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  • 1.
    Altimiras, Jordi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gräns, Albin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ontogeny of vocalizations and movements in response to cooling in chickens fetuses2007Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 91, s. 229-239Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Arvidsson, Josefin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Amundin, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Successful acquisition of an olfactory discrimination test by Asian elephants,Elephas maximus2012Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 105, nr 3, s. 809-814Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study demonstrates that Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, can successfully be trained to cooperatein an olfactory discrimination test based on a food-rewarded two-alternative instrumental conditioningprocedure. The animals learned the basic principle of the test within only 60 trials and readily mastered intramodalstimulus transfer tasks. Further, they were capable of distinguishing between structurally related odorstimuli and remembered the reward value of previously learned odor stimuli after 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks ofrecess without any signs of forgetting. The precision and consistency of the elephants' performance in testsof odor discrimination ability and long-term odor memory demonstrate the suitability of this method forassessing olfactory function in this proboscid species. An across-species comparison of several measuresof olfactory learning capabilities such as speed of initial task acquisition and ability to master intramodalstimulus transfer tasks shows that Asian elephants are at least as good in their performance as mice, rats,and dogs, and clearly superior to nonhuman primates and fur seals. The results support the notion thatAsian elephants may use olfactory cues for social communication and food selection and that the sense ofsmell may play an important role in the control of their behavior.

  • 3.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Nobel Inst Neurophysiol, Stockholm.
    Nilsson, J
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Nobel Inst Neurophysiol, Stockholm.
    Arhem, P
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Nobel Inst Neurophysiol, Stockholm.
    On the opening of voltage-gated ion channels2007Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 92, nr 1-2, s. 1-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Voltage-gated ion channels are key players in fast neuronal signalling Detailed knowledge about channel gating is essential for our understanding of channel function in general and of drug action of channels in particular. Despite a number of recent atomic channel structures, the opening of voltage-gated channels is the subject of heated debates. Here we will discuss two of the controversies: one concerning the mechanism of opening and closing the pore, and the other concerning the location and movement of the voltage sensor. The channels were originally suggested to open at a conserved proline rich sequence (PVP) at the intracellular end of the transmembrane segment 6 (S6). The crystallization of a channel in the open state instead suggested an opening involving a conserved glycine hinge located in the middle portion of S6. Based on pharmacological studies, autodocking and molecular dynamics simulations we have found support for the PVP-bend model. The voltage sensor, transmembrane segment 4 (S4), was originally suggested to be buried in the channel protein, undergoing a helical-screw-like motion to open the channel. A recent crystallographic study suggested that S4 is located in the periphery, facing lipid, and undergoing a paddle-like motion to open the channel We have found experimental evidence for a novel helical-screw model; with the voltage sensor moving in a screw-like fashion but being located in the periphery of the channel. This model opens up for understanding how lipophilic drugs and toxins directly affect the voltage sensor.

  • 4.
    Ericsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fallahsharoudi, Amir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kushnir, Mark M.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens2014Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 133, s. 161-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due tothe domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses,withmodifiedendocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), thedomesticWhite Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed toan acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. Theywere then continuouslymonitored for theeffects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from thechicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples wereanalyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determinedusing validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behaviouralresponse was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baselinewithin 1 h. In WL, somebehaviourswere affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrationsof corticosterone increasedmore in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared toWL. A range of baseline levelsfor HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WLthan in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, butalso recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery ofdomesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output.

  • 5.
    Jensen, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Keeling, L.,
    Department of Animal Environment and Health Swedish University of Agricultural Science.
    Schütz, K.,
    AgResearch, Animal Behaviour and Welfare, New Zealand.
    Andersson, L.,
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology Uppsala university.
    Morméde, P.,
    Neuroge´ne´tique et Stress Institut Francois Magendie, France.
    Brändström, H.,
    Department of Medical Sciences Uppsala university.
    Forkman, B.,
    Department of Animal Science and Animal Health Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Denmark.
    Kerje, S.,
    dDepartment of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology Uppsala university.
    Fredriksson, R.,
    dDepartment of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology Uppsala university.
    Ohlsson, C.,
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg.
    Mallmin, H.,
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Orthopedics University Hospital, Uppsala.
    Kindmark, A.,
    Department of Medical Sciences Uppsala university.
    Feather pecking in chickens is genetically related to behavioural and developmental traits2005Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 86, s. 52-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Kalafateli, Aimilia Lydia
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vallof, Daniel
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jornulf, Julia Winsa
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Jerlhag, Elisabet
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A cannabinoid receptor antagonist attenuates ghrelin-induced activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system in mice2018Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 184, s. 211-219Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ghrelin has been attributed various physiological processes including food intake and reward regulation, through activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Reward modulation involves the mesolimbic dopamine system, consisting of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons targeting nucleus accumbens (NAc), a system that ghrelin activates through VTA-dependent mechanisms. In the first study, we found that systemic intraperitoneal (ip) administration of rimonabant attenuated intracerebroventricular (icv) ghrelins ability to cause locomotor stimulation and NAc dopamine release in mice. Ghrelin-induced (icv) chow intake was not altered by rimonabant administration (ip). Finally, we showed that bilateral VTA administration of rimonabant blocks the ability of intra-VTA administered ghrelin to increase locomotor activity, but does not affect food intake in mice. Collectively, these data indicate clear dissociation between regulation of food intake and activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system.

