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  • 1.
    Bubnova, Olga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards polymer-based organic thermoelectric generators2012In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 9345-9362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the thread of environmental and ecological degradation along with projected fossil fuel depletion the active search for efficient renewable energy conversion technologies has been attempted in various research areas including the field of thermoelectrics. Despite the availability of considerable amounts of waste and natural heat stored in warm fluids (andlt;250 degrees C) a lack of environmentally friendly materials with high natural abundance, low manufacturing cost and high thermoelectric efficiency impedes the widespread use of thermoelectric generators for energy harvesting on a large scale. In this perspective, we examine the possibility of using organic conducting polymers in thermoelectric applications. We provide an overview of the background and the key concepts of organic thermoelectrics and illustrate some of the first prototypes of polymer-based organic thermoelectric generators.

  • 2.
    Felekidis, Nikolaos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, E.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Open circuit voltage and efficiency in ternary organic photovoltaic blends2016In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 257-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells based on ternary blends of two donor absorbers and one acceptor are investigated by experiments and modeling. The commonly observed continuous tunability of the open circuit voltage V-OC with the donor1 : donor2 ratio can quantitatively be explained as quasi-Fermi level splitting due to photocreated charges filling a joint density of states that is broadened by Gaussian disorder. On this basis, a predictive model for the power conversion efficiency that accounts for the composition-dependent absorption and the shape of the current-voltage characteristic curve is developed. When all other parameters, most notably the fill factor, are constant, we find that for state-of-the-art absorbers, having a broad and strong absorption spectrum, ternary blends offer no advantage over binary ones. For absorbers with a more narrow absorption spectrum ternary blends of donors with complementary absorption spectra, offer modest improvements over binary ones. In contrast, when, upon blending, transport and/or recombination kinetics are improved, leading to an increased fill factor, ternaries may offer significant advantages over binaries.

  • 3.
    Gao, Feng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ren, Shenqiang
    University of Kansas, USA.
    Wang, Jianpu
    University of Cambridge, England.
    The renaissance of hybrid solar cells: progresses, challenges, and perspectives2013In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 6, no 7, p. 2020-2040Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solution-processed hybrid solar cells, a blend of conjugated polymers and semiconducting nanocrystals, are a promising candidate for next-generation energy-conversion devices. The renaissance of this field in recent years has yielded a much deeper understanding of optoelectronic interactions in organic–inorganic hybrid systems. In this article, we review the state-of-the-art progress in hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells, covering new materials design, interfacial interaction, and processing control. Furthermore, critical challenges that determine photovoltaic performance and prospects for future directions are discussed.

  • 4.
    Kim, Shi Hyeong
    et al.
    Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lima, Márcio D.
    Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Kozlov, Mikhail E.
    Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Haines, Carter S.
    Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Aziz, Shazed
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Choi, Changsoon
    Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Sim, Hyeon Jun
    Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Wang, Xuemin
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Lu, Hongbing
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Qian, Dong
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Madden, John D. W.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Advanced Material and Process Engineering Laboratory, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Baughman, Ray H.
    Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Kim, Seon Jeong
    Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Harvesting temperature fluctuations as electrical energy using torsional and tensile polymer muscles2015In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 8, p. 3336-3344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diverse means have been deployed for harvesting electrical energy from mechanical actuation produced by low-grade waste heat, but cycle rate, energy-per-cycle, device size and weight, or cost have limited applications. We report the electromagnetic harvesting of thermal energy as electrical energy using thermally powered torsional and tensile artificial muscles made from inexpensive polymer fibers used for fishing line and sewing thread. We show that a coiled 27 μm-diameter nylon muscle fiber can be driven by 16.7 °C air temperature fluctuations to spin a magnetic rotor to a peak torsional rotation speed of 70 000 rpm for over 300 000 heating–cooling cycles without performance degradation. By employing resonant fluctuations in air temperature of 19.6 °C, an average output electrical power of 124 W per kg of muscle was realized. Using tensile actuation of polyethylene-based coiled muscles and alternating flows of hot and cold water, up to 1.4 J of electrical energy was produced per cycle. The corresponding per cycle electric energy and peak power output, per muscle weight, were 77 J kg−1 and 28 W kg−1, respectively.

