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  • 1.
    Almberg, Maria
    et al.
    Mobil Centre Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Selander, Helena
    Mobil Centre Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    Experiences of facilitators or barriers in driving education from learner and novice drivers with ADHD or ASD and their driving instructors2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little is known about whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) experience any specific facilitators or barriers to driving education. Objective: To explore the facilitators or barriers to driving education experienced by individuals with ASD or ADHD who obtained a learners permit, from the perspective of the learner drivers and their driving instructors. Methods: Datawere collected from33 participants with ASD or ADHD, and nine of their driving instructors. Results: Participants with ASD required twice asmany driving lessons andmore on-road tests than those with ADHD. Participants with ADHD repeated the written tests more than those with ASD. Driving license theory was more challenging for individuals with ADHD, whilst individuals with ASD found translating theory into practice and adjusting to "unfamiliar driving situations to be the greatest challenges. Conclusion: Obtaining a driving license was associated with stressful training experience.

  • 2.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rytterström, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gaze-based assistive technology used in daily life by children with severe physical impairments: parents’ experiences2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 301-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to describe and explore parents’ experiences when their children with severe physical impairments receive gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) for use in daily life. Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice, with one year in between, with parents of eight children with cerebral palsy that used gaze-based AT in their daily activities. To understand the parents’ experiences, hermeneutical interpretations were used during data analysis. The results demonstrate that for parents, children’s gaze-based AT usage meant that children demonstrated agency, provided them with opportunities to show  personality and competencies, and gave children possibilities to develop. Overall, children’s gaze-based AT provides hope to parents for a better future for their children with severe physical impairments; a future in which the children can develop and gain influence in life. In conclusion, gaze-based AT provides children with new opportunities to perform activities and take initiatives to communicate, giving parents hope about the children’s future.

  • 3.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    Ahlsten, Gunnar
    Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    Gaze-based assistive technology in daily activities in children with severe physical impairments: an intervention study2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 129-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To establish the impact of a gaze-based assistive technology (AT) intervention on activity repertoire, autonomous use, and goal attainment in children with severe physical impairments, and to examine parents’ satisfaction with the gaze-based AT and with services related to the gaze-based AT intervention.

    Methods: Non-experimental multiple case study with before, after, and follow-up design. Ten children with severe physical impairments without speaking ability (aged 1–15 years) participated in gaze-based AT intervention for 9–10 months, during which period the gaze-based AT was implemented in daily activities.

    Results: Repertoire of computer activities increased for seven children. All children had sustained usage of gaze-based AT in daily activities at follow-up, all had attained goals, and parents’ satisfaction with the AT and with services was high.

    Discussion: The gaze-based AT intervention was effective in guiding parents and teachers to continue supporting the children to perform activities with the AT after the intervention program.

  • 4.
    Cordier, Reinie
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia; James Cook University, Australia.
    Brown, Nicole
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Chen, Yu-Wei
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    Piloting the use of experience sampling method to investigate the everyday social experiences of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism2016In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 103-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This pilot study explored the nature and quality of social experiences of children with Asperger Syndrome/High Functioning Autism (AS/HFA) through experience sampling method (ESM) while participating in everyday activities. Methods: ESM was used to identify the contexts and content of daily life experiences. Six children with AS/HFA (aged 8-12) wore an iPod Touch on seven consecutive days, while being signalled to complete a short survey. Results: Participants were in the company of others 88.3% of their waking time, spent 69.0% of their time with family and 3.8% with friends, but only conversed with others 26.8% of the time. Participants had more positive experiences and emotions when they were with friends compared with other company. Participating in leisure activities was associated with enjoyment, interest in the occasion, and having positive emotions. Conclusions: ESM was found to be helpful in identifying the nature and quality of social experiences of children with AS/HFA from their perspective.

