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  • 1.
    Aitken, Colin
    et al.
    Univ Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Nordgaard, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish Police Author, Natl Forens Ctr, SE-58194 Linkoping, Sweden.
    The Roles of Participants Differing Background Information in the Evaluation of Evidence2018In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 648-649Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 2. Andersson, C
    et al.
    Andrasko, J
    SKL, Natl Lab Forens Sci, S-58194 Linkoping, Sweden.
    A novel application of time since-the latest discharge of a shotgun in a suspect murder1999In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 211-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recently developed method for the determination of time since the latest discharge of a shotgun was applied to an unusual murder case. A man was killed by two shots from a shotgun, but the suspect maintained that he killed the man unintentionally and in self-defense, by shooting one shot from each of the barrels of a double-barreled shotgun at the same time. The laboratory investigation revealed that only one of the barrels was fired the last time the gun had been used. As the victim was hit by two shots, the conclusion was that both shots were fired from the same barrel, which means that the suspect had to reload his weapon between firings. The suspect was consequently charged with murder.

  • 3.
    Andrasko, J
    SKL, Natl Lab Forens Sci, S-58194 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Changes in composition of ballpoint pen inks on aging in darkness2002In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 324-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for comparison of the relative age of ink entries written by the same ballpoint pen on documents stored in darkness is presented, Inks were extracted from the document and analyzed by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). On aging. changes in the chemical composition of the inks were noted. These changes were similar to those observed when inks were exposed to light or heat. The aging was followed by using ternary diagrams constructed for dyes generally present in blue-colored inks-Crystal Violet. Methyl Violet, and Tetramethyl Para Rosaniline. The procedure is applicable for relative dating of ink entries in diaries, notebooks. etc.. where often several ink entries are written by the same ink. However, a prolonged exposure of the document to daylight and/or artificial light (light from fluorescent tubes) as well as to extensive heat will render the whole procedure inapplicable. An example of the use of the proposed method in casework is given.

  • 4.
    Andrasko, J
    et al.
    SKL, Natl Lab Forens Sci, S-58194 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Stahling, S
    SKL, Natl Lab Forens Sci, S-58194 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Time since discharge of pistols and revolvers2003In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 307-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation of time since the latest discharge of pistols and revolvers has been achieved by the Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) sampling technique and the GC/TEA analytical system. The TEA2 compound, which in our previous work (1) was observed in barrels of shotguns and rifles as well as inside spent cartridges, was also detected in pistols and revolvers. The amount of this compound was very low in short-barreled small arms and its escape from the barrel could generally be measured for only a few days or up to two weeks after the latest discharge. To improve the detection of TEA2 compound, the SPME sampling time was prolonged and fibers coated by Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane were used. The decrease of the TEA2 peak with time after shooting from pistols is nonexponential but the curve-fitting procedure proposed for the estimation of time since discharge of shotguns and rifles is difficult to apply as the decay is very rapid. Therefore, the detection of TEA2 compounds in small arms should be interpreted that the firearm had been used very recently. The amount of volatile decomposition products of smokeless powder increased significantly with the length of the barrel when firearms of the same caliber, but with different barrel lengths were investigated.

  • 5.
    Andrasko, J
    et al.
    SKL, Natl Lab Forens Sci, S-58194 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Stahling, S
    SKL, Natl Lab Forens Sci, S-58194 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Time since discharge of rifles2000In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 1250-1255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation of time since the latest discharge of rifles has been achieved by the SPME sampling technique and the GC-TEA analytical system. An unidentified compound, designated as the TEA2 compound, was detected in all the rifles investigated. The same compound was observed in shotguns and spent cartridges in our previous work. This compound escapes rapidly from the inside of rifle barrels, but can still be detected there one to two months after the shooting. The decrease of the TEA2 peak with time after shooting is non-exponential, and the curve-fitting procedure proposed for the estimation of time since discharge of shotguns can be applied also for rifles.