  • 5.
    Klug, Matthew T.
    et al.
    MIT, MA 02139 USA; University of Oxford, England.
    Osherov, Anna
    MIT, USA.
    Haghighirad, Amir A.
    University of Oxford, England.
    Stranks, Samuel D.
    MIT, USA;Cavendish Lab, England.
    Brown, Patrick R.
    MIT, USA.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oxford, England.
    Wang, Jacob T. -W.
    University of Oxford, England.
    Dang, Xiangnan
    MIT, USA.
    Bulovic, Vladimir
    MIT, USA.
    Snaith, Henry J.
    University of Oxford, England.
    Belcher, Angela M.
    MIT USA.
    Tailoring metal halide perovskites through metal substitution: influence on photovoltaic and material properties2017In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 236-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present herein an experimental screening study that assesses how partially replacing Pb in methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite films with nine different alternative, divalent metal species, B = {Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sn, Sr, and Zn}, influences photovoltaic performance and optical properties. Our findings indicate the perovskite film is tolerant to most of the considered homovalent metal species with lead-cobalt compositions yielding the highest power conversion efficiencies when less than 6% of the Pb2+ ions are replaced. Through subsequent materials characterisation, we demonstrate for the first time that partially substituting Pb2+ at the B-sites of the perovskite lattice is not restricted to Group IV elements but is also possible with at least Co2+. Moreover, adjusting the molar ratio of Pb: Co in the mixed-metal perovskite affords new opportunities to tailor the material properties while maintaining stabilised device efficiencies above 16% in optimised solar cells. Specifically, crystallographic analysis reveals that Co2+ incorporates into the perovskite lattice and increasing its concentration can mediate a crystal structure transition from the cubic to tetragonal phase at room-temperature. Likewise, Co2+ substitution continually modifies the perovskite work function and band edge energies without either changing the band gap or electronically doping the intrinsic material. By leveraging this orthogonal dimension of electronic tunability, we achieve remarkably high open-circuit voltages up to 1.08 V with an inverted device architecture by shifting the perovskite into a more favourable energetic alignment with the PEDOT: PSS hole transport material.

  • 6.
    Kylberg, William
    et al.
    Empa.
    Sonar, Prashant
    ASTAR.
    Heier, Jakob
    Empa.
    Tisserant, Jean-Nicolas
    Empa.
    Müller, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nueesch, Frank
    Empa.
    Chen, Zhi-Kuan
    ASTAR.
    Dodabalapur, Ananth
    University of Texas Austin.
    Yoon, Songhak
    Empa.
    Hany, Roland
    Empa.
    Synthesis, thin-film morphology, and comparative study of bulk and bilayer heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices using soluble diketopyrrolopyrrole molecules2011In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 4, no 9, p. 3617-3624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based organic semiconductors EH-DPP-TFP and EH-DPP-TFPV with branched ethyl-hexyl solubilizing alkyl chains and end capped with trifluoromethyl phenyl groups were designed and synthesized via Suzuki coupling. These compounds show intense absorptions up to 700 nm, and thin film-forming characteristics that sensitively depend on the solvent and coating conditions. Both materials have been used as electron donors in bulk heterojunction and bilayer organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices with fullerenes as acceptors and their performance has been studied in detail. The best power conversion efficiency of 3.3% under AM1.5G illumination (100 mW cm(-2)) was achieved for bilayer solar cells when EH-DPP-TFPV was used with C(60), after a thermal annealing step to induce dye aggregation and interdiffusion of C(60) with the donor material. To date, this is one of the highest efficiencies reported for simple bilayer OPV devices.

