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  • 1.
    Abou Ghayda, Ramy
    et al.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, OH 44106 USA.
    Lee, Keum Hwa
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Han, Young Joo
    Inje Univ, South Korea.
    Ryu, Seohyun
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Hong, Sung Hwi
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Yoon, Sojung
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Jeong, Gwang Hum
    Gyeongsang Natl Univ, South Korea.
    Yang, Jae Won
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Lee, Hyo Jeong
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Lee, Jinhee
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Lee, Jun Young
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Effenberger, Maria
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Eisenhut, Michael
    Luton & Dunstable Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Kronbichler, Andreas
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Solmi, Marco
    Univ Ottawa, Canada; Ottawa Hosp, Canada; Univ Ottawa, Canada; Univ Ottawa, Canada.
    Li, Han
    Univ Florida, FL USA.
    Jacob, Louis
    Univ Versailles St Quentin En Yvelines, France; CIBERSAM, Spain.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    CIBERSAM, Spain; ICREA, Spain.
    Radua, Joaquim
    Inst Invest Biomed August Pi & Sunyer IDIBAPS, Spain; Kings Coll London, England; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Park, Myung Bae
    Pai Chai Univ, South Korea.
    Aghayeva, Sevda
    Azerbaijan Med Univ, Azerbaijan.
    Ahmed, Mohamed L. C. B.
    Univ Nouakchott Al Aasriya, Mauritania.
    Al Serouri, Abdulwahed
    Yemen Field Epidemiol Training Program, Yemen.
    Al-Shamsi, Humaid O.
    Univ Sharjah, U Arab Emirates; Burjeel Canc Inst, U Arab Emirates.
    Amir-Behghadami, Mehrdad
    Tabriz Univ Med Sci, Iran; Tabriz Univ Med Sci, Iran; Tabriz Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Baatarkhuu, Oidov
    Mongolian Natl Univ Med Sci, Mongolia.
    Bashour, Hyam
    Damascus Univ, Syria.
    Bondarenko, Anastasiia
    Shupyk Natl Healthcare Univ Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Camacho-Ortiz, Adrian
    Univ Autonoma Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
    Castro, Franz
    Gorgas Mem Inst Hlth Studies, Panama.
    Cox, Horace
    Minist Hlth Guyana, Guyana.
    Davtyan, Hayk
    TB Res & Prevent Ctr NGO, Armenia.
    Douglas, Kirk
    Univ West Indies, Barbados.
    Dragioti, Elena
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Ebrahim, Shahul
    Univ Sci Tech & Technol, Mali.
    Ferioli, Martina
    IRCCS Azienda Osped Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Harapan, Harapan
    Univ Syiah Kuala, Indonesia.
    Mallah, Saad I
    Royal Coll Surg Ireland Bahrain, Indonesia.
    Ikram, Aamer
    Natl Inst Hlth, Pakistan.
    Inoue, Shigeru
    Tokyo Med Univ, Japan.
    Jankovic, Slobodan
    Univ Kragujevac, Serbia.
    Jayarajah, Umesh
    Univ Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Jesenak, Milos
    Comenius Univ, Slovakia.
    Kakodkar, Pramath
    Natl Univ Galway Ireland, Ireland.
    Kebede, Yohannes
    Jimma Univ, Ethiopia.
    Kifle, Meron
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Koh, David
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore.
    Males, Visnja K.
    Sch Med Split, Croatia.
    Kotfis, Katarzyna
    Pomeranian Med Univ, Poland.
    Lakoh, Sulaiman
    Univ Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone.
    Ling, Lowell
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Llibre-Guerra, Jorge
    Washington Univ, MO USA.
    Machida, Masaki
    Tokyo Med Univ, Japan.
    Makurumidze, Richard
    Univ Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe.
    Mamun, Mohammed
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China; Jahangirnagar Univ, Bangladesh; Daffodil Int Univ, Bangladesh; CHINTA Res Bangladesh, Bangladesh.
    Masic, Izet
    Acad Med Sci Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bosnia & Herceg.
    Van Minh, Hoang
    Hanoi Univ Publ Hlth, Vietnam.
    Moiseev, Sergey
    Sechenov First Moscow State Med Univ, Russia.
    Nadasdy, Thomas
    St Parascheva Clin Hosp Infect Dis, Romania.
    Nahshon, Chen
    Carmel Hosp, Israel.
    Namendys-Silva, Silvio A.
    Inst Nacl Ciencias Med & Nutr Salvador Zubiran, Mexico.
    Yongsi, Blaise N.
    Univ Yaounde II, Cameroon.
    Nielsen, Henning B.
    Zealand Univ Hosp Roskilde, Denmark.
    Nodjikouambaye, Zita A.
    Mobile Lab Hemorrhag & Resp Viruses Ndjamena, Chad.
    Ohnmar, Ohnmar
    Myanmar Hlth Minist, Myanmar.
    Oksanen, Atte
    Tampere Univ, Finland.
    Owopetu, Oluwatomi
    Univ Coll Hosp, Nigeria.
    Parperis, Konstantinos
    Univ Cyprus Med Sch, Cyprus.
    Perez, Gonzalo E.
    Clin Olivos, Argentina.
    Pongpirul, Krit
    Chulalongkorn Univ, Thailand.
    Rademaker, Marius
    Auckland Univ Med Sch, New Zealand.
    Rosa, Sandro
    Fed Fluminense Univ, Brazil; Natl Inst Ind Property, Brazil.
    Sah, Ranjit
    Natl Publ Hlth Lab, Nepal.
    Sallam, Dina
    Ain Shams Univ, Egypt.
    Schober, Patrick
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Singhal, Tanu
    Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hosp & Med Res Inst, India.
    Tafaj, Silva
    Univ Hosp Shefqet Ndroqi, Albania.
    Torres, Irene
    Fdn Octaedro, Ecuador.
    Smith Torres-Roman, J.
    Univ Cient Sur, Peru.
    Tsartsalis, Dimitrios
    Hippokrateion Hosp, Greece.
    Tsolmon, Jadamba
    Mongolian Natl Univ Med Sci, Mongolia.
    Tuychiev, Laziz
    Tashkent Med Acad, Uzbekistan.
    Vukcevic, Batric
    Univ Montenegro, Montenegro.
    Wanghi, Guy
    Univ Kinshasa, DEM REP CONGO.
    Wollina, Uwe
    Stadt Klinikum Dresden, Germany.
    Xu, Ren-He
    Univ Macau, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Lin
    Alberta Hlth Serv, Canada; Univ Calgary, Canada; Univ Calgary, Canada.
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Univ Ferhat Abbas, Algeria.
    Smith, Lee
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Shin, Jae Il
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    The global case fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 by continents and national income: A meta-analysis2022In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 94, no 6, p. 2402-2413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19s case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.