  • 5.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Black, Melissa
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Tang, Julia
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Fitzgerald, Patrick
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Leung, Denise
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Not Found:Linkoping Univ Pain and Rehabil Ctr, Dept Med and Hlth Sci IMH, Rehabil Med, Fac Hlth Sci, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Jahan, Ishrat
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    Local visual perception bias in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders; do we have the whole picture?2016In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 117-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: While local bias in visual processing in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been reported to result in difficulties in recognizing faces and facially expressed emotions, but superior ability in disembedding figures, associations between these abilities within a group of children with and without ASD have not been explored. Methods: Possible associations in performance on the Visual Perception Skills Figure-Ground test, a face recognition test and an emotion recognition test were investigated within 25 8-12-years-old children with high-functioning autism/Asperger syndrome, and in comparison to 33 typically developing children. Results: Analyses indicated a weak positive correlation between accuracy in Figure-Ground recognition and emotion recognition. No other correlation estimates were significant. Conclusion: These findings challenge both the enhanced perceptual function hypothesis and the weak central coherence hypothesis, and accentuate the importance of further scrutinizing the existance and nature of local visual bias in ASD.

  • 6.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonköping University.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jonköping University.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Jonköping University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    From my perspective - Perceived participation in mainstream schools in students with autism spectrum conditions2012In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 191-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine perceived participation in students with ASC and their classmates in mainstream schools and to investigate correlations between activities the students wanted to do and actually participated in. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Twenty-two students with ASC and their 382 classmates responded to a 46-item questionnaire regarding perceived participation in mainstream schools. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: On 57% of the items, students with ASC perceived lower participation than their classmates. These results emphasize the importance of knowledge about students perceived participation. However, positive correlations between what the students wanted to do and actually did indicate that students with ASC may be participating to the extent that they wanted. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Students with ASC perceived lower overall participation in mainstream school than their classmates. The correlations between "I want to" and "I do" statements in students with ASC indicated that aspects of autonomy are important to incorporate when studying, and interpreting, self-rated participation in mainstream schools.

  • 7.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden; Municipal Council Norrkoping, Sweden; Curtin University, Australia.
    Oehlers, Kirsty
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia.
    Can you see it too? Observed and self-rated participation in mainstream schools in students with and without autism spectrum disorders2015In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 365-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the degree to which observations can capture perception of participation, observed and self-rated levels of interactions for students with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were explored.Methods: Frequencies and levels of involvement in interactions with classmates were observed and compared in 22 students with ASD and 84 of their classmates in mainstream schools, using a standardized protocol. Self-reported participation measurements regarding interactions with classmates and teachers from five questionnaire items were correlated with the observations. In total, 51516 data points were coded and entered into the analyses, and correlated with 530 questionnaire ratings.Results: Only one weak correlation was found in each group. Compared with classmates, students with ASD participated less frequently, but were not less involved when they actually did.Conclusions: Observations alone do not capture the individuals perception of participation and are not sufficient if the subjective aspect of participation is to be measured.

  • 8.
    Horlin, Chiara
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Black, Melissa
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia.
    Proficiency of individuals with autism spectrum disorder at disembedding figures: A systematic review2016In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 54-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This systematic review examines the proficiency and visual search strategies of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) while disembedding figures and whether they differ from typical controls and other comparative samples. Methods: Five databases, including Proquest, Psychinfo, Medline, CINAHL and Science Direct were used to identify published studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Twenty articles were included in the review, the majority of which matched participants by mental age. Outcomes discussed were time taken to identify targets, the number correctly identified, and fixation frequency and duration. Conclusions: Individuals with ASD perform at the same speed or faster than controls and other clinical samples. However, there appear to be no differences between individuals with ASD and controls for number of correctly identified targets. Only one study examined visual search strategies and suggests that individuals with ASD exhibit shorter first and final fixations to targets compared with controls.