  • 6.
    Andrasko, J
    et al.
    SKL, Natl Lab Forens Sci, S-58194 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Stahling, S
    SKL, Natl Lab Forens Sci, S-58194 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Time since discharge of spent cartridges1999In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 487-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for estimation of the time since discharge of spent cartridges is presented. This method is based on SPME (Solid Phase Microextraction) sampling from the atmosphere inside cartridges. Either naphthalene or an unidentified compound designated as the TEA2-compound were detected in most of the cartridges. These combustion products are the same as those measured in firearm barrels, but in cartridges the detected amounts are lower. The estimation of time since discharge is based on the rate of escape of the volatile combustion compounds from the cartridge as a function of time. Three categories of cartridges were studied separately-shotgun shells, cartridges from sporting rifles, and cartridges from pistols/revolvers. For shotgun shells the decay of the naphthalene peak is measured. At room temperature, naphthalene is detectable in shotgun cartridges for 2-3 weeks after the discharge. In cartridges from sporting rifles, only the TEA2-peak is detectable and observable for about 2 weeks after the discharge. The technique presented failed to detect any combustion product in pistol/revolver cartridges, with the exception of longer cartridges, such as Magnum and in small caliber cartridges (caliber.22) where the TEA2-peak was observed for several days after the discharge. Nitroglycerin (NG) was detectable in cartridges from some manufacturers, but the reproducibility of its detection was rather poor. Moreover the decay of NG was too slow at temperatures below room temperature. The repetitive SPME sampling did not disturb the system. Attempts to prevent the volatile compound from escaping from cartridges was unsuccessful. Some experiments were performed with cartridges stored outdoors, exposed to wind, rain, and snow.

  • 7.
    Andrasko, Jan
    et al.
    GC UV Centre, Kobergsgränd 2, SE-58731 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lagesson-Andrasko, Ludmila
    GC UV Centre, Kobergsgränd 2, SE-58731 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Dahlén, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Analysis of Explosives by GC-UV2017In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 1022-1027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mixture of explosives was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) linked to ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry that enabled detection in the range of 178-330 nm. The gas-phase UV spectra of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN), glycerine trinitrate (NG, nitroglycerine), triacetone triperoxide (TATP), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) were successfully recorded. The most interesting aspect of the current application is that it enabled simultaneous detection of both the target analyte and its decomposition products. At suitable elevated temperatures of the transfer line between the GC instrument and the UV detector, a partial decomposition was accomplished. Detection was made in real time and resulted in overlaid spectra of the mother compound and its decomposition product. Hence, the presented approach added another level to the qualitative identification of the explosives in comparison with traditional methods that relies only on the detection of the target analyte. As expected, the decomposition product of EGDN, NG, and PETN was NO, while TATP degraded to acetone. DNT and TNT did not exhibit any decomposition at the temperatures used.

  • 8.
    Bartelink, Eric J.
    et al.
    Calif State University of Chico, CA 95929 USA.
    Sholts, Sabrina B.
    Smithsonian Institute, DC 20560 USA.
    Milligan, Colleen F.
    Calif State University of Chico, CA 95929 USA.
    Van Deest, Traci L.
    University of Florida, FL 32611 USA.
    Wärmländer, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    A Case of Contested Cremains Analyzed Through Metric and Chemical Comparison2015In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 1068-1073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1980s, cremation has become the fastest growing area of the U.S. funeral industry. At the same time, the number of litigations against funeral homes and cremation facilities has increased. Forensic anthropologists are often asked to determine whether the contents of an urn are actually cremated bone, and to address questions regarding the identity of the remains. This study uses both metric and chemical analyses for resolving a case of contested cremains. A cremains weight of 2021.8 g was predicted based on the decedents reported stature and weight. However, the urn contents weighed 4173.5 g. The urn contents also contained material inconsistent with cremains (e.g., moist sediment, stones, ferrous metal). Analysis using XRD and SEM demonstrated that the urn contained thermally altered bone as well as inorganic material consistent with glass fiber cement. Although forensically challenging, cremains cases such as this one can be resolved using a multidisciplinary approach.