  • 2.
    Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O.
    et al.
    Univ Ouaga, Burkina Faso; Natl Publ Hlth Lab, Burkina Faso.
    Ouedraogo, Nafissatou
    Univ Ouaga, Burkina Faso.
    Tamini, Laure
    Univ Ouaga, Burkina Faso; Charles de Gaulle Pediat Univ Hosp, Burkina Faso.
    Teguera, Rabieta Kouboura
    Natl Publ Hlth Lab, Burkina Faso.
    Yameogo, Pouire
    Natl Publ Hlth Lab, Burkina Faso.
    Drabo, Maxime Koine
    Natl Publ Hlth Lab, Burkina Faso.
    Medah, Isaie
    Minist Hlth, Burkina Faso.
    Barro, Nicolas
    Univ Ouaga, Burkina Faso.
    Sharma, Sumit
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rotavirus and norovirus in children with severe diarrhea in Burkina Faso before rotavirus vaccine introduction2018In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 90, no 9, p. 1453-1460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burkina Faso introduced rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq) to the national immunization program in November 2013. This study describes the detection rates, clinical profiles, and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus and norovirus (NoV) infections among children amp;lt;5 years hospitalized (n=154) because of acute diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, from December 2012 to November 2013, just before the start of vaccination. Overall, 44% and 23% of fecal samples were positive for rotavirus and NoV, respectively, most of them detected during the cold dry season (December-March). The predominant G/P combinations were G12P[8] (47%) and G6P[6] (30%). G2P[4] (n=3), G12P[6] (n=3), and G6P[8] (n=1) werealso detected. Nearly all (94%) successfully genotyped NoV strains belonged to genotype GII.4. The predominance of rotavirus and NoV was noteworthy in the age group 6 months, with 67% rotavirus and 22% NoV, respectively. Vomiting was significantly more common among rotavirus-infected children. To conclude, this study shows high detection rates of both rotavirus and NoV in children with severe diarrhea in Burkina Faso just before the introduction of rotavirus group A vaccination. The results can be used for estimating the impact of rotavirus group A vaccination, which started in the end of 2013. Furthermore, this study shows that the G6P[6] rotavirus strains emerging in Burkina Faso in 2010 is now established as a regionally important genotype.

  • 3.
    Bucardo, Filemon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kindberg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Paniagua, Margarita
    Department of Microbiology, University of León, Nicaragua.
    Vildevall, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Genetic susceptibility to symptomatic norovirus infection in Nicaragua2009In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 81, no 4, p. 728-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Host genetic resistance to Norovirus (NoV) has been observed in challenge and outbreak studies in populations from Europe, Asia, and USA. In this study, we have investigated if histo-blood group antigens can predict susceptibility to diarrhea caused by NoV in Nicaragua, Central America, and if this can be reflected in antibody-prevalence and titer to NoV among individuals with different histo-blood group antigen phenotypes. Investigation of 28 individuals infected with NoV and 131 population controls revealed 6% of non-secretors in the population and nil non-secretors among patients infected with NoV, suggesting that non-secretors may be protected against NoV disease in Nicaragua. Surprisingly, 25% of the population was Lewis negative (Le(a-b-)). NoV infections with genogroup I (GI) and GII occurred irrespective of Lewis genotype, but none of the Lewis a positive (Le(a + b-)) were infected. The globally dominating GII.4 virus infected individuals of all blood groups except AB (n = 5), while the GI viruses (n = 4) infected only blood type O individuals. Furthermore, O blood types were susceptible to infections with GI.4, GII.4, GII.7, GII.17, and GII.18-Nica viruses, suggesting that secretors with blood type O are susceptible (OR = 1.52) and non-secretors resistant. The overall antibody-prevalence to NoV GII.3 VLP was 62% with the highest prevalence among blood type B carriers (70%) followed by A (68%) and O (62%). All four investigated individuals carrying blood type AB were antibody-negative. Among secretors, 63% were antibody-positive compared to 33% among non-secretors (P = 0.151). This study extends previous knowledge about the histo-blood group antigens role in NoV disease in a population with different genetic background than North American and European.

  • 4.
    Cho, Kyuyeon
    et al.
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Park, Seoyeon
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Kim, Eun-Young
    Chung Ang Univ, South Korea.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    ICREA, Spain; CIBERSAM, Spain.
    Jacob, Louis
    CIBERSAM, Spain; Univ Versailles St Quentin En Yvelines, France.
    Yon, Dong K.
    Seoul Natl Univ, South Korea.
    Lee, Seung Won
    Sejong Univ, South Korea.
    Kim, Min Seo
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, South Korea.
    Radua, Joaquim
    Kings Coll London, England; Mental Hlth Networking Biomed Res Ctr CIBERSAM, Spain; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Inst Invest Biomed August Pi & Sunyer IDIBAPS, Spain.
    Dragioti, Elena
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Il Shin, Jae
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Smith, Lee
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with diverse health conditions: A comprehensive systematic review2022In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 94, no 9, p. 4144-4155Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It remains unclear how effective COVID-19 vaccinations will be in patients with weakened immunity due to diseases, transplantation, and dialysis. We conducted a systematic review comparing the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with solid tumor, hematologic malignancy, autoimmune disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and patients who received transplantation or dialysis. A literature search was conducted twice using the Medline/PubMed database. As a result, 21 papers were included in the review, and seropositivity rate was summarized by specific type of disease, transplantation, and dialysis. When different papers studied the same type of patient group, a study with a higher number of participants was selected. Most of the solid tumor patients showed a seropositivity rate of more than 80% after the second inoculation, but a low seropositivity was found in certain tumors such as breast cancer. Research in patients with certain types of hematological malignancy and autoimmune diseases has also reported low seropositivity, and this may have been affected by the immunosuppressive treatment these patients receive. Research in patients receiving dialysis or transplantation has reported lower seropositivity rates than the general population, while all patients with inflammatory bowel disease have converted to be seropositive. Meta-analysis validating these results will be needed, and studies will also be needed on methods to protect patients with reduced immunity from COVID-19.