  • 9.
    Joosten, Annette
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Albrecht, Matthew A.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Leung, Denise
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Fleischer, Håkan
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    Gaze and visual search strategies of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism viewing a magic trick2016In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 95-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine visual search patterns and strategies used by children with and without Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism (AS/HFA) while watching a magic trick. Limited responsivity to gaze cues is hypothesised to contribute to social deficits in children with AS/HFA. Methods: Twenty-one children with AS/HFA and 31 matched peers viewed a video of a gaze-cued magic trick twice. Between the viewings, they were informed about how the trick was performed. Participants eye movements were recorded using a head-mounted eye-tracker. Results: Children with AS/HFA looked less frequently and had shorter fixation on the magicians direct and averted gazes during both viewings and more frequently at not gaze-cued objects and on areas outside the magicians face. After being informed of how the trick was conducted, both groups made fewer fixations on gaze-cued objects and direct gaze. Conclusions: Information may enhance effective visual strategies in children with and without AS/HFA.

  • 10.
    McAuliffe, Tomomi
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Spectrum Disorder, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    Curtin University, Australia.
    A comparison of families of children with autism spectrum disorders in family daily routines, service usage, and stress levels by regionality2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 483-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To explore whether family routines, service usage, and stress levels in families of children with autism spectrum disorder differ as a function of regionality. Methods: Secondary analysis of data was undertaken from 535 surveys. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate differences between families living in densely populated (DP) areas and less densely populated (LDP) areas. Results: Families living in LDP areas were found to: (1) have reduced employment hours (a two-parent household: Exp (B) = 3.48, p amp;lt; .001, a single-parent household: Exp (B) = 3.32, p = .011); (2) travel greater distance to access medical facilities (Exp (B) = 1.27, p = .006); and (3) report less severe stress levels (Exp (B) = 0.22, p = .014). Conclusions: There were no differences in family routines; however, flexible employment opportunities and travel distance to medical services need to be considered in families living in LDP areas.

  • 11.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Boras University, Sweden.
    Bjorkman, Berit
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Björk-Willén, Polly
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Donohue, Dana
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Enskar, Karin
    Jonköping University, Sweden; University of Skovde, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Huus, Karina
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Hvit, Sara
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Childrens voices - Differentiating a child perspective from a childs perspective2015In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 162-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this paper was to discuss differences between having a child perspective and taking the childs perspective based on the problem being investigated. Methods: Conceptual paper based on narrative review. Results: The childs perspective in research concerning children that need additional support are important. The difference between having a child perspective and taking the childs perspective in conjunction with the need to know childrens opinions has been discussed in the literature. From an ideological perspective the difference between the two perspectives seems self-evident, but the perspectives might be better seen as different ends on a continuum solely from an adults view of children to solely the perspective of children themselves. Depending on the research question, the design of the study may benefit from taking either perspective. In this article, we discuss the difference between the perspectives based on the problem being investigated, childrens capacity to express opinions, environmental adaptations and the degree of interpretation needed to understand childrens opinions. Conclusion: The examples provided indicate that childrens opinions can be regarded in most research, although to different degrees.

  • 12.
    Rogerson, Jessica
    et al.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin Univ, Australia; Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Cuomo, Belinda
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin Univ, Australia; Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.
    Univ Western Australia, Australia.
    Granich, Joanna
    Univ Western Australia, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Parental experiences using the Therapy Outcomes by You (TOBY) application to deliver early intervention to their child with autism2019In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 219-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: As computer-based interventions become commonplace for parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders, this study sought to understand the experience of using a parent-delivered supplementary early intervention therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder grounded in a variety of behavioral, sensory, developmental, and relationship-based approaches and delivered via a tablet device. Methods: Parental experiences using the Therapy Outcomes by You (TOBY) application were collected through semi-structured interviews with 17 parents. Results: Parents reported TOBY facilitated parent-child engagement, provided ideas for therapeutic activities, created feelings of empowerment, and positively impacted their childs development. Barriers to use included preparation time, execution of the intervention, and individual strengths and weaknesses of their child. Conclusion: The overall parental experience of TOBY was positive when use of the application aligned with parental proficiency, opportunities for use, and importantly, the needs of the child.