  • 9. Ceder, G
    et al.
    Jones, A Wayne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Clinical Chemistry.
    Concentrations of unconjugated morphine, codeine, and 6-acetyl morphine in urine specimens from suspected drugged drivers.2002In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 47, p. 366-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of unconjugated morphine, codeine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), the specific metabolite of heroin, were determined in urine specimens from 339 individuals apprehended for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) in Sweden. After an initial screening analysis by immunoassay for 5-classes of abused drugs (opiates, cannabinoids, amphetamine analogs, cocaine metabolite and benzodiazepines), all positive specimens were verified by more specific methods. Opiates and other illicit drugs were analyzed by isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limits of quantitation for morphine, codeine and 6-AM in urine were 20 ng/mL Calibration plots included an upper concentration limit of 1000 ng/mL for each opiate. We identified the heroin metabolite 6-AM in 212 urine specimens (62%) at concentrations ranging from 20 ng/mL to > 1000 ng/mL The concentration of 6-AM exceeded 1000 ng/mL in 79 cases (37%) and 31 cases (15%) were between 20 and 99 ng/mL. When 6-AM was present in urine the concentration of morphine was above 1000 ng/mL in 196 cases (92%). The concentrations of codeine in these same urine specimens were more evenly distributed with 35% being above 1000 ng/mL and 21% below 100 ng/mL. These results give a clear picture of the concentrations of unconjugated morphine, codeine and 6-acetylmorphine that can be expected in opiate-positive urine specimens from individuals apprehended for DUID after taking heroin.

  • 10.
    Druid, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Forensic Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmgren, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Forensic Science and Toxicology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A compilation of fatal and control concentrations of drugs in postmortem femoral blood1997In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 79-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A compilation of postmortem femoral blood concentrations of drugs is presented. The samples are collected from cases in which the cause of death was: A) certified intoxication by one substance alone, B) certified intoxication by more than one substance and/or alcohol, and C) certified other cause of death without incapacitation due to drugs. The concentrations were compared with blood concentrations detected in suspected drugged drivers (D), and with previously published fatal and therapeutic concentrations. The special features of this compilation are: 1) exclusively femoral blood concentrations are quoted, 2) all analyses are based on samples handled according to a standardized, quality-controlled procedure, 3) two control groups are included, and 4) one-substance-only intoxications are separated from other intoxications. The material is based on a selection of 15,800 samples sent to the Department of Forensic Chemistry in Linkoping, Sweden, during 1992 to 1995 from the six forensic pathology units in Sweden, and the list includes 83 drugs. The compilation includes drugs, where previously published data are scarce. Furthermore, the data gathered from cases with other cause of death than intoxication (group C) constitute a new kind of reference information, which probably offers a better estimate of obviously non fatal levels in postmortem blood than any compilation of therapeutic concentrations in living subjects. The possible factors influencing postmortem drug concentrations are discussed.

  • 11.
    Holmgren, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Forensic Science and Toxicology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Druid, Henrik
    National Board of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Forensic Science and Toxicology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ahlner, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Forensic Science and Toxicology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stability of drugs in stored postmortem femoral blood and vitreous humor2004In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 820-825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of 46 drugs in postmortem femoral blood stored for one year at -20°C was investigated. The drugs included benzodiazepines, antidepressants, analgetics and hypnotics. For seven drugs we found a significant change in the concentration between the first and second analysis. Five substances; ethanol, desmethylmianserin, 7-amino-nitrazepam, THC and zopiclone showed a decrease in the concentration whereas the concentrations of two substances; ketobemidone and thioridazine increased. However, the changes observed were not of such an order that it would affect the interpretation in normal forensic casework. We also investigated the possible influence of potassium fluoride on the concentrations of the 46 drugs in vitreous humor after storage for one year. For two substances, ethanol and zopiclone, there were significantly lower concentrations in the samples without potassium fluoride. Furthermore, we also studied the correlation between the concentrations in femoral blood and vitreous humor. For 23 substances there was a significant difference between the concentrations in the vitreous humor and femoral blood. Significant correlations between the concentrations in these two specimens were found for 23 substances, indicating that vitreous humor can be an alternative specimen when blood samples are not available, provided that such correlation exists for the particular substance. Statistical analysis also revealed a correlation between the degree of protein binding of the different drugs and percentage of vitreous/femoral blood concentrations.