  • 5.
    Davydova, B.
    et al.
    Enterovirus Laboratory, Natl. Public Health Institute (KTL), Mannerheimintie 166, FIN-00300 Helsinki, Finland.
    Harkonen, T.
    Härkönen, T., Enterovirus Laboratory, Natl. Public Health Institute (KTL), Mannerheimintie 166, FIN-00300 Helsinki, Finland.
    Kaialainen, S.
    Enterovirus Laboratory, Natl. Public Health Institute (KTL), Mannerheimintie 166, FIN-00300 Helsinki, Finland.
    Hovi, T.
    Enterovirus Laboratory, Natl. Public Health Institute (KTL), Mannerheimintie 166, FIN-00300 Helsinki, Finland.
    Vaarala, Outi
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Roivainen, M.
    Enterovirus Laboratory, Natl. Public Health Institute (KTL), Mannerheimintie 166, FIN-00300 Helsinki, Finland.
    Coxsackievirus immunization delays onset of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice2003In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 510-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enteroviruses may be involved in the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes through different mechanisms including triggering of autoimmunity. The effect of immunization with coxsackievirus B4-E2 on diabetes incidence was studied in the non-obese diabetic mice, an animal model for human autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The immunization delayed the onset of diabetes in the mice, and the effect was mediated at least partially by virus immunization-activated splenocytes as demonstrated by adoptive transfer experiments. Immunization resulted in a strong humoral immune response against the immunizing virus, formalin-inactivated coxsackievirus B4-E2. Cell-mediated immune responseto virus antigen was characterised by interferon gamma and interleukin 10 secretion. The immunization also resulted in increased antibody levels against several beta-cell autoantigens. By using epitope mapping we were able to show that in addition to reactivity with the known epitopes of viral proteins and tyrosine phosphatase A-2 or heat shock protein 60, responses to some other regions of autoantigens were enhanced. In preproinsulin, the response was restricted against an antigenic region earlier identified as DR4-dependent epitope. This reactivity can not be explained by homologous amino acid sequences and it is possible that enterovirus immunization might change the autoantigen specific TH1/TH2 balance in non-obese diabetic mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that coxsackievirus immunization increased humoral immune response to beta cell autoantigens and this was associated with a less destructive pathology for spontaneous diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • 6.
    Dragioti, Elena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Li, Han
    Univ Florida, FL USA.
    Tsitsas, George
    Harokopio Univ, Greece.
    Lee, Keum Hwa
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Choi, Jiwoo
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Kim, Jiwon
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Choi, Young Jo
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Tsamakis, Konstantinos
    Kings Coll London, England.
    Estrade, Andres
    Univ Catolica, Uruguay; Kings Coll London, England.
    Agorastos, Agorastos
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Vancampfort, Davy
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Tsiptsios, Dimitrios
    Democritus Univ Thrace, Greece.
    Thompson, Trevor
    Univ Greenwich, England.
    Mosina, Anna
    Integrated Psychiat Winterthur, Switzerland.
    Vakadaris, Georgios
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Fusar-Poli, Paolo
    Kings Coll London, England; South London & Maudsley NHS Fdn Trust, England; Univ Pavia, Italy.
    Carvalho, Andre F.
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Correll, Christoph U.
    Northwell Hlth, NY USA; Donald & Barbara Zucker Sch Med Hofstra Northwell, NY USA; Charite, Germany.
    Han, Young Joo
    Inje Univ, South Korea.
    Park, Seoyeon
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Il Shin, Jae
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Solmi, Marco
    Univ Ottawa, Canada; Ottawa Hosp, Canada.
    A large-scale meta-analytic atlas of mental health problems prevalence during the COVID-19 early pandemic2022In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 94, no 5, p. 1935-1949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictions can impact mental health. To quantify the mental health burden of COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, searching World Health Organization COVID-19/PsycInfo/PubMed databases (09/29/2020), including observational studies reporting on mental health outcomes in any population affected by COVID-19. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of anxiety, depression, stress, sleep problems, posttraumatic symptoms. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on severe mental health problems, in high-quality studies, and in representative samples. Subgroup analyses were conducted stratified by age, sex, country income level, and COVID-19 infection status. One-hundred-seventy-three studies from February to July 2020 were included (n = 502,261, median sample = 948, age = 34.4 years, females = 63%). Ninety-one percent were cross-sectional studies, and 18.5%/57.2% were of high/moderate quality. The highest prevalence emerged for posttraumatic symptoms in COVID-19 infected people (94%), followed by behavioral problems in those with prior mental disorders (77%), fear in healthcare workers (71%), anxiety in caregivers/family members of people with COVID-19 (42%), general health/social contact/passive coping style in the general population (38%), depression in those with prior somatic disorders (37%), and fear in other-than-healthcare workers (29%). Females and people with COVID-19 infection had higher rates of almost all outcomes; college students/young adults of anxiety, depression, sleep problems, suicidal ideation; adults of fear and posttraumatic symptoms. Anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms were more prevalent in low-/middle-income countries, sleep problems in high-income countries. The COVID-19 pandemic adversely impacts mental health in a unique manner across population subgroups. Our results inform tailored preventive strategies and interventions to mitigate current, future, and transgenerational adverse mental health of the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • 7.
    Esteves, Aida
    et al.
    NOVA University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Pereira, Joana
    NOVA University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Fortes, Filomeno
    National Institute Public Heatlh, Angola.
    Dimbu, Rafael
    National Institute Public Heatlh, Angola.
    Saraiva, Nilton
    National Institute Public Heatlh, Angola.
    Mendes, Cristina
    NOVA University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Istrate, Claudia
    NOVA University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Molecular Epidemiology of Rotavirus in Four Provinces of Angola Before Vaccine Introduction2016In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 88, no 9, p. 1511-1520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Angola is a sub-Saharan country in southern Africa highly affected by diarrhoeal disease with limited epidemiological data regarding etiologic agents. This study was performed during 2012-2013, prior to rotavirus vaccine introduction, with the objective to detect and characterize the rotavirus strains circulating in four provinces of the country: Huambo, Luanda, Zaire, and Cabinda. A high rotavirus detection rate (35%, 117/334) was observed. G1 was the most common G-genotype (83.6%), whereas P[8] (50.9%) followed by P[6] (38.8%) were the most common P-types. G1P[8] was identified as the predominant combination (50%), followed by the unusual G1P[6] (29.3%). Strains such G2P[4], G8P[6], G9P[6], and G12P[6] were also found in lower frequencies (5.2-1.7%). The P[6] strains did not cluster in the phylogenetic trees according to their geographic origin or even the corresponding G-genotype, suggesting a limited number of recent introductions and extensive reassortment events. Our results represent the first report on rotavirus genotype profiles in Angola, showing a wide circulation of the unusual genotype G1P[6], and underline the importance of RV surveillance after the vaccine introduction. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 8.
    Gupta, Shipra
    et al.
    Jamia Hamdard, India.
    Krishnan, Anuja
    Jamia Hamdard, India.
    Sharma, Sumit
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kumar, Praveen
    Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital, India.
    Aneja, Satinder
    Kalawati Saran Childrens Hospital, India.
    Ray, Pratima
    Jamia Hamdard, India.
    Changing pattern of prevalence, genetic diversity, and mixed infections of viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in pediatric patients in New Delhi, India2018In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 469-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are very few studies that have assessed multiple viral agents causing Acute-Gastroenteritis (AGE) in India. The present study compared the changing pattern of prevalence and genetic diversity of five enteric viruses associated with acute-diarrhea in Delhi children within a gap of 5 years. Fecal samples were collected from diarrheal children (amp;lt;4 years) during two winter seasons: year 2009-2010 (n=59) and year 2014-2015 (n=85). Samples were individually tested for rotavirus-A, norovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, and sapovirus using EIA/RT-PCR and genetically characterized by phylogenetic analysis. Rotavirus was the most predominant (54.9%) virus followed by norovirus (25.7%), astrovirus (8.3%), and adenovirus (4.9%) with rare detection of sapovirus (0.7%). While detection rate increased for both rotavirus (49.2-58.8%) and astrovirus (5.1-10.6%), norovirus detection rate decreased (30.5-22.4%) from 2009 to 2015. During the same time period, adenovirus detection remained low (4.7-5.1%). Interestingly, mixed infections increased from 8.5% to 16.5% after 5 years. G1P[8] rotavirus strain was found most predominant (40%). Both type-1 and 8 astroviruses were detected. Single sapovirus detected was of genotype GII.1. Both GI (GI.5, GI.3) and GII (GII.1, GII.4, GII.7, GII.21, GII.13) genogroups of norovirus were detected. Of particular significance was the first detection of other NoV genotypes (besides GII.4 and GI.3) in Delhi. This is also the first report of NoV GI.5 from India. A change in prevalence pattern and increased diversity from 2009 to 2015 emphasizes the need for continued enteric virus surveillance to help measure the impact of new diarrhea vaccine(s) introduced in India.

