation of the P2X7 receptor in hematopoietic progenitor cells2019In: Journal of Cellular Physiology, ISSN 0021-9541, E-ISSN 1097-4652, Vol. 234, no 8, p. 13057-13067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical instability of bone implants stimulate osteoclast differentiation and peri-implant bone loss, leading to prosthetic loosening. It is unclear which cells at the periprosthetic interface transduce mechanical signals into a biochemical response, and subsequently facilitate bone loss. We hypothesized that mechanical overloading of hematopoietic bone marrow progenitor cells, which are located near to the inserted bone implants, stimulates the release of osteoclast-inducing soluble factors. Using a novel in vitro model to apply mechanical overloading, we found that hematopoietic progenitor cells released adenosine triphosphate (ATP) after only 2min of mechanical loading. The released ATP interacts with its specific receptor P2X7 to stimulate the release of unknown soluble factors that inhibit (physiological loading) or promote (supraphysiological loading) the differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts derived from bone marrow cultures. Inhibition of ATP-receptor P2X7 by Brilliant Blue G completely abolished the overloading-induced stimulation of osteoclast formation. Likewise, stimulation of P2X7 receptor on hematopoietic cells by BzATP enhanced the release of osteoclastogenesis-stimulating signaling molecules to a similar extent as supraphysiological loading. Supraphysiological loading affected neither gene expression of inflammatory markers involved in aseptic implant loosening (e.g., interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-, and PTGES2) nor expression of the osteoclast modulators receptor activator of nuclear factor -B ligandand osteoprotegerin. Our findings suggest that murine hematopoietic progenitor cells are a potential key player in local mechanical loading-induced bone implant loosening via the ATP/P2X7-axis. Our approach identifies potential therapeutic targets to prevent prosthetic loosening.

  • 5.
    Eliasson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, Jan-Ingvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Hematology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche: Low in Oxygen but a Nice Place to be2010In: Journal of Cellular Physiology, ISSN 0021-9541, E-ISSN 1097-4652, Vol. 222, no 1, p. 17-22Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The enormous regenerative capacity of the blood system to sustain functionally mature cells are generated from highly proliferative, short-lived progenitors, which in turn arise from a rare population of pluripotent and self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). In the bone marrow, these stem cells are kept in a low proliferative, relatively quiescent state in close proximity to stromal cells and osteoblasts, forming specialized niches. The interaction in particular to bone is crucial to prevent exhaustion of HSCs from uncontrolled cell-cycle entry and to excessive proliferation. In addition, the niche and its components protect stem cells from stress, such as accumulation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. One of the key issues is to identify conditions to increase the number of HSCs, either in vivo or during ex vivo growth cultures. This task has been very difficult to resolve and most attempts have been unsuccessful. However, the mechanistic insights to HSC self-renewal and preservation are gradually increasing and there is now hope that future research will enable scientists and clinicians to modulate the process. In this review, we will focus on the molecular mechanisms of self-renewal and HSC maintenance in the light of novel findings that HSCs reside at the lowest end of an oxygen gradient. Hypoxia appears to regulate hematopoiesis in the bone marrow by maintaining important HSC functions, such as cell cycle control, survival, metabolism, and protection against oxidative stress. To improve the therapeutic expansion of HSCs we need to learn more about the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia-mediated regulation.

  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Sundqvist, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lateral diffusion of the secretory component (SC) in the basolateral membrane of the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29 assessed with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching1988In: Journal of Cellular Physiology, ISSN 0021-9541, E-ISSN 1097-4652, Vol. 137, no 3, p. 608-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lateral diffusion of the secretory component (SC), acting as a receptor for dimeric IgA in the basolateral side of intestinal epithelial cells, was studied in the human colonic carcinoma cell line HT29. The HT29 cells were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium in which galactose had been substituted for glucose to promote development of small intestine-like cells, with a distinct separation of the basolateral side from the apical surface. The SC was stained with rhodamine-labeled polyclonal anti-human SC rabbit antibodies (Ig) or Fab fragments, and the lateral mobility was assessed with the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique. The average lateral diffusion was consistent with a diffusion constant of 7.7 ± 2.0 (mean value ± SD; n = 29) and 7.1 ± 2.3 (n = 30) × 10−10 cm2s−1 for Ig-and Fab-labeled receptors, respectively, which is slower than lipid diffusion but is similar to that found for other membrane receptors. The corresponding values for the fraction of mobile receptors were 66 ± 13% and 71 ± 12%, respectively. Cells were labeled from the top of the culture plate, and cells adjacent to a mechanically made rift or a natural opening in the cell monolayer were labeled more strongly, confirming the microscope-based impression that the basolateral surface primarily harboured the SC receptor.

  • 7.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Holmgren, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Small intestinal differentiation in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells has distinct effects on the lateral diffusion of lipids (ganglioside GM1) and proteins (HLA Class 1, HLA Class 2, and neoplastic epithelial antigens) in the apical cell membrane1990In: Journal of Cellular Physiology, ISSN 0021-9541, E-ISSN 1097-4652, Vol. 143, no 2, p. 381-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the effect of maturation to small intestinal-like epithelial cells of the human colonic calcinoma cell line HT29 on the lateral mobility of different representative membrane components (lipid, proteins), as assessed with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Maturation was induced in vitro in the HT29 cells by replacing glucose (Glu) with galactose (Gal) in the growth medium (DMEM) during a 21-day period. Scanning electron microscopy revealed an increased number of microvilli in the apical cell membrane, and enzyme analyses (alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase) in combination with aqueous countercurrent distribution, indicated that maturation was induced with DMEM-Gal. In comparison to control cells grown in DMEM-Glu medium, the more small intestinal-like cells grown in DMEM-Gal displayed no alteration of the lateral mobility of either cholera toxin (B subuni)-labelled ganglioside GM1 (diffusion coefficient, D [x 108] = 0.8–0.9 cm2s−1; mobile fraction, R = 50-60%) or antibody-stained Class 2 histocompatibility (HLA-DR) antigen (D [x 109] = 2 cm2s−1; R = 60–70%). However, antibody-labelled β2-microglobulin of HLA Class 1 antigen displayed increased mobility in HT29-Gal cells; D was × 1.4 and R × 1.8 larger in the HT29-Gal cells. By contrast, the mobility of a neoplastic antigen was reduced; D and R were × 0.60 and × 0.69 of the values seen in HT29-Glu cells. It is thus concluded that DMEM-Gal-induced differentiation in confluent HT29 cells is accompanied by specific rather than general effects on the lateral mobil-ity of different membrane components.

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