  • 12.
    Holmgren, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Jones, A Wayne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Clinical Chemistry.
    Coexistence and concentrations of ethanol and diazepam in postmortem blood samples; Risk for enhanced toxicity?2003In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 48, p. 1416-1421Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Jackowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Center for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology.
    Thali, Michael J.
    Center for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Whole body postmortem angiography with a high viscosity contrast agent solution using poly ethylene glycol as contrast agent dissolver2008In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 465-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postmortem minimal invasive angiography has already been implemented to support virtual autopsy examinations. An experimental approach in a porcine model to overcome an initially described artificial tissue edema artifact by using a poly ethylene glycol (PEG) containing contrast agent solution showed promising results. The present publication describes the first application of PEG in a whole corpse angiographic CT examination. A minimal invasive postmortem CT angiography was performed in a human corpse utilizing the high viscosity contrast agent solution containing 65% of PEG. Injection was carried out via the femoral artery into the aortic root in simulated cardiac output conditions. Subsequent CT scanning delivered the 3D volume data of the whole corpse. Visualization of the human arterial anatomy was excellent and the contrast agent distribution was generally limited to the arterial system as intended. As exceptions an enhancement of the brain, the left ventricular myocardium and the renal cortex became obvious. This most likely represented the stage of centralization of the blood circulation at the time of death with dilatation of the precapillary arterioles within these tissues. Especially for the brain this resulted in a distinctively improved visualization of the intracerebral structures by CT. However, the general tissue edema artifact of postmortem minimal invasive angiography examinations could be distinctively reduced. © 2008 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  • 14.
    Jackowski, Christian
    et al.
    Universität Zürich, Inst für Rechtsmedizin, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Warntjes, Marcel
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kihlberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berge, Johan
    Rättsmedicinalverket, Rättsmedicinska avdelningen, Artillerigatan 12, 587 58 Linköping.
    Thali, Michael J.
    Univ Bern, Inst Forensic Medicine, Ctr Forens Imaging & Virtopsy, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Quantitative MRI in Isotropic Spatial Resolution for Forensic Soft Tissue Documentation. Why and How?2011In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 208-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A quantification of T1, T2, and PD in high isotropic resolution was performed on corpses. Isotropic and quantified postmortem magnetic resonance (IQpmMR) enables sophisticated 3D postprocessing, such as reformatting and volume rendering. The body tissues can be characterized by the combination of these three values. The values of T1, T2, and PD were given as coordinates in a T1-T2-PD space where similar tissue voxels formed clusters. Implementing in a volume rendering software enabled color encoding of specific tissues and pathologies in 3D models of the corpse similar to computed tomography, but with distinctively more powerful soft tissue discrimination. From IQpmMR data, any image plane at any contrast weighting may be calculated or 3D color-encoded volume rendering may be carried out. The introduced approach will enable future computer-aided diagnosis that, e.g., checks corpses for a hemorrhage distribution based on the knowledge of its T1-T2-PD vector behavior in a high spatial resolution.