  • 9. Harkonen, T
    et al.
    Paananen, A
    Lankinen, H
    Hovi, T
    Vaarala, Outi
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Roivainen, M
    Enterovirus infection may induce humoral immune response reacting with islet cell autoantigens in humans2003In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 426-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular mimicry is one of the mechanisms by which enterovirus infections have been postulated to have a role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Immunogenic epitopes in enterovirus capsid protein VP1 and procapsid protein VP0 have sequence similarities with diabetes-associated epitopes in tyrosine phosphatase IA-2/IAR and heat shock protein 60. In the present study, documented enterovirus infection was shown to induce humoral responses, that in 7% and 1% of patients cross-reacted with the known diabetes-associated epitopes in tyrosine phosphatase IAR and heat shock protein 60, respectively. In contrast, none of the children vaccinated against poliomyelitis had antibodies to the diabetes-associated epitope of tyrosine phosphatases IA-2/IAR. The antibody response studied in serum samples from six patients with coxsackievirus A9 infection was mainly targeted to capsid protein VP1. Coxsackievirus A9 infection induced antibodies cross-reacted with one epitope in heat shock protein 60, but not with epitopes derived from other autoantigens. Most diabetic children had high levels of antibodies to both coxsackievirus and poliovirus derived VP1 peptides but the pattern of reactivity did not differ from that seen in healthy children. The reactivity of linear epitopes derived from autoantigens was low in general and associated with the presence of multiple autoantibodies in the patients. Some linear auto-epitopes derived from tyrosine phosphatase IA-2, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, preproinsulin, and heat shock protein 60 were recognized by sera from diabetic patients, but not by sera from healthy children. In conclusion, enteroviruses may induce immune responses that react with islet cell autoantigens, which is a concern when a putative inactivated enterovirus vaccine is considered.

  • 10.
    Istrate, Claudia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammarström, Lennart
    Division of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Individuals with selective IgA deficiency resolve rotavirus disease and develop higher antibody titers ( IgG, IgG1) than IgA competent individuals2008In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 531-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While IgA is proposed to be essential to control rotavirus disease, no information is available how IgA deficient individuals modulate rotavirus disease and immune responses. We report that individuals (n=62) with selective IgA deficiency ( IgA-D) (<0,05g/l) resolve rotavirus disease and show higher total IgG and IgG1 subclass antibody titers to rotavirus than IgA proficient individuals ( n=62) (GMT 18101 vs 4000 (p<0.005); 8463 vs 1691, (p<0.005). We conclude that IgA is not essential for resolving rotavirus infection in humans.

  • 11.
    Karlberg, Helen
    et al.
    Public Health Agency Sweden, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sharifi-Mood, Batool
    Zahedan University of Medical Science, Iran.
    Mousavi-Jazi, Mehrdad
    Public Health Agency Sweden, Sweden.
    Dilcher, Meik
    University of Medical Centre Gottingen, Germany.
    Lindegren, Gunnel
    Public Health Agency Sweden, Sweden.
    Mardani, Masoud
    Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Iran.
    Bereskly, Sandor
    Public Health Agency Sweden, Sweden.
    Weidmann, Manfred
    University of Stirling, Scotland.
    Mirazimi, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Public Health Agency Sweden, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden; National Vet Institute, Sweden.
    Molecular and Serological Findings in Suspected Patients With Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Iran2015In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 686-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an arthropod-borne disease of humans associated with a severe clinical picture, including hemorrhagic syndrome and a high mortality rate. CCHF virus is widely distributed throughout large areas of the world. To characterize the serological status in CCHF patients, paired clinical samples were collected from suspected CCHF patients and analyzed by microbiological and other laboratory analyses with the aim of: determining the presence of neutralizing antibodies against CCHF virus; investigating the cross-reactivity of these neutralizing antibodies against virus isolated from the same outbreak and against other available laboratory strain; and studying the relationship between the isolated virus with other virus by whole genome sequencing. Patients at Boo-Ali Hospital, Zahedan, Iran, with clinical symptoms ranging from mild to severe hemorrhagic fever were included in the study. Two serum samples were taken from each patient, the first as soon as the patient matched the criteria for CCHF notification and the second when the patient was discharged from hospital (2 weeks later). Commercial and in-house assays revealed a positive IgM signal in acute serum samples from six patients. A novel finding was that CCHF patients develop neutralizing antibodies soon after infection. Interestingly these antibodies were able to neutralize other CCHF virus strains too. The complete sequence of the Zahedan 2007 isolate, including the hitherto unknown first L-segment sequence, was identified using an original clinical sample from one patient with confirmed CCHF infection.

  • 12. Karttunen, A
    et al.
    Pöyry, T
    Vaarala, Outi
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Ilonen, J
    Hovi, T
    Roivainen, M
    Hyypiä, T
    Variation in enterovirus receptor genes.2003In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 70, p. 99-108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Kim, Min Seo
    et al.
    Korea Univ, South Korea; Sungkyunkwan Univ, South Korea.
    Jung, Se Yong
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Ahn, Jong Gyun
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Park, Se Jin
    Eulji Univ, South Korea.
    Shoenfeld, Yehuda
    St Petersburg State Univ, Russia; Tel Aviv Univ, Israel.
    Kronbichler, Andreas
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Univ Barcelona, Spain; ICREA, Spain; CIBERSAM, Spain.
    Dragioti, Elena
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Tizaoui, Kalthoum
    Univ Tunis El Manar, Tunisia.
    Hong, Sung Hwi
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Jacob, Louis
    Univ Barcelona, Spain; Univ Versailles St Quentin Yvelines, France.
    Salem, Joe-Elie
    Sorbonne Univ, France; Hop La Pitie Salpetriere, France.
    Yon, Dong Keon
    Seoul Natl Univ, South Korea.
    Lee, Seung Won
    Sejong Univ, South Korea.
    Ogino, Shuji
    Dana Farber Harvard Canc Ctr, MA USA; Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, MA USA; Harvard Med Sch, MA 02115 USA; Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, MA 02142 USA.
    Kim, Hanna
    Ewha Womans Univ, South Korea.
    Kim, Jerome H.
    Int Vaccine Inst, South Korea.
    Excler, Jean-Louis
    Int Vaccine Inst, South Korea.
    Marks, Florian
    Int Vaccine Inst, South Korea; Univ Cambridge, England; Univ Antananarivo, Madagascar.
    Clemens, John D.
    Int Vaccine Inst, South Korea; Int Ctr Diarrheal Dis Res, Bangladesh; UCLA Fielding Sch Publ Hlth, CA USA.
    Eisenhut, Michael
    Luton & Dunstable Univ Hosp, England.
    Barnett, Yvonne
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Butler, Laurie
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Ilie, Cristian Petre
    Queen Elizabeth Hosp Fdn Trust, England.
    Shin, Eui-Cheol
    Korea Adv Inst Sci & Technol, South Korea; Korea Adv Inst Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Shin, Jae Il
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Smith, Lee
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Comparative safety of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines to influenza vaccines: A pharmacovigilance analysis using WHO international database2022In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 94, no 3, p. 1085-1095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.