  • 13.
    Sim, Angela
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Netto, Julie
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Spectrum Disorders, Australia.
    Factors associated with negative co-parenting experiences in families of a child with autism spectrum disorder2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 83-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify key factors associated with negative co-parenting experiences in parents raising a child with autism spectrum disorder. Methods: Questionnaires were sent to families with one or more children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Parents of 142 children with autism spectrum disorder indicated that the diagnosis had a very negative impact on their co-parent relationship. A multivariate logistic regression model was run to analyze the association of these experiences with various demographic, family and community factors. Results: Three factors were associated with negative co-parenting relationships: (1) family stress due to the childs diagnosis, (2) effects of the diagnosis on parents relationship with their other children and (3) distance travelled to the nearest medical facility. Conclusions: Findings highlight the need to further explore family dynamics, particularly the relationships between the co-parenting alliance, other family members and the extra-familial environment.

  • 14.
    Sim, Angela
    et al.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Joosten, Annette
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Parsons, Dave
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Smith, Cally
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin Univ, Australia; La Trobe Univ, Australia; Cooperat Res Ctr Living Autism Spectrum Disorders, Australia.
    Factors associated with stress in families of children with autism spectrum disorder2018In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 155-165Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify key factors associated with severe stress in families raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Questionnaires were mailed to families with one or more children with a diagnosis of ASD. Data from 543 surveys were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Forty-four percent (n = 241) of the caregivers reported severe family stress related to raising a child with ASD. Severe family stress was associated with (1) reduced ability to socialize; (2) not having accessed individual therapy; (3) negative co-parent relationships; and (4) high out of pockets costs due to the childs ASD. The specific ASD diagnosis, comorbid conditions, socio-demographic variables, and social support were not associated with severe family stress. Conclusion: The findings of the current study highlight the importance of a systemic approach to family stress, whereby individual, family, and ecological factors are investigated.

  • 15.
    Wigston, Christine
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia.
    Participation in extracurricular activities for children with and without siblings with autism spectrum disorder2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 25-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare the number, frequency, enjoyment and performance in extracurricular activities of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to their typically developing (TD) peers, and to identify differences between actual and desired participation. Methods: A case-control study with 30 siblings of children with ASD and 30 siblings of TD children was conducted using the Paediatric Interest Profiles and a questionnaire. Results: Siblings of children with ASD participated in fewer extracurricular activities than those with TD siblings. ASD symptoms were significantly associated with the sibling participating in fewer extracurricular activities. Children with TD siblings had higher enjoyment scores in relaxation activities than children with siblings with ASD. Conclusion: While results were mainly positive, some differences indicated that having a sibling with ASD may impact participation in extracurricular activities. Assessments of participation barriers, as well as support to minimise participation restrictions among siblings of children with ASD are required.

  • 16.
    Yan-Ting Chee, Derserri
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Chung-Yeung Lee, Hoe
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jonkoping Univ, Inst Disabil Res, CHILD Programme, Sch Educ and Commun, Linkoping, Sweden; Curtin University, Australia.
    Barnett, Tania
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Olov
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Siljehav, Jessica
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia.
    Viewpoints on driving of individuals with and without autism spectrum disorder2015In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 26-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Understanding the viewpoints of drivers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is crucial in the development of mobility support and driver training that is responsive to their needs. Methods: Fifty young adults with ASD and fifty seven typically developed adults participated in the study to form a contrasting group. Q-methodology was used to understand viewpoints on driving as a main mode of transportation. Data were analysed using a PQ by-person varimax rotation factor analysis. Results: Although some ASD participants perceived themselves as confident and independent drivers, others preferred other modes of transportation such as public transport and walking. Anxiety was also found to be a barrier to driving. The contrast group revealed consistent viewpoints on their driving ability. They preferred driving as their main mode of transportation and believed that they were competent, safe and independent drivers. Conclusion: These results are important in the planning of transport policies and driver training for individuals with ASD. Driver training manuals can be developed to address anxiety issues, hazard perception and navigation problems in the ASD population. Their use of public transport could be further facilitated through more inclusive transport policies.

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