  • 7.
    Lahger, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Behavioral responses of CD-1 mice to conspecific and heterospecific blood odors and to a blood odor component2018Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 184, s. 205-210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The odor of blood may have both aversive and attractive properties for mammals, depending on the species of the odor donor and the species perceiving the odor. To better understand the informational content of blood odor for a prey species we assessed behavioral responses of male CD-1 mice (n = 60) to the odor of blood of same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics, of a natural predator of mice (cat), and of a herbivore (horse) and an omnivore (human) non-predator of mice. Further, we assessed their behavior towards the mammalian blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal which recent studies have shown to be as attractive to mammalian predators as the odor of real blood. A two-compartment test arena was used to record approach/avoidance behavior when the animals were presented with an odor in one compartment and a blank control in the other compartment. We found that both conspecific and heterospecific blood odors elicited significant avoidance behavior in the mice whereas a control odor (n-pentyl acetate) did not. The blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal was also significantly avoided and thus appears to play an important role in the perception of mammalian blood odor in this prey species. These results support the notion that mammalian blood odor contains an olfactory warning signal which elicits an adaptive behavioral avoidance response in a prey species, the mouse. Our finding that the mice avoided the mammalian blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to the same degree as the odor of real blood suggests that this volatile compound might be (part of) this warning signal.

  • 8.
    Larsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Maitz, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustatory responsiveness to the 20 proteinogenic amino acids in the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi)2014Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 127, s. 20-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The gustatory responsiveness of four adult spider monkeys to the 20 proteinogenic amino acids was assessed in two-bottle preference tests of brief duration (1 min). We found that Ateles geoffroyi responded with significant preferences for seven amino acids (glycine, l-proline, l-alanine, l-serine, l-glutamic acid, l-aspartic acid, and l-lysine) when presented at a concentration of 100 mM and/or 200 mM and tested against water. At the same concentrations, the animals significantly rejected five amino acids (l-tryptophan, l-tyrosine, l-valine, l-cysteine, and l-isoleucine) and were indifferent to the remaining tastants. Further, the results show that the spider monkeys discriminated concentrations as low as 0.2 mM l-lysine, 2 mM l-glutamic acid, 10 mM l-proline, 20 mM l-valine, 40 mM glycine, l-serine, and l-aspartic acid, and 80 mM l-alanine from the alternative stimulus, with individual animals even scoring lower threshold values. A comparison between the taste qualities of the proteinogenic amino acids as described by humans and the preferences and aversions observed in the spider monkeys suggests a fairly high degree of agreement in the taste quality perception of these tastants between the two species. A comparison between the taste preference thresholds obtained with the spider monkeys and taste detection thresholds reported in human subjects suggests that the taste sensitivity of A. geoffroyi for the amino acids tested here might match that of Homo sapiens. The results support the assumption that the taste responses of spider monkeys to proteinogenic amino acids might reflect an evolutionary adaptation to their frugivorous and thus protein-poor diet.