  • 14.
    Lee, Christine J.
    et al.
    New York Inst Technol, NY 11568 USA.
    Woo, Wongi
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Kim, Ah Young
    Kyung Hee Univ, South Korea; Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Yon, Dong Keon
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea; Kyung Hee Univ, South Korea.
    Lee, Seung Won
    Sejong Univ, South Korea; Sungkyunkwan Univ, South Korea.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Univ Barcelona, Spain; Pg Lluis Co 23, Spain.
    Kim, Min Seo
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, South Korea.
    Tizaoui, Kalthoum
    Tunis El Manar Univ, Tunisia.
    Dragioti, Elena
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Radua, Joaquim
    CIBERSAM, Spain; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Kings Coll London, England.
    Lee, Sungsoo
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Smith, Lee
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Il Shin, Jae
    Kyung Hee Univ, South Korea.
    Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 breakthrough infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis2022In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 94, no 9, p. 4234-4245Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To provide a comparative meta-analysis and systematic review of the risk and clinical outcomes of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection between fully vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. Eighteen studies of COVID-19 infections in fully vaccinated ("breakthrough infections") and unvaccinated individuals were reviewed from Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases. The meta-analysis examined the summary effects and between-study heterogeneity regarding differences in the risk of infection, hospitalization, treatments, and mortality between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. he overall risk of infection was lower for the fully vaccinated compared to that of the unvaccinated (relative risk [RR] 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19-0.21), especially for variants other than Delta (Delta: RR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.13-0.65; other variants: RR 0.06, 95% CI: 0.04-0.08). The risk of asymptomatic infection was not statistically significantly different between fully vaccinated and unvaccinated (RR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.27-1.19). There were neither statistically significant differences in risk of hospitalization (RR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.38-2.93), invasive mechanical ventilation (RR 1.65, 95% CI: 0.90-3.06), or mortality (RR 1.19, 95% CI: 0.79-1.78). Conversely, the risk of supplemental oxygen during hospitalization was significantly higher for the unvaccinated (RR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.08-1.82). Unvaccinated people were more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection than fully vaccinated for all variants. Once infected, there were no statistically significant differences in the risk of hospitalization, invasive mechanical ventilation, or mortality. Still, unvaccinated showed an increased need for oxygen supplementation. Further prospective analysis, including patients risk factors, COVID-19 variants, and the utilized treatment strategies, would be warranted.

  • 15.
    Oluwatoyin Japhet, Margaret
    et al.
    Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria .
    Adeyemi Adesina, Olufisayo
    Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria .
    Famurewa, Oladiran
    Ekiti State University, Nigeria .
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus and norovirus in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: High prevalence of G12P[8] rotavirus strains and detection of a rare norovirus genotype2012In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 84, no 9, p. 1489-1496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are considered the most common causes of viral gastroenteritis in children. In this study, the prevalence of RV and NoV infection in 55 children with diarrhea from the rural community Akinlalu in Southwestern Nigeria was investigated using real-time PCR assays. The RV and NoV strains were genotyped by PCR and/or sequencing. RV and NoV infections occurred with a prevalence of 34.5% and 25.5% respectively, with predominance in children andlt;1 year. Most infections occurred during the dry season with increasing prevalence of RV as the dry season progressed (OctoberJanuary). Infections with RV VP6 subgroup (SG) II were more prevalent (27.3%) than SGI (7.3%). Similarly, NoV genogroup II infections were more common (23.6%) than genogroup I (1.8%). Five children out of 55 (9.1%) were co-infected with both RV and NoV. Notably, G12P[8] was the predominant RV strain (36.8%, n?=?7), observed for the first time in Nigeria. The VP7 gene of the G12 strains clustered within lineage III, sharing high nucleotide identity with each other (andgt;99%) indicating introduction in Nigeria from a single donor. Furthermore, a putative novel genotype within genogroup I NoV was detected, which till date has only been reported once in humans. To conclude, a high prevalence of the emerging G12P[8] RV strain was observed for the first time in Nigeria, as well as a putative novel NoV genotype in humans. These results provide new information which can be important for future vaccine evaluations and possible introduction in Nigeria.

  • 16.
    Paananen, A
    et al.
    Finland.
    Savolainen-Kopra, C
    Finland.
    Kaijalainen, S
    Finland.
    Vaarala, Outi
    National Public Health Institute, Helsinki.
    Hovi, T
    Finland.
    Roivainen, M
    Finland.
    Genetic and phenotypic diversity of echovirus 30 strains and pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes2007In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 79, no 7, p. 945-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      Several enterovirus serotypes should be considered as potentially diabetogenic. The capacity of an enterovirus to kill or impair the functions of human -cells can vary among the strains within a given serotype as shown previously for echovirus 9 and 30 (E-30). The evolution of E-30 has also shown patterns correlating with the global increase of type 1 diabetes incidence. In the present study, antigenic properties of a set of E-30 isolates were investigated and the results correlated with the previously documented -cell destructive phenotype of the strains, or to genetic clustering of the strains. No simple correlation between the three properties was observed. A full-length infectious clone was constructed and sequenced from one of the isolates found to be most destructive to -cells (E-30/14916net87). Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that this strain was closely related to the E-30 prototype strain at the capsid coding region while outside the capsid region prototype strains of several other human enterovirus B serotypes clustered more closely. This suggests that the relatively greater pathogenicity of the strain might be based on properties of the genome outside of the structural protein coding region. Neutralizing antibody assays on sera from 100 type 1 diabetic patients and 100 controls using three different E-30 strains did not reveal differences between the groups. This finding does not support a previous proposition of aberrant antibody responses to E-30 in diabetic patients. It is concluded that identification of the genetic counterparts of pathogenicity of E-30 strains requires further studies.

