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  • 1.
    Amin, Gul
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zaman, Siama
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zainelabdin, A
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ZnO nanorods-polymer hybrid white light emitting diode grown on a disposable paper substrate2011In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 5, no 2, 71-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate intrinsic white light emission from hybrid light emitting diodes fabricated using an inorganic-organic hybrid junction grown at 50 C on a paper substrate. Cyclotene was first spin coated on the entire substrate to act as a surface barrier layer for water and other nutrient solutions. The active area of the fabricated light emitting diode (LED) consists of zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) and a poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) conducting polymer layer. The fabricated LED shows clear rectifying behavior and a broad band electroluminescence (EL) peak covering the whole visible spectrum range from 420 nm to 780 nm. The color rendering index (CRI) was calculated to be 94 and the correlated color temperature (CCT) of the LED was 3660 K. The low process temperature and procedure in this work enables the use of paper substrate for the fabrication of low cost ZnO-polymer white LEDs for applications requiring flexible/disposable electronic devices.

  • 2.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fast piezoresistive sensor and UV photodetector based on Mn-doped ZnO nanorods2014In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 9, no 1, 87-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low cost hydrothermal synthesis method to synthesize Mn-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs) with controllable morphology and structure has been developed. Ammonia is used to tailor the ammonium hydroxide concentration, which provides a source of OH– for hydrolysis and precipitation during the growth instead of HMT. The morphological, chemical composition, structural, and electronic structure studies of the Mn-doped ZnO NRs show that the Mn-doped ZnO NRs have a hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure along the c-axis and the Mn ions replace the Zn sites in the ZnO NRs matrix without any secondary phase of metallic manganese element and manganese oxides observed. The fabricated PEDOT:PSS/Zn0.85Mn0.15O Schottky diode based piezoresistive sensor and UV photodetector shows that the piezoresistive sensor has pressure sensitivity of 0.00617 kPa–1 for the pressure range from 1 kPa to 20 kP and 0.000180 kPa–1for the pressure range from 20 kPa to 320 kPa with relatively fast response time of 0.03 s and the UV photodetector has both relatively high responsivity and fast response time of 0.065 A/W and 2.75 s, respectively. The fabricated Schottky diode can be utilized as a very useful human-friendly interactive electronic device for mass/force sensor or UV photodetector in everyday living life. This developed device is very promising for small-size, low-cost and easy-to-customize application-specific requirements. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  • 3.
    Cubarovs, Mihails
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jens, Jensen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Epitaxial CVD growthof sp2-hybridized boron nitrideusing aluminum nitride as buffer layer2011In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 5, no 10-11, 397-399 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial growth of sp2-hybridized boron nitride (BN) using chemical vapour deposition, with ammonia and triethyl boron as precursors, is enabled on sapphire by introducing an aluminium nitride (AlN) buffer layer. This buffer layer is formed by initial nitridation of the substrate. Epitaxial growth is verified by X-ray diffraction measurements in Bragg–Brentano configuration, pole figure measurements and transmission electron microscopy. The in-plane stretching vibration of sp2-hybridized BN is observed at 1366 cm–1 from Raman spectroscopy. Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis confirms almost perfect stoichiometric BN with low concentration of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen contaminations.

  • 4.
    Khan, Azam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wissting, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Harvesting piezoelectric potential from zinc oxide nanoflowers grown on textile fabric substrate2013In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 7, no 11, 980-984 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanoflowers were synthesized on conductive flexible textile fabric substrate by using the simple low-temperature aqueous chemical growth method and were used for piezoelectric energy harvesting source. Structural characterization of ZnO nanoflowers was carried out by using surface scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The ZnO nanoflowers are uniformly grown over the entire sample. They are composed of needle-like nanorods, which have hexagonal wurtzite structure with good crystalline quality. The current-voltage characteristics showed good rectifying Schottky behaviour. Contact-mode atomic force microscopy was used for measuring the piezoelectric output potential. The maximum output potential was found to be more than 600 mV and the corresponding current also recorded was near approximate to 650 nA.

  • 5.
    Meshkian, Rahele
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sigurdur Ingason, Arni
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petruhins, Andrejs
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arnalds, Unnar B.
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Magnus, Fridrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Theoretical stability, thin film synthesis and transport properties of the Mon+1GaCn MAX phase2015In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 9, no 3, 197-201 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase stability of Mon +1GaCn has been investigated using ab-initio calculations. The results indicate stability for the Mo2GaC phase only, with a formation enthalpy of 0.4 meV per atom. Subsequent thin film synthesis of Mo2GaC was performed through magnetron sputtering from elemental targets onto Al2O3 [0001], 6H-SiC [0001] and MgO [111] substrates within the temperature range of 500 degrees C and 750 degrees C. High structural quality films were obtained for synthesis on MgO [111] substrates at 590 degrees C. Evaluation of transport properties showed a superconducting behavior with a critical temperature of approximately 7 K, reducing upon the application of an external magnetic field. The results point towards the first superconducting MAX phase in thin film form.