  • 15. Johansson, PJ
    et al.
    Myhrinder, KTR
    Gunnarson, EP
    Borén, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Analytical Chemistry .
    Comparative analysis of lubricants used for weapons2001In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 441-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for analysis and comparison of mineral oil-based greases thickened with a metal soap is presented. The greases are first analyzed with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). This analysis differentiates between greases with different main constituents. When two samples can not be differentiated with IR, a more thorough analysis has to be performed. The base oil and the soap are separated. The soap is derivatized and the two components are each analyzed with gas chromatography. The metal ions of the soap are analyzed with scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDX). By the method presented, grease from a weapon may be differentiated or proven to be identical to grease collected from a suspect. As thr results indicate that the grease does not change with respect to composition when the weapon is fired, the method may be used in many cases. The application of the method to an authentic case is reported.

  • 16.
    Jones, A Wayne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of clinical chemistry.
    Holmgren, A
    Abnormally high concentrations of amphetamine in blood of impaired drivers2005In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 1215-1220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a case series (N = 46) of individuals apprehended in Sweden for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). These cases were selected because the concentrations of amphetamine in blood were abnormally high (> 5.0 mg/L), the highest being 17 mg/L. In comparison, the median blood-amphetamine concentration in a population of DUID offenders (N = 6,613) was 0.70 mg/L. Among the DUID suspects with extremely high blood-amphetamine concentrations there were 38 men (83%) with mean age of 37.8 y (SD 6.8 y) and 8 women (17%) with a mean age of 34.1 y (SD 4.3 y). All had previously been registered in our database (mean 12 times, median 9 times) for drug-related offences, including DUID. The concentration of amphetamine in blood of female offenders was slightly higher than the concentration in male offenders (6.6 mg/L vs. 5.8 mg/L), although this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The drugs other than amphetamine most frequently encountered in the blood samples were tetrahydrocannabinol and benzodiazepines (diazepam and nordiazepam). The commonest signs of drug use reported by the arresting police officers were bloodshot and glazed (watery) eyes, restlessness, talkativeness, exaggerated reflexes and slurred speech. Unsteady gait and dilated pupils were observed in some but not all individuals. These very high concentrations of amphetamine were tolerated without any fatalities indicating a pronounced adaptation to the pharmacologic effects of this central stimulant. Anecdotal information indicated that those with the very highest concentrations of amphetamine in blood had swallowed the drug to prevent being apprehended in possession of an illicit substance. Copyright © 2005 by ASTM International.

  • 17.
    Jones, A Wayne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Clinical Chemistry.
    Holmgren, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Comparison of blood-ethanol concentration in deaths attributed to acute alcohol poisoning and chronic alcoholism2003In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 874-879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol concentrations were measured in femoral venous blood in deaths attributed to acute alcohol poisoning (N = 693) or chronic alcoholism (N = 825), according to the forensic pathology report. Among acute alcohol poisonings were 529 men (76%) with mean age 53 years and 164 women (24%) with mean age 53 years. In the chronic alcoholism deaths were 705 men (85%) with mean age 55 years and 120 women (15%) with mean age 57 years. The blood-ethanol concentrations were not related to the person's age (r = -0.17 in acute poisonings and r = -0.09 in chronic alcoholism). The distribution of blood-ethanol concentrations in acute poisoning cases agreed with a normal or Gaussian curve with mean, median, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and spread of 0.36 g/100 mL, 0.36 g/100 mL, 0.086 g/100 mL, 24% and 0.074 to 0.68 g/100 mL, respectively. The corresponding concentrations of ethanol in chronic alcoholism deaths were not normally distributed and showed a mode between 0.01 and 0.05 g/100 mL and mean, median, and spread of 0.172 g/100 mL, 0.150 g/100 mL, and 0.01 to 0.56 g/100 mL, respectively. The 5th and 95th percentiles for blood-ethanol concentration in acute poisoning deaths were 0.22 and 0.50 g/100 mL, respectively. However, these values are probably conservative estimates of the highest blood-ethanol concentrations before death owing to metabolism of ethanol until the time of death. In 98 chronic alcoholism deaths (12%) there was an elevated concentration of acetone in the blood (> 0.01 g/100 mL), and 50 of these (6%) also had elevated isopropanol (>0.01 g/100 mL). This compares with 28 cases (4%) with elevated blood-acetone in the acute poisoning deaths and 22 (3%) with elevated blood-isopropanol. We offer various explanations for the differences in blood-ethanol and blood-acetone in acute poisoning and alcoholism deaths such as chronic tolerance, alcohol-related organ and tissue damage (cirrhosis, pancreatitis), positional asphyxia or suffocation by inhalation of vomit, exposure to cold coupled with alcohol-induced hypothermia, as well as various metabolic disturbances such as hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis.