  • 17.
    Park, Seung Hyun
    et al.
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Hong, Sung Hwi
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Kim, Kwanghyun
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Lee, Seung Won
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, South Korea.
    Yon, Dong Keon
    Kyung Hee Univ, South Korea.
    Jung, Sun Jae
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Abdeen, Ziad
    Al Quds Univ, Palestine.
    Abou Ghayda, Ramy
    Univ Hosp Case Western Reserve Univ, OH USA.
    Ahmed, Mohamed Lemine Cheikh Brahim
    Univ Nouakchott Al Aasriya, Mauritania; Mauritanian Assoc Sci Res Dev AMDRS, Mauritania.
    Al Serouri, Abdulwahed
    Yemen Field Epidemiol Training Program, Yemen.
    Al-Herz, Waleed
    Kuwait Univ, Kuwait.
    Al-Shamsi, Humaid O.
    Burjeel Med City, U Arab Emirates.
    Ali, Sheeza
    Maldives Natl Univ, Maldives.
    Ali, Kosar
    Univ Sulaimani, Iraq.
    Baatarkhuu, Oidov
    Mongolian Natl Univ Med Sci, Mongolia.
    Nielsen, Henning Bay
    Zealand Univ Hosp Roskilde, Denmark; Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bernini-Carri, Enrico
    Council Europe CEMEC, France.
    Bondarenko, Anastasiia
    Int European Univ, Ukraine.
    Cassell, Ayun
    John F Kennedy Med Ctr, NJ USA.
    Cham, Akway
    Univ Juba, South Sudan.
    Chua, Melvin L. K.
    Natl Canc Ctr Singapore, Singapore; Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore; Natl Canc Ctr Singapore, Singapore.
    Dadabhai, Sufia
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, MD USA.
    Darre, Tchin
    Univ Lome, Togo.
    Davtyan, Hayk
    TB Res & Prevent Ctr, Armenia.
    Dragioti, Elena
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    East, Barbora
    Charles Univ Prague, Czech Republic.
    Edwards, Robert Jeffrey
    Med Res Fdn Trinidad & Tobago, Trinidad Tobago.
    Ferioli, Martina
    IRCCS Azienda Osped Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Georgiev, Tsvetoslav
    Med Univ Varna, Bulgaria.
    Ghandour, Lilian A.
    Amer Univ Beirut, Lebanon.
    Harapan, Harapan
    Univ Syiah Kuala, Indonesia.
    Hsueh, Po-Ren
    China Med Univ, Taiwan; China Med Univ, Taiwan.
    Mallah, Saad I.
    Royal Coll Surg Ireland Bahrain, Bahrain.
    Ikram, Aamer
    Natl Inst Hlth, Pakistan.
    Inoue, Shigeru
    Tokyo Med Univ, Japan.
    Jacob, Louis
    ISCIII, Spain; Univ Versailles St Quentin En Yvelines, France.
    Jankovic, Slobodan M.
    Univ Kragujevac, Serbia.
    Jayarajah, Umesh
    Univ Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Jesenak, Milos
    Comenius Univ, Slovakia.
    Kakodkar, Pramath
    Natl Univ Ireland, Ireland.
    Kapata, Nathan
    Zambia Natl Publ Hlth Inst, Zambia.
    Kebede, Yohannes
    Jimma Univ, Ethiopia.
    Khader, Yousef
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Jordan.
    Kifle, Meron
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Koh, David
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore.
    Males, Visnja Kokic
    Univ Split, Croatia.
    Kotfis, Katarzyna
    Pomeranian Med Univ, Poland.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    ISCIII, Spain.
    Kretchy, James-Paul
    Cent Univ, Ghana.
    Lakoh, Sulaiman
    Univ Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone.
    Lee, Jinhee
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Lee, Jun Young
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Mendonca, Maria da Luz Lima
    Natl Publ Hlth Inst Cape Verde, Cape Verde.
    Ling, Lowell
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Llibre-Guerra, Jorge
    Natl Inst Neurol, Zimbabwe.
    Machida, Masaki
    Tokyo Med Univ, Japan.
    Makurumidze, Richard
    Univ Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe.
    Memish, Ziad A.
    Minist Hlth, Saudi Arabia; Alfaisal Univ, Saudi Arabia.
    Mendoza, Ivan
    Cent Univ Venezuela, Venezuela.
    Moiseev, Sergey
    Sechenov First Moscow State Med Univ, Russia.
    Nadasdy, Thomas
    St Parascheva Infect Dis Hosp, Romania.
    Nahshon, Chen
    Carmel Hosp, Israel.
    Namendys-Silva, Silvio A.
    Inst Nacl Cancerol, Mexico.
    Yongsi, Blaise Nguendo
    Univ Yaounde II, Cameroon.
    Nicolasora, Amalea Dulcene
    Res Inst Trop Med, Philippines.
    Nugmanova, Zhamilya
    Asfendiyarov Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Kazakhstan.
    Oh, Hans
    Univ Southern Calif, CA 90007 USA.
    Oksanen, Atte
    Tampere Univ, Finland.
    Owopetu, Oluwatomi
    Univ Coll Hosp, Nigeria.
    Ozguler, Zeynep Ozge
    Minist Hlth Turkey, Turkey.
    Parperis, Konstantinos
    Univ Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Perez, Gonzalo Emanuel
    Clin Olivos, Argentina.
    Pongpirul, Krit
    Chulalongkorn Univ, Thailand.
    Rademaker, Marius
    Clin Trials New Zealand, New Zealand.
    Radojevic, Nemanja
    Clin Ctr Montenegro, Montenegro.
    Roca, Anna
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Gambia.
    Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.
    Fdn Univ Autonoma Amer, Colombia; Univ Cient Sur, Peru; Lebanese Amer Univ, Lebanon.
    Roshi, Enver
    Univ Med Tirana, Albania.
    Saeed, Khwaja Mir Islam
    Afghanistan Natl Publ Hlth Inst ANPHI, Afghanistan.
    Sah, Ranjit
    Tribhuvan Univ Teaching Hosp, Nepal.
    Sakakushev, Boris
    RIMU Res Inst Med Univ Plovdiv, Bulgaria; Chair Propedeut Surg Dis, Bulgaria; Univ Hosp St George, Bulgaria.
    Sallam, Dina E.
    Ain Shams Univ, Egypt.
    Sathian, Brijesh
    Rumailah Hosp, Qatar.
    Schober, Patrick
    Amsterdam UMC Locat Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Ali, P. Shaik Syed
    Maldives Natl Univ, Maldives.
    Simonovic, Zoran
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Slovenia.
    Singhal, Tanu
    Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hosp & Res Inst, India.
    Skhvitaridze, Natia
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Georgia.
    Solmi, Marco
    Univ Ottawa, Canada; Dept Mental Hlth, Canada; Charite, Germany.
    Subbaram, Kannan
    Maldives Natl Univ, Maldives.
    Tizaoui, Kalthoum
    Univ Tunis El Manar, Tunisia.
    Tlhakanelo, John Thato
    Univ Botswana, Botswana.
    Torales, Julio
    Natl Univ Asuncion, Paraguay.
    Torres-Roman, Junior Smith
    Univ Cient Sur, Peru.
    Tsartsalis, Dimitrios
    Hippokrateion Hosp, Greece.
    Tsolmon, Jadamba
    MNUMS, Mongolia.
    Vieira, Duarte Nuno
    Univ Coimbra, Portugal.
    Rosa, Sandro G. Viveiros
    Inst Nacl Propriedade Ind, Brazil.
    Wanghi, Guy
    Univ Kinshasa, DEM REP CONGO.
    Wollina, Uwe
    Acad Teaching Hosp, Germany.
    Xu, Ren-He
    Univ Macau, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Lin
    Univ Calgary, Canada.
    Zia, Kashif
    Univ Glasgow, Scotland.
    Zildzic, Muharem
    Acad Med Sci Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bosnia & Herceg.
    Shin, Jae Il
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Smith, Lee
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Nonpharmaceutical interventions reduce the incidence and mortality of COVID-19: A study based on the survey from the International COVID-19 Research Network (ICRN)2023In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 95, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recently emerged novel coronavirus, "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)," caused a highly contagious disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has severely damaged the worlds most developed countries and has turned into a major threat for low- and middle-income countries. Since its emergence in late 2019, medical interventions have been substantial, and most countries relied on public health measures collectively known as nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). We aimed to centralize the accumulative knowledge of NPIs against COVID-19 for each country under one worldwide consortium. International COVID-19 Research Network collaborators developed a cross-sectional online survey to assess the implications of NPIs and sanitary supply on the incidence and mortality of COVID-19. The survey was conducted between January 1 and February 1, 2021, and participants from 92 countries/territories completed it. The association between NPIs, sanitation supplies, and incidence and mortality were examined by multivariate regression, with the log-transformed value of population as an offset value. The majority of countries/territories applied several preventive strategies, including social distancing (100.0%), quarantine (100.0%), isolation (98.9%), and school closure (97.8%). Individual-level preventive measures such as personal hygiene (100.0%) and wearing facial masks (94.6% at hospitals; 93.5% at mass transportation; 91.3% in mass gathering facilities) were also frequently applied. Quarantine at a designated place was negatively associated with incidence and mortality compared to home quarantine. Isolation at a designated place was also associated with reduced mortality compared to home isolation. Recommendations to use sanitizer for personal hygiene reduced incidence compared to the recommendation to use soap. Deprivation of masks was associated with increased incidence. Higher incidence and mortality were found in countries/territories with higher economic levels. Mask deprivation was pervasive regardless of economic level. NPIs against COVID-19 such as using sanitizer, quarantine, and isolation can decrease the incidence and mortality of COVID-19.