  • 6.
    Mockuté, Aurelija
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnus, F
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden/University of Iceland, Iceland .
    Ingason, Arni Sigurdur
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olafsson, S.
    University of Iceland, Iceland .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis and characterization of arc deposited magnetic (Cr,Mn)2AlC MAX phase films2014In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 8, no 5, 420-423 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (Cr1-xMnx)2AlC MAX phase thin films were synthesized by cathodic arc deposition. Scanning transmission electron microscopy including local energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the as-deposited films reveals a Mn incorporation of 10 at.% in the structure, corresponding to x = 0.2. Magnetic properties were characterized with vibrating sample magnetometry, revealing a magnetic response up to at least room temperature, thus verifying previous theoretical predictions of an antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic ground state for Cr2AlC upon alloying with Mn.

  • 7.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kim, Yong-Sung
    Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Yuseong, Daejeon, Korea; Department of Nano Science, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shallow donor in natural MoS22015In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 9, no 12, 707-710 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using electron paramagnetic resonance and density functional theory calculations, we show that the shallow donor responsible for the n-type conductivity in natural MoS2 is rhenium (Re) with a typical concentration in the low 1017 cm–3 range and the g -values: g|| = 2.0274 and g = 2.2642. In bulk MoS2, the valley–orbit (VO) splitting and ionization energy of the Re shallow donor are determined to be ∼3 meV and ∼27 meV, respectively. Calculations show that the VO splitting of Re approaches the value in bulk if the number of MoS2 layers is larger than four and increases to 97.9 meV in a monolayer.

  • 8.
    Petruhins, Andrejs
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ingason, Arni Sigurdur
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mockuté, Aurelija
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phase stability of Crn+1GaCn MAX phases from first principles and Cr2GaC thin-film synthesis using magnetron sputtering from elemental targets2013In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 7, no 11, 971-974 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ab-initio calculations have been used to investigate the phase stability and magnetic state of Crn+ 1GaCn MAX phase. Cr2GaC (n = 1) was predicted to be stable, with a ground state corresponding to an antiferromagnetic spin configuration. Thin-film synthesis by magnetron sputtering from elemental targets, including liquid Ga, shows the formation of Cr2GaC, previously only attained from bulk synthesis methods. The films were deposited at 650 degrees C on MgO(111) substrates. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy show epitaxial growth of (000) MAX phase.

  • 9.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    et al.
    Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Music, D.
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Nahif, F.
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Jiang, K.
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Braun, A.
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Zilkens, C.
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Schneider, J. M.
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Ionized physical vapor deposited Al(2)O(3) films: Does subplantation favor formation of alpha-Al(2)O(3)?2010In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 4, no 7, 154-156 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The broad energy distributions of the condensing particles typically encountered in ion assisted vapor deposition techniques are often a drawback when attempting to understand the effect of the energetic bombardment on the film properties. In the current study, a monoenergetic Al beam generated by a filtered cathodic arc discharge is employed for the deposition of alumina (Al(2)O(3)) films at well defined AI ion energies between 4 eV and 200 eV at a substrate temperature of 720 degrees C. Structural analysis shows that Al energies of 40 eV or larger favor the formation of the thermodynamically stable zeta-Al(2)O(3) phase at the expense of other metastable Al(2)O(3) polymorphs. The well defined ion energies are used as input for Monte-Carlo based simulations of the ion surface interactions. The results of these simulations reveal that the increase of the Al(+) ion energy leads to an increase in the fraction of ions subplanted into the growing film. These findings underline the previously not considered role of subsurface processes on the phase formation of ionized physical vapor deposited Al(2)O(3) films.

  • 10.
    Soomro, Muhammad Yousuf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, I
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bano, Nargis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Piezoelectric power generation from zinc oxide nanowires grown on paper substrate2012In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 6, no 2, 80-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we demonstrate piezoelectric power generation from zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires grown on paper substrate. Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires are deflected by an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip in contact mode which generates an output voltage of up to 7 mV. Furthermore, the effects of different parameters mainly influencing the magnitude of the output voltage are discussed. We expect that due to its simplicity, this approach represents an important step within the development of nanoscale power generators. It offers a promising alternative powering source for the next generation of nanodevices on disposable paper.

  • 11.
    Tress, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leo, Karl
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany .
    Riede, Moritz
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany .
    Photoconductivity as loss mechanism in organic solar cells2013In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 7, no 6, 401-405 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We observe that the reverse current under illumination in solar cells containing C60 and ZnPc is dominated by a photoshunt. This shunt, not present in the dark, causes a linear current-voltage relation under illumination showing no saturation. Although observable in bulk heterojunctions, this effect is more pronounced in the presence of a pristine C60 layer. An internal quantum efficiency larger than unity under an applied negative voltage and in the spectral range where C60 absorbs identifies charges which are injected in addition to those photogenerated. The photoshunt is also present in the power-generating region and represents a loss mechanism limiting the fill factor in particular for flat heterojunction devices.

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