  • 18.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Forensic Science and Toxicology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, K. Å.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Franzén, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, L.
    Jones, A. Wayne
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Forensic Science and Toxicology .
    Reliability of breath-alcohol analysis in individuals with gastroesophageal reflux disease1999In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 814-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is widespread in the population among all age groups and in both sexes. The reliability of breath alcohol analysis in subjects suffering from GERD is unknown. We investigated the relationship between breath-alcohol concentration (BrAC) and blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) in 5 male and 5 female subjects all suffering from severe gastroesophageal reflux disease and scheduled for antireflux surgery. Each subject served in two experiments in random order about 1-2 weeks apart. Both times they drank the same dose of ethanol (~0.3 g/kg) as either beer, white wine, or vodka mixed with orange juice before venous blood and end-expired breath samples were obtained at 5-10 min intervals for 4 h. Ah attempt was made to provoke gastroesophageal reflux in one of the drinking experiments by applying an abdominal compression belt, Blood-ethanol concentration was determined by headspace gas chromatography and breath-ethanol was measured with an electrochemical instrument (Alcolmeter SD-400) of a quantitative infrared analyzer (Data-Master). During the absorption of alcohol, which occurred during the first 90 min after the start of drinking, BrAC (mg/210 L) tended to be the same of higher than venous BAC (mg/dL). In the post-peak phase, the BAC al ways exceeded BrAC. Four of the 10 subjects definitely experienced gastric reflux during the study although this did not result in widely deviant BrAC readings compared with BAC when sampling occurred at 5- min intervals. We conclude that the risk of alcohol erupting from the stomach into the mouth owing to gastric reflux and falsely increasing the result of an evidential breath-alcohol test is highly improbable.

  • 19.
    Kokshoorn, Bas
    et al.
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, P.O.Box 24044 2490 AA, The Hague, The Netherlands.
    Aarts, Bart
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, P.O.Box 24044 2490 AA, The Hague, The Netherlands.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    McKenna, Louise
    Forensic Science Ireland, Garda HQ, Phoenix Park, Dublin 8, Ireland.
    Connolly, Edward
    Forensic Science Ireland, Garda HQ, Phoenix Park, Dublin 8, Ireland.
    Drotz, Weine
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, SE-581 94, Link € oping, Sweden.
    Kloosterman, Ate D.
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, P.O.Box 24044 2490 AA, The Hague, The Netherlands; Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94248, 1090 GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Comments: Cale CM, Earll ME, Latham KE, Bush GL. Could secondary DNA transfer falsely place someone at the scene of a crime? (vol. 61(1), pp. 196–203, 2016)2016In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 1401-1402Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Kugelberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Holmgren, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology.
    Druid, Henrik
    Stockholm.
    Codeine and morphine blood concentrations increase during blood loss2003In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 664-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During extensive blood loss, a plasma volume refill will take place by transfer of extravascular fluid into the circulation. Drugs present in this fluid may follow and cause a rise or a drop in blood drug concentration, depending on their levels and accessibility in the restoration fluid. This study explored the possible changes of codeine, and its metabolite morphine, in whole blood during a standardized exsanguination in the rat. Three doses containing 5 mg codeine were given orally. In eight rats, blood loss was accomplished by slowly withdrawing 0.8 mL blood at 10 min intervals during 70 min. In control rats, blood was withdrawn only at 0 and 70 min. At 70 min, the final/initial codeine and morphine concentration ratios were 0.70 +/- 0.38 and 0.88 +/- 0.47, respectively, in controls, but increased to 1.28 +/- 0.44 (p=0.014) and 1.41 +/- 0.34 (p=0.021), respectively, in exsanguinated rats. It is concluded that blood loss can affect blood drug concentrations.