  • 9.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svelander, M.
    Amundin, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Successful acquisition of an olfactory discrimination paradigm by South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus2008Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 93, nr 4-5, s. 1033-1038Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study demonstrates that South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus, can successfully be trained to discriminate between objects on the basis of odor cues. Using a task based on a food-rewarded two-choice discrimination of simultaneously presented odor stimuli the animals acquired the basic operant conditioning paradigm within 480 to 880 stimulus contacts. Moreover, the fur seals could readily transfer to new S+ and S- stimuli, were capable of distinguishing between fish- and non-fish odors as well as between two fish odors, and were able to remember the reward value of previously learned odor stimuli even after 2- and 15-week breaks. The precision and consistency of the fur seals' performance in tests of discrimination ability and memory demonstrate the suitability of this paradigm for assessing olfactory function in this pinniped. An across-species comparison of several measures of olfactory learning capabilities such as speed of initial task acquisition and ability to master transfer tasks shows that A. pusillus is similar in performance to non-human primates, but inferior to rodents such as mice and rats. The results support the assumption that fur seals may use olfactory cues for social communication and food selection and that the sense of smell may play an hitherto underestimated role in the control of their behavior. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Lee, Ye-Seul
    et al.
    Kyung Hee Univ, South Korea.
    Sehlstedt, Isac
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Neurofysiologiska kliniken US.
    Jung, Won-Mo
    Kyung Hee Univ, South Korea.
    Wallraven, Christian
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Chae, Younbyoung
    Kyung Hee Univ, South Korea.
    Visual and physical affective touch delivered by a rotary tactile stimulation device: A human psychophysical study2018Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 185, s. 55-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The discovery that pleasant touch is coded by C-tactile fibers has generated considerable research interest and increased understanding of the skin as a channel for social information via cutaneous senses. However, no study has differentiated between the pleasant response to visual and tactile non-human stimulations. Our study investigated pleasant touch in which the visual and haptic touch information was obtained from an affective, but non-social experience, by a custom-built non-human device. Participants (n = 19) received soft brush strokes on their lower left arm delivered by a rotary tactile stimulator (physical session) or watched a video of an arm being stroked by a rotary tactile stimulator (visual session). The brush strokes were delivered at the same velocities (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 cm/s) and force (0.4 N) in both sessions. After each trial, participants rated the pleasantness of the touch. Analysis of variance was used to assess the effects of velocity and modality (visual touch vs. physical touch) on the pleasantness rating. Participants rated strokes between 1 and 10 cm/s as most pleasant under both conditions. The pleasantness rating patterns differed significantly among velocities; however, no significant differences were found between modalities. Visual and physical (without human-to-human interaction) touch elicited similar behavioral responses, including an inverted U-shaped perception of pleasantness. These findings suggest that the pleasantness of touch is influenced by the velocity of the strokes in both visual and physical touch with a non-human stimulation.

  • 11.
    Luong, Amanda
    et al.
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Bendas, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Technical University of Dresden, Germany; Dammstr 1, Germany.
    Etzi, Roberta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. University of Milano Bicocca, Italy.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Croy, Ilona
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    The individual preferred velocity of stroking touch as a stable measurement2017Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 177, s. 129-134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Affective touch is of fundamental importance in human social interactions and there is an increasing interest in using touch as a probe for general affective perception. To this end, we developed a test of preferred velocity (ToP-V) of touch and tested whether the individually preferred stroking velocity is a stable and valid measurement. In study one, thirty healthy participants (18-30 years, 17 women) were examined with the ToP-V. Therefore, pairs of different slow stroking stimuli were presented by the Rotary Tactile Stimulator a robotic device - on the forearm and the participants chose the velocity they preferred in a forced choice paradigm. A retest was conducted after about 12 days. In study two, twenty-two healthy participants (20-43 years, 11 women) were tested with a shorter version of the ToP-V on the forearm and also on the palm. Moreover, they rated the pleasantness and the intensity of the stroking stimulations on both body sites. Results suggest that humans possess an individual and stable preferred velocity of stroking touch (test-retest reliability r = 0.86) which can be tested in a standardized procedure. A shortened 5 min version of the ToP-V also exhibited reasonable test characteristics (split half reliability: r = 0.7; test-retest reliability r = 0.77). The ToP-V correlated well with the pleasantness ratings when tested on the forearm (r = 0.65), but not when tested on the palm (r = 0.22), indicating that the ToP-V targets a C-tactile nerve fiber specific perception. Hence, the ToP-V can be used for reliably probing affective touch perception.

  • 12.
    Moe, Randi Opperman
    et al.
    School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway.
    Nordgreen, Janicke
    School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway.
    Janczak, Andrew M.
    School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway.
    Bakken, Morten
    NMBU, Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Aas, Norway.
    Spruijt, Berry M
    University of Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Anticipatory and foraging behaviors in response to palatable food rewardin chickens: Effects of dopamine D2 receptor blockade and domestication2014Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 133, s. 170-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Behaviors associatedwith anticipation and search for palatable foodmay provide information about dopaminergicreward processes and positivemotivational affect in animals. The overall aimwas to investigate the involvement ofdopamine signaling in the regulation of cue-induced anticipation and search for palatable food reward in chicken,and whether domestication has affected expression of reward-related behