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  • 1.
    Griffin, Robert M
    et al.
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dean, Rebecca
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Grace, Jaime L
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rydén, Patrik
    Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics, Umeå University, Umeå ,Sweden / Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Umeå University, Umeå , Sweden.
    Friberg, Urban
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The shared genome is a pervasive constraint on the evolution of sex-biased gene expression.2013Inngår i: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 30, nr 9, s. 2168-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Males and females share most of their genomes, and differences between the sexes can therefore not evolve through sequence divergence in protein coding genes. Sexual dimorphism is instead restricted to occur through sex-specific expression and splicing of gene products. Evolution of sexual dimorphism through these mechanisms should, however, also be constrained when the sexes share the genetic architecture for regulation of gene expression. Despite these obstacles, sexual dimorphism is prevalent in the animal kingdom and commonly evolves rapidly. Here, we ask whether the genetic architecture of gene expression is plastic and easily molded by sex-specific selection, or if sexual dimorphism evolves rapidly despite pervasive genetic constraint. To address this question, we explore the relationship between the intersexual genetic correlation for gene expression (rMF), which captures how independently genes are regulated in the sexes, and the evolution of sex-biased gene expression. Using transcriptome data from Drosophila melanogaster, we find that most genes have a high rMF and that genes currently exposed to sexually antagonistic selection have a higher average rMF than other genes. We further show that genes with a high rMF have less pronounced sex-biased gene expression than genes with a low rMF within D. melanogaster and that the strength of the rMF in D. melanogaster predicts the degree to which the sex bias of a gene's expression has changed between D. melanogaster and six other species in the Drosophila genus. In sum, our results show that a shared genome constrains both short- and long-term evolution of sexual dimorphism.

  • 2.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Department of Human Genetics University of Michigan.
    Hagenblad, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tavaré, Simon
    Molecular and Computational Biology University of Southern California.
    Säll, Torbjörn
    Department of Cell and Organism Biology, Genetics Lund University, Sweden.
    Halldén, Christer
    Department of Clinical Chemistry Malmö university, Sweden.
    Lind-Halldén, Christina
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Nordborg, magnus
    Molecular and Computational Biology University of Southern California.
    A Unique Recent Origin of the Allotetraploid Species Arabidopsis suecica: Evidence from Nuclear DNA Markers2006Inngår i: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 1217-1231Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A coalescent-based method was used to investigate the origins of the allotetraploid Arabidopsis suecica, using 52 nuclear microsatellite loci typed in eight individuals of A. suecica and 14 individuals of its maternal parent Arabidopsis thaliana, and four short fragments of genomic DNA sequenced in a sample of four individuals of A. suecica and in both its parental species A. thaliana and Arabidopsis arenosa. All loci were variable in A. thaliana but only 24 of the 52 microsatellite loci and none of the four sequence fragments were variable in A. suecica. We explore a number of possible evolutionary scenarios for A. suecica and conclude that it is likely that A. suecica has a recent, unique origin between 12,000 and 300,000 years ago. The time estimates depend strongly on what is assumed about population growth and rates of mutation. When combined with what is known about the history of glaciations, our results suggest that A. suecica originated south of its present distribution in Sweden and Finland and then migrated north, perhaps in the wake of the retreating ice.

  • 3.
    Malmstrom, H.
    et al.
    Malmström, H., Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stora, J.
    Storå, J., Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dalen, L.
    Dalén, L., Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmlund, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin.
    Gotherstrom, A.
    Götherström, A., Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Extensive human DNA contamination in extracts from ancient dog bones and teeth2005Inngår i: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 22, nr 10, s. 2040-2047Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) sequences, especially those of human origin, are notoriously difficult to analyze due to molecular damage and exogenous DNA contamination. Relatively few systematic studies have focused on this problem. Here we investigate the extent and origin of human DNA contamination in the most frequently used sources for aDNA studies, that is, bones and teeth from museum collections. To distinguish contaminant DNA from authentic DNA we extracted DNA from dog (Canis familiaris) specimens. We monitored the presence of a 148-bp human-specific and a 152-bp dog-specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragment in DNA extracts as well as in negative controls. The total number of human and dog template molecules were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the sequences were characterized by amplicon cloning and sequencing. Although standard precautions to avoid contamination were taken, we found that all samples from the 29 dog specimens contained human DNA, often at levels exceeding the amount of authentic ancient dog DNA. The level of contaminating human DNA was also significantly higher in the dog extracts than in the negative controls, and an experimental setup indicated that this was not caused by the carrier effect. This suggests that the contaminating human DNA mainly originated from the dog bones rather than from laboratory procedures. When cloned, fragments within a contaminated PCR product generally displayed several different sequences, although one haplotype was often found in majority. This leads us to believe that recognized criteria for authenticating aDNA cannot separate contamination from ancient human DNA the way they are presently used. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Malmström, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin.
    Svensson, Emma M.
    Gilbert, M. Thomas P.
    Willerslev, Eske
    Gotherstrom, Anders
    Holmlund, Gunilla
    More on contamination: The use of asymmetric molecular behavior to identify authentic ancient human DNA2007Inngår i: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 998-1004Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Authentication of ancient human DNA results is an exceedingly difficult challenge due to the presence of modern contaminant DNA sequences. Nevertheless, the field of ancient human genetics generates huge scientific and public interest, and thus researchers are rarely discouraged by problems concerning the authenticity of such data. Although several methods have been developed to the purpose of authenticating ancient DNA (aDNA) results, while they are useful in faunal research, most of the methods have proven complicated to apply to ancient human DNA. Here, we investigate in detail the reliability of one of the proposed criteria, that of appropriate molecular behavior. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing, we have quantified the relative levels of authentic aDNA and contaminant human DNA sequences recovered from archaeological dog and cattle remains. In doing so, we also produce data that describes the efficiency of bleach incubation of bone powder and its relative detrimental effects on contaminant and authentic ancient DNA. We note that bleach treatment is significantly more detrimental to contaminant than to authentic aDNA in the bleached bone powder. Furthermore, we find that there is a substantial increase in the relative proportions of authentic DNA to contaminant DNA as the PCR target fragment size is decreased. We therefore conclude that the degradation pattern in aDNA provides a quantifiable difference between authentic aDNA and modern contamination. This asymmetrical behavior of authentic and contaminant DNA can be used to identify authentic haplotypes in human aDNA studies.

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