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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jonsson Henningsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Tjernberg, Ivar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Subclinical Lyme borreliosis is common in south-eastern Sweden and may be distinguished from Lyme neuroborreliosis by sex, age and specific immune marker patterns2018In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, E-ISSN 1877-9603, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 742-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Determinants of a subclinical course of Lyme borreliosis (LB) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the extent, sex and age profiles of subclinical Borrelia seroconversion in a LB endemic area in Sweden and to map blood cellular Borrelia-specific immune marker patterns in individuals with a previous subclinical LB course compared with patients previously diagnosed with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). Methods: A large group of 1113 healthy blood donors was screened for multiple IgG anti-Borrelia antibodies and asked to complete a health inquiry regarding previous LB. A group of subjects with anti-Borrelia-specific IgG antibodies but no previous history of LB (subclinical LB, n = 60) was identified together with 22 cases of previous LNB. Whole Borrelia spirochetes, strains B. afzelii ACA1 and B. garinii Ip90, were used for ex vivo whole blood stimulations, whereas outer surface protein enriched fractions of the same strains were used for stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). An extensive panel of immune markers was analysed in the supernatants after stimulation using multiplex bead arrays, and Borrelia-specific secretion was determined by subtracting the spontaneous secretion. Results: A total of 125/1113 blood donors reported previous clinical LB. In contrast, 66 donors denied previous LB but showed multiple IgG anti-Borrelia antibodies; these were defined as subclinical subjects, of whom 60 were available for further studies. The subclinical subjects consisted of significantly more men and had a younger age compared with the LNB patients (p amp;lt;= 0.01). Discriminant analysis revealed a distinct pattern of sex, age and PBMC B. garinii-specific levels of IL-10, IL-17A and CCL20 discriminating subclinical subjects from LNB patients. Conclusions: This study confirms that subclinical Borrelia seroconversion is common in south-eastern Sweden. The findings further suggest that male sex, younger age together with B. gariniii induced levels of IL-10, IL-17A and CCL20 may be associated with a subclinical course.

  • 2.
    Granquist, Erik G.
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway.
    Kristiansson, Malin
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Matussek, Andreas
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Nodtvedt, Ane
    Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway.
    Okstad, Wenche
    Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway.
    Stuen, Snorre
    Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway.
    Evaluation of microbial communities and symbionts in Ixodes ricinus and ungulate hosts (Cervus elaphus and Ovis aries) from shared habitats on the west coast of Norway2014In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, E-ISSN 1877-9603, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 780-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent reports suggest a potential for transmission of a newly discovered rickettsial endosymbiont, Midichloria mitochondrii, to animals and humans from feeding ticks (Ixodes ricinus). Using molecular methods: I. ricinus, sheep and red deer in Anaplasma phagocytophilum-endemic areas of Norway, were examined to see if they were infected by M. mitochondrii or related organisms like Wolbachia pipientis and Rickettsia spp. A total of 532 ticks collected from pastures, 76 blood samples from grazing lambs and 12 organ samples from hunted deer, were analyzed during the study. All larval pools, 60.4% pooled nymphs and 35.1% of adult ticks were positive for M. mitochondrii. There was a significant difference between geographical areas in the prevalence of M. mitochondrii infection among nymphs. A total of 2.2% pooled nymphs and 5.3% adult ticks were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Eleven percent of pooled nymphs were positive for Borrelia spp, 2.2% of pooled nymphs and 3.5% of adult ticks were positive for Rickettsia spp. and none of the ticks were positive for W. pipientis. The prevalence of A. phagocytophilum infection was 54% and 75% in grazing lambs and deer, respectively. No animals were positive for Borrelia spp., M. mitochondrii, Rickettsia spp. or W. pipientis. The reported findings suggest that M. mitochondrii is widespread in tick populations at different geographical sites, and may appear in co-infection with A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia spp. in ticks.

  • 3.
    Henningsson, Anna J
    et al.
    Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping.
    Wilhelmsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gyllemark, Paula
    Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping.
    Kozak Ljunggren, Monika
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology.
    Matussek, Andreas
    Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping.
    Nyman, Dag
    Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Bimelix Biomedical Laboratory, Mariehamn, Åland, Finland .
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine.
    Low risk of seroconversion or clinical disease in humans after a bite by an Anaplasma phagocytophilum-infected tick2015In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, E-ISSN 1877-9603, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 787-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of contracting human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) after a tick bite is mainly unknown. In this study we investigated the clinical and serological response in 30 humans bitten by ticks positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Group A), 30 humans bitten by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.)-positive ticks (Group B), and 30 humans bitten by ticks negative for both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. (Group C). Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires were collected from tick-bitten humans at 34 primary healthcare centres in Sweden and in the Åland Islands, Finland, at the time of the tick bite and after three months. A total of 2553 ticks detached from humans in 2007-2009 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, and 31 (1.2%) were positive for A. phagocytophilum, 556 (21.8%) were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l., and eight (0.3%) were co-infected by A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. The overall prevalence of Anaplasma IgG antibodies in the included participants (n=90) was 17%, and there was no significant difference between the groups A-C. Only one of the participants (in Group C) showed a four-fold increase of IgG antibodies against A. phagocytophilum at the three-month follow-up, but reported no symptoms. The frequency of reported symptoms did not differ between groups A-C, and was unrelated to the findings of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. in the detached ticks. We conclude that the risk for HGA or asymptomatic seroconversion after a tick bite in Sweden or in the Åland Islands is low, even if the tick is infected by A. phagocytophilum.

  • 4.
    Wilhelmsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fryland, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindblom, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjöwall, Johanna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    School of Health Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Haglund, Mats
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Kalmar County Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Henningsson, Anna J
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Division of Medical Services, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönkoping, Sweden.
    Nolskog, Peter
    Department of Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Region Västra Götaland, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Marika
    The Åland Group for Borrelia Research, Mariehamn, Åland, Finland.
    Nyberg, Clara
    The Åland Group for Borrelia Research, Mariehamn, Åland, Finland.
    Ornstein, Katharina
    Department of Internal Medicine, Hässleholm Hospital, Hässleholm, Sweden/Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nyman, Dag
    The Åland Group for Borrelia Research, Mariehamn, Åland, Finland.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A prospective study on the incidence of Borrelia infection after a tick bite in Sweden and on the Åland Islands, Finland (2008-2009)2016In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, E-ISSN 1877-9603, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a common and increasing tick-borne disease in Europe. The risk of acquiring a Borrelia infection after a tick bite is not fully known. Therefore, we investigated the incidence of Borrelia infection after a tick bite and if the Borrelia load and/or the duration of tick-feeding influenced the risk of infection. During 2008-2009, ticks and blood samples were collected from 1546 tick-bitten persons from Sweden and the Åland Islands, Finland. Follow-up blood samples were taken three months after the tick bite. The duration of tick feeding was microscopically estimated and Borrelia was detected and quantified in ticks by real-time PCR. Anti-Borrelia antibodies were detected in sera using ELISA assays and immunoblot.

    Even though 28 % of the participants were bitten by a Borrelia-positive tick, only 7.5% (32/428) of them developed a Borrelia infection, half of them LB. All who seroconverted removed “their” ticks significantly later than those who did not. The Borrelia load in the ticks did not explain the risk of seroconversion. Regional as well as gender differences in the Borrelia seroprevalence were found. The risk of developing a Borrelia infection after a bite by a Borrelia-infected tick is small but increases with the duration of tick feeding.

1 - 4 of 4
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