  • 18.
    Piedade, Joao
    et al.
    Univ Nova Lisboa, Portugal.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Esteves, Filipa
    Univ Nova Lisboa, Portugal.
    Esteves, Aida
    Univ Nova Lisboa, Portugal.
    Teodosio, Rosa
    Univ Nova, Portugal.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Istrate, Claudia
    Univ Nova Lisboa, Portugal.
    Molecular epidemiology and host genetics of norovirus and rotavirus infections in Portuguese elderly living in aged care homes2019In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 91, no 6, p. 1014-1021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Norovirus (NoV) and rotavirus group A (RVA) are major agents of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. This study aimed to investigate their epidemiological profile in Portuguese elderly living in long-term care facilities and to assess the host genetic factors mediating infection susceptibility. From November 2013 to June 2015, 636 faecal specimens from 169 elderly, mainly asymptomatic, living in nursing homes in Greater Lisbon and Faro district, Portugal, were collected. NoV and RVA were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and NoV genotyped by phylogenetic analysis. NoV detection rate was 7.1% (12 of 169). Three GI.3 and one GII.6 strains were genotyped. RVA detection rate was 3.6% (6 of 169), exclusively in asymptomatic individuals. Host genetic factors associated with infection susceptibility were described on 250 samples by saliva-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The Lewis-negative phenotype was 8.8% (22 of 250) and the rate of nonsecretors was 16.8% (42 of 250). Association to NoV and RVA infection was performed in the subgroup of individuals (n = 147) who delivered both faecal and saliva samples. The majority of NoV- and RVA-positive individuals (90.9% and 83.3%, respectively) were secretor-positive, with Lewis B phenotype. In a subset of individuals, FUT2 and FUT3 genes were genotyped to assess mutations and validate the secretor and Lewis phenotypes. All sequenced nonsecretors were homozygous for FUT2 nonsense mutation G428A. In this study, low detection rates of NoV and RVA infections were found during two winter seasons. However, even in the absence of any outbreak, the importance of finding these infections in a nonepidemic situation in long-term care facilities may have important implications for infection control.

  • 19. Rodriguez-Diaz, Jesús
    et al.
    Banasaz, Mahanez
    Istrate, Claudia
    Buesa, Javier
    Lundgren, Ove
    Espinoza, Felix
    Sundqvist, Tommy
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology.
    Rottenberg, Martin
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular Virology.
    Role of nitric oxide during rotavirus infection2006In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 78, no 7, p. 979-985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pathophysiological mechanisms behind rotavirus-induced diarrhoea still remain incomplete. Current views suggest that the non-structural protein 4 (NSP4) of rotavirus and the enteric nervous system (ENS) participate in water secretion and diarrhoea. In the present work the role of nitric oxide (NO) in rotavirus infection and disease has been studied in vitro, mice and humans. Incubation of human intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29) with purified NSP4 but not with infectious virus produced NO2/NO3 accumulation in the incubation media. The NSP4-induced release of NO metabolites occurred within the first minutes after the addition of the toxin. Mice infected with murine rotavirus (strain EDIM) accumulated NO2/NO3 in the urine at the onset for diarrhoea. Following rotavirus infection, inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) mRNA was upregulated in ileum, but not in duodenum or jejunum of newborn pups within 5 days post-infection. A prospective clinical study including 46 children with acute rotavirus infection and age-matched controls concluded that rotavirus infection stimulates NO production during the course of the disease (P < 0.001). These observations identify NO as an important mediator of host responses during rotavirus infection. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • 20. Saijets, Salla
    et al.
    Ylipaasto, P
    Vaarala, Outi
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Hovi, Tapani
    Roivainen, Merja
    Enterovirus infection and activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells2003In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 430-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gastrointestinal tract associated lymphoid tissue is considered to be the main replication site for enteroviruses. In order to invade tissues to reach pancreatic islets, cardiac muscles, and other secondary replication sites, the virus has to survive circulation in the blood and find a way to get through endothelial cells. In the present study, the susceptibility of human endothelial cells to infections caused by human parechovirus 1 and several prototype strains of enteroviruses, representing different species (human poliovirus, human enterovirus B and C), and acting through different receptor families was examined. Primary endothelial cells isolated from human umbilical vein by collagenase perfusion and also an established human endothelial cell line, HUVEC, were used. Primary endothelial cells were highly susceptible to several serotypes of enteroviruses (coxsackievirus A13, echoviruses 6, 7, 11, 30, and poliovirus 1). However, coxsackievirus A 9 and echovirus 1 infected only a few individual cells while human parechovirus 1 and coxsackie B viruses did not show evidence of replication in primary endothelial cells. In general, primary endothelial cells were more sensitive to infection-induced cytolytic effect than HUVEC. Activation of endothelial cells by interleukin-1▀ did not change the pattern of enterovirus infection. Immunofluorescence stainings of infected primary endothelial cells showed that expression of activation markers, E-selectin, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, was clearly increased by several virus infections and the former molecule also by exposing cells to UV-light inactivated coxsackieviruses. In contrast, human leukocyte antigen-DR expression was not increased by virus infection.

  • 21.
    Sharma, Sumit
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology.
    Hagbom, Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology.
    Frodlund, Jonas
    Vastervik Hosp, Sweden.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Detection of rotavirus- and norovirus-specific IgG memory B cells in tonsils2019In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 326-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are transmitted through the fecal-oral route, tonsils due to their location within the oropharynx may sample or become infected with these viruses. We investigated if RV and NoV RNA/antigen, or virus-specific memory/plasma B cells can be detected in the tonsils. While neither RV/NoV antigen, nor genomic RNA was detected, 90% (27/30) of tonsils tested had RV- and NoV-specific IgG memory B cells. However, the mechanism explaining how these cells get there (whether because of local induction or homing after induction at other sites) and the role these cells might play during active infection is not yet clear.

  • 22.
    Simonen-Tikka, Marja-Leena
    et al.
    National Institute Health and Welf, Finland .
    Hiekka, Anna-Kaisa
    National Institute Health and Welf, Finland .
    Klemola, Paivi
    National Institute Health and Welf, Finland .
    Poussa, Tuija
    StatConsulting TuijaPoussa, Finland .
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Korpela, Riitta
    University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Vaarala, Outi
    National Institute Health and Welf, Finland .
    Roivainen, Merja
    National Institute Health and Welf, Finland .
    Early human enterovirus infections in healthy Swedish children participating in the PRODIA pilot study2012In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 84, no 6, p. 923-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human enteroviruses (HEV) are common, especially in childhood and during the enterovirus season, causing mainly asymptomatic infections but also mild and severe illnesses. Numerous studies have shown the association between HEV infections and type 1 diabetes. Here, the prevalence of HEV infections was studied in healthy Swedish children with increased HLA-associated risk for type 1 diabetes participating in the PRODIA pilot study in which children were randomized to receive probiotics or placebo during the first 6 months of life. Stool specimens collected from 197 children in every 3 months from the age of 3 to 24 months were screened for HEV using traditional viral culturing method and identified with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing of the partial VP1 coding part of the viral genome. Altogether 4.8% (52/1,094) of the specimens were HEV-positive and 22.3% (44/197) of the children excreted HEV during the follow-up. HEV-A and HEV-B were present in 2.1 and 2.7% of the specimens, respectively. HEV-C and HEV-D viruses were not detected. In total, 17 different HEV serotypes were detected and the most common findings were CV-A9 (13.5%), CV-A16 (11.5%), and CV-A2 (9.6%). The majority of the infections (92.3%) were during the enterovirus season extending from July to December. Probiotic treatment did not affect significantly the risk of HEV infections during the 2-year follow-up although a trend for transient decrease for HEV positivity (HEV-A and/or HEV-B) by the age of 12 months was observed in children who received probiotics [OR 0.40; 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 1.08; P-value 0.071, generalized estimating (GEE) analysis]. According to the results, HEV-A findings were nearly as common as HEV-B findings among the healthy children participating in this study. Also it was shown that serotypes belonging to HEV-A species can be detected by means of viral culturing.