  • 7.
    Sun, Huiliang
    et al.
    Southern Univ Sci and Technol SUSTech, Peoples R China; Southern Univ Sci and Technol SUSTech, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Tao
    HKUST, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Jianwei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lau, Tsz-Ki
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Guangye
    eFlexPV Ltd, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Yujie
    Southern Univ Sci and Technol SUSTech, Peoples R China; Southern Univ Sci and Technol SUSTech, Peoples R China.
    Su, Mengyao
    Southern Univ Sci and Technol SUSTech, Peoples R China; Southern Univ Sci and Technol SUSTech, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Yumin
    Southern Univ Sci and Technol SUSTech, Peoples R China; Southern Univ Sci and Technol SUSTech, Peoples R China.
    Ma, Ruijie
    HKUST, Peoples R China; HKUST, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Bin
    Southern Univ Sci and Technol SUSTech, Peoples R China; Southern Univ Sci and Technol SUSTech, Peoples R China.
    Liang, Jiaen
    HKUST, Peoples R China; HKUST, Peoples R China.
    Feng, Kui
    Southern Univ Sci and Technol SUSTech, Peoples R China; Southern Univ Sci and Technol SUSTech, Peoples R China.
    Lu, Xinhui
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Guo, Xugang
    Southern Univ Sci and Technol SUSTech, Peoples R China; Southern Univ Sci and Technol SUSTech, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yan, He
    HKUST, Peoples R China; HKUST, Peoples R China.
    A monothiophene unit incorporating both fluoro and ester substitution enabling high-performance donor polymers for non-fullerene solar cells with 16.4% efficiency2019In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 3328-3337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thiophene and its derivatives have been extensively used in organic electronics, particularly in the field of polymer solar cells (PSCs). Significant research efforts have been dedicated to modifying thiophene-based units by attaching electron-donating or withdrawing groups to tune the energy levels of conjugated materials. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of a novel thiophene derivative, FE-T, featuring a monothiophene functionalized with both an electron-withdrawing fluorine atom (F) and an ester group (E). The FE-T unit possesses distinctive advantages of both F and E groups, the synergistic effects of which enable significant downshifting of the energy levels and enhanced aggregation/crystallinity of the resulting organic materials. Shown in this work are a series of polymers obtained by incorporating the FE-T unit into a PM6 polymer to fine-tune the energetics and morphology of this high-performance PSC material. The optimal polymer in the series shows a downshifted HOMO and an improved morphology, leading to a high PCE of 16.4% with a small energy loss (0.53 eV) enabled by the reduced non-radiative energy loss (0.23 eV), which are among the best values reported for non-fullerene PSCs to date. This work shows that the FE-T unit is a promising building block to construct donor polymers for high-performance organic photovoltaic cells.

  • 8.
    Zhao, Dan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, J. C.
    Xiamen University, Peoples R China.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ionic thermoelectric supercapacitors2016In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 1450-1457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature gradients are generated by the sun and a vast array of technologies and can induce molecular concentration gradients in solutions via thermodiffusion (Soret effect). For ions, this leads to a thermovoltage that is determined by the thermal gradient Delta T across the electrolyte, together with the ionic Seebeck coefficient alpha(i). So far, redox-free electrolytes have been poorly explored in thermoelectric applications due to a lack of strategies to harvest the energy from the Soret effect. Here, we report the conversion of heat into stored charge via a remarkably strong ionic Soret effect in a polymeric electrolyte (Seebeck coefficients as high as alpha(i) = 10 mV K-1). The ionic thermoelectric supercapacitor (ITESC) is charged under a temperature gradient. After the temperature gradient is removed, the stored electrical energy can be delivered to an external circuit. This new means to harvest energy is particularly suitable for intermittent heat sources like the sun. We show that the stored electrical energy of the ITESC is proportional to (Delta T alpha(i))(2). The resulting ITESC can convert and store several thousand times more energy compared with a traditional thermoelectric generator connected in series with a supercapacitor.

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