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  • 1.
    Ingves, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Vilhelmsson, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ström, Edvin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Guldbrand, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, "Primary Health Care in Motala".
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    A randomized cross-over study of the effects of macronutrient composition and meal frequency on GLP-1, ghrelin and energy expenditure in humans2017In: Peptides, ISSN 0196-9781, E-ISSN 1873-5169, Vol. 93, p. 20-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Little is known about human postprandial increase of energy expenditure and satiety-associated hormones in relation to both meal frequency and macronutrient composition. Design: Randomized cross-over study with four conditions for each participant. Methods: Seven men and seven women (mean age 23 +/- 1.5 years) were randomly assigned to the order of intake of a 750 kcal drink with the same protein content while having either 20 energy-percent (E%) or 55 E% from carbohydrates and the remaining energy from fat. Participants were also randomized to consume the drinks as one large beverage or as five 150 kcal portions every 30 min, starting in the fasting state in the morning. Energy expenditure (EE) was determined every 30 min by indirect calorimetry. Hormonal responses and suppression of hunger (by visual-analogue scales) were also studied. A p amp;lt; 0.013 was considered statistically significant following Bonferroni-correction. Results: The area under the curve (AUC) for EE was higher during the 2.5 h after the high-carbohydrate drinks (p = 0.005 by Wilcoxon) and also after ingesting one drink compared with five (p = 0.004). AUC for serum active GLP-1 was higher after single drinks compared with five beverages (p = 0.002). Although GLP-1 levels remained particularly high at the end of the test during the low-carbohydrate meals, the AUC did not differ compared with the high-carbohydrate occasions (low-carbohydrate: 58.9 +/- 18 pg/ml/h, high-carbohydrate: 45.2 +/- 16 pg/ml/h, p = 0.028). Hunger sensations were suppressed more after single beverages compared with five small drinks (p = 0.009). Conclusions: We found higher EE during 2.5 h following one large drink compared with five smaller beverages. Since hunger was also suppressed more efficiently, and serum GLP-1 levels were higher after one compared with five smaller drinks, our findings do not support nibbling to avoid hunger or to keep up EE from morning to noon.

  • 2.
    Rugarn, Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Theodorsson, Annette
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenfors, Carina
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sex differences in neuropeptide distribution in the rat brain1999In: Peptides, ISSN 0196-9781, E-ISSN 1873-5169, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 81-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated possible sex differences in the regional concentrations of neuropeptides in the rat brain. Immunoreactive neurotensin (NT), neurokinin A (NKA), galanin (GAL), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were measured by radioimmunoassay in frontal cortex, occipital cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus and pituitary in male and female pre- and postpubertal rats. Sex differences were found for NPY (p < 0.001), NT (p < 0.01) and GAL (p < 0.05), in particular in hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus and pituitary, but not for CGRP, SP and NKA. Results from analysis of neuropeptides in one sex may not be entirely applicable to the other.

  • 3.
    Rugarn, Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Theodorsson, Annette
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effects of estradiol, progesterone, and norethisterone on regional concentrations of galanin in the rat brain1999In: Peptides, ISSN 0196-9781, E-ISSN 1873-5169, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 743-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of immunoreactive galanin were compared in eight gross brain regions of ovariectomized female rats treated with either estradiol, estradiol + progesterone, estradiol + norethisterone, or placebo. Higher concentrations with estradiol treatment compared with placebo were found in the pituitary (357%), frontal cortex (162%), occipital cortex (174%), hippocampus (170%), and median eminence (202%). A more profound difference with addition of progesterone or norethisterone was seen in the pituitary (529% and 467%, respectively). Sex steroids, particularly estradiol, modulate galanin concentrations not only in reproductive, but also in nonreproductive, brain regions.

  • 4.
    Ström, Jakob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry. County Council of Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Tove
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Effects of 17β-estradiol on galanin(1-29)- and galanin(1-16)-like immunoreactivities2013In: Peptides, ISSN 0196-9781, E-ISSN 1873-5169, Vol. 43, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are reasons to believe that the galanin neuropeptide family could include more than the two hitherto known members (galanin(1-29) and galanin-like peptide), such as the existence of at least three galanin receptors and the fact that synthetic short-chain homologues have effects and binding sites that are distinct from those of galanin(1-29). The current study uses a radioimmunoassay based on a polyclonal rabbit antiserum raised against galanin(1-16) to study the concentrations of galanin(1-16) like immunoreactivity (LI) in the various parts of the brain and gut of ovariectomized female rats, and investigates the effects of different concentrations of estradiol on these concentrations in relation to galanin(1-29)-LI. Galanin(1-29) concentrations were increased by 17 beta-estradiol administration in almost all examined tissues whereas galanin(1-16)-LI was increased by 17 beta-estradiol treatment in most of the gut, but only in the pituitary of the brain. Furthermore, the relation between galanin(1-29)-LI and galanin(1-16)-LI varied substantially from tissue to tissue. The main hypothesis, that galanin(1-16)LI would be affected by 17 beta-estradiol in brain and/or gut, was confirmed in addition to the secondary hypothesis, stating that the pattern of galanin(1-16)-LI changes would differ from that of galanin(1-29). The study indicates that galanin(1-16)-LI is estrogen-responsive but that its concentrations are regulated differently from that of galanin(1-29). This is strongly indicative of a biological relevance of this potentially new member of the galanin neuropeptide family.

  • 5.
    Thorsell, Annika
    The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.
    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in alcohol intake and dependence2007In: Peptides, ISSN 0196-9781, E-ISSN 1873-5169, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 480-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuropeptide Y has a role in alcohol intake and dependence. NPY's effect on alcohol intake appears to be in part dependent on the individual's history of alcohol dependence. In models of high intake such as alcohol-preferring, selectively bred rat lines (e.g., the P-line and the HAD line), as well as in ethanol-vapor-exposed subjects, NPY modulates alcohol intake while leaving it unaffected during baseline conditions. The primary receptor subtype mediating NPY's effect on ethanol intake remains in question. The Y2-antagonist BIIE0246 significantly suppresses ethanol intake in an operant paradigm with a sensitization to the effect of BIIE0246 in vapor-exposed subjects. We propose the NPY system to be one of the most interesting target systems for the development of treatments for alcohol abuse and dependence.

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