  • 23.
    Vandesande, Helena
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Edman, Kjell
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Rondahl, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Falkeborn, Tina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Serrander, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Lindberg, A. Michael
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Saffold virus infection in elderly people with acute gastroenteritis in Sweden2021In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 93, no 6, p. 3980-3984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Viral gastroenteritis is a major source of morbidity and mortality, predominantly caused by so-called NOROAD viruses (norovirus, rotavirus, and adenovirus). In approximately onethird of all cases, however, the exact etiology is unknown. The in 2007 discovered human cardiovirus Saffold virus (SAFV) may prove to be a plausible candidate to explain this diagnostic gap. This virus, a member of the Picornaviridae family which is closely related to the murine viruses Theilers murine encephalomyelitis virus and Theravirus, is a widespread pathogen and causes infection early in life. Screening of 238 fecal or vomitus samples obtained from NOROAD-negative, elderly patients with acute gastroenteritis at the University Hospital of Linkoping showed that SAFV is present in low abundance (4.6%). Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed a Swedish isolate belonging to the highly common and in Europe widespread SAFV-3 genotype. This genotype is also related to previously reported Asian strains. This study describes the first molecular typing of a Swedish SAFV isolate and is the first report to document the circulation of SAFV among elderly people. The pathogenicity of SAFV is, as of yet, still under debate; further studies are necessary to determine its role in the development of disease.

  • 24.
    Viskari, Hanna
    et al.
    JDRF Center for Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes, Finland and Department of Virology, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Uibo, Raivo
    Department of Immunology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Salur, Lina
    Department of Immunology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Marciulionyte, Dalia
    Institute of Endocrinology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania.
    Hermann, Robert
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.
    Soltesz, Gyula
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.
    Fuchtenbusch, Martin
    Diabetes Research Institute, Münich, Germany.
    Ziegler, Anette-G
    Diabetes Research Institute, Münich, Germany.
    Kondrashova, Anita
    JDRF Center for Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes, Finland, Department of Virology, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland, Department of Pediatrics, University of Petrozavodsk, Russia.
    Romanov, Anatolij
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Petrozavodsk, Russia.
    Knip, Mikael
    JDRF Center for Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes, Finland, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Department of Pediatrics, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland .
    Hyoty, Heikki
    JDRF Center for Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes, Finland, Department of Virology, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Center for Laboratory Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
    Relationship between the Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes and Enterovirus Infections in Different European Populations: Results from the EPIVIR Project2004In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 610-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes varies markedly between countries. As enterovirus infections have been linked to type 1 diabetes, we determined whether this variation correlates with the frequency of enterovirus infections in different Caucasian populations in Europe. Enterovirus antibodies were examined in the background population (1-year-old and 10-14-year-old children) in seven countries with either exceptionally high (Finland and Sweden) or low/intermediate incidence of diabetes (Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Russia) using EIA and neutralisation assays. Enterovirus antibodies were less frequent in countries with high diabetes incidence compared to countries with low diabetes incidence (P < 0.001). This suggests that enterovirus infections are not particularly common in countries with high diabetes incidence. In contrast, there seems to be an inverse correlation between the incidence of type 1 diabetes and enterovirus infections in the background population, which is in line with the previously proposed polio hypothesis according to which the complications of enterovirus infections become more common in an environment with a decreased rate of infections. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • 25.
    Wang, Z
    et al.
    The Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Konya, J
    The Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åvall Lundkvist, Elisabeth
    Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sapp, M
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    Dillner, J
    The Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dillner, L
    The Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Clinical Virology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Human papillomavirus antibody responses among patients with incident cervical carcinoma.1997In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 52, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as a major cause of cervical cancer precursor lesions. HPV serology is a key method in the continuing elucidation of the importance of HPV exposure for cancer development and in predicting HPV-associated diseases. To extend previous HPV serological studies on cervical cancer, serum samples from a consecutive series of 216 women with incident untreated cervical carcinoma and 243 age- and sex-matched healthy blood donors were evaluated for the presence of antibodies against HPV capsids, a marker of past or present HPV exposure, as well as against several cervical cancer-associated defined HPV epitopes. Among the capsid antibody responses, HPV type 16 seropositivity had the strongest association with cervical cancer (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8-4.2), but HPV 18 and HPV 33 seropositivities were also significantly associated with cervical cancer (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.5; and OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2, respectively). The antibody responses against the defined HPV epitopes were confirmed to be associated with cervical cancer, at ORs ranging from 1.4 to 2.0. In conclusion, the study confirms that antibodies against defined HPV epitopes are associated with cervical cancer and provides evidence that seropositivities for HPV types 16, 18, and 33 are associated with cervical cancer risk.

  • 26.
    Wei, Jianhua
    et al.
    Chongqing Med Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zang, Na
    Chongqing Med Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Jing
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    He, Yu
    Chongqing Med Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Haixia
    Chongqing Med Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xiangyu
    Chongqing Med Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Ximing
    Chongqing Med Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ren, Luo
    Chongqing Med Univ, Peoples R China.
    Deng, Yu
    Chongqing Med Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Jianguo
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Seto, Donald
    George Mason Univ, VA USA.
    Zhong, Wen
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Zhang, Qiwei
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China; Southern Med Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Enmei
    Chongqing Med Univ, Peoples R China.
    Genome and proteomic analysis of risk factors for fatal outcome in children with severe community-acquired pneumonia caused by human adenovirus 72023In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 95, no 11, article id e29182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Human adenovirus 7 (HAdV-7) is an important viral pathogen of severe pneumonia in children and a serious threat to health. Methods: A cohort of 45 pediatric patients diagnosed with HAdV-7-associated severe pneumonia and admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit at the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from May 2018 to January 2020 were included. Risk factors of death were analyzed by the Cox proportional risk mode with Clinical data, serum, and nasopharyngeal aspirate adenovirus load, Genome analysis, Olink proteomics, and cytokine profile between dead and surviving patients were also analyzed. Results: A total of 45 children with a median age of 12.0 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 6.5, 22.0) were included (female 14), including 14 (31.1%) who died. High serum viral load was an independent risk factor for mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-4.49, p = 0.039). BTB and CNC homology 1 (BACH1), interleukin-5 (IL-5), and IL-9 levels were significantly correlated with serum viral load (p = 0.0400, 0.0499, and 0.0290; r = 0.4663, 0.3339, and -0.3700, respectively), with significant differences between the dead and survival groups (p = 0.021, 0.001, and 0.021). Conclusions: Severe cytokine storm-associated high serum viral load after HAdV-7 infection may be the main mechanism responsible for poor prognosis in children.

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