  • 21.
    Nordgaard, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Höglund, Tobias
    Statens Kriminaltekniska Laboratorium.
    Assessment of Approximate Likelihood Ratios from Continuous Distributions: A Case Study of Digital Camera Identification2011In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 390-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reported likelihood ratio for the value of evidence is very often a point estimate based on various types of reference data. When presented in court, such frequentist likelihood ratio gets a higher scientific value if it is accompanied by an error bound. This becomes particularly important when the magnitude of the likelihood ratio is modest and thus is giving less support for the forwarded proposition. Here, we investigate methods for error bound estimation for the specific case of digital camera identification. The underlying probability distributions are continuous and previously proposed models for those are used, but the derived methodology is otherwise general. Both asymptotic and resampling distributions are applied in combination with different types of point estimators. The results show that resampling is preferable for assessment based on asymptotic distributions. Further, assessment of parametric estimators is superior to evaluation of kernel estimators when background data are limited.

  • 22.
    Stahling, S
    SKL, Natl Lab Forens Sci, S-58194 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Modified sheet printing method (MSPM) for the detection of lead in determination of shooting distance1999In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 179-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the sheet printing method (SPM) for determination of shooting distance has been modified. Instead of cellulose hydrate foil, a plastic-based photographic paper was used as a substrate for transfer of metallic gunshot elements from cloth. The modified sheet printing method (MSPM) has been successfully tested in more than 100 shooting experiments. This technique saves time and has several additional advantages in comparison with the SPM method.

  • 23.
    Stahling, S
    et al.
    SKL, Natl Lab Forens Sci, S-58194 Linkoping, Sweden Natl Board Forens Med, Dept Forens Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, T
    A method for collection of gunshot residues from skin and other surfaces2000In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 1299-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method of collecting gunshot residues from the skin of persons who have been injured by firearms has been developed. The method uses a commercially available, adhesive, transparent plastic film. This method is also useful for collecting gunshot residues from other objects, such as leather. The shooting distance is later estimated by ocular, microscopic or IR examination in combination with various chemographic tests.

  • 24.
    Warmlander, Sebastian K T S
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; UCLA/Getty Conservation Programme, Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, US.
    Varul, Liivi
    Institute of History and Archaeology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia; School of Humanities, Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Koskinen, Juuso
    Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Saage, Ragnar
    Institute of History and Archaeology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Schlager, Stefan
    Department of Anthropology, Medizinische Fakultät der Albert Ludwigs, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Estimating the Temperature of Heat-exposed Bone via Machine Learning Analysis of SCI Color Values: A Pilot Study2019In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 190-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining maximum heating temperatures of burnt bones is a long-standing problem in forensic science and archaeology. In this pilot study, controlled experiments were used to heat 14 fleshed and defleshed pig vertebrae (wet bones) and archaeological human vertebrae (dry bones) to temperatures of 400, 600, 800, and 1000 degrees C. Specular component included (SCI) color values were recorded from the bone surfaces with a Konica-Minolta cm-2600d spectrophotometer. These color values were regressed onto heating temperature, using both a traditional linear model and the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) machine-learning algorithm. Mean absolute errors (MAE) were computed for 1000 rounds of temperature prediction. With the k-NN approach, the median MAE prediction errors were 41.6 degrees C for the entire sample, and 20.9 degrees C for the subsample of wet bones. These results indicate that spectrophotometric color measurements combined with machine learning methods can be a viable tool for estimating bone heating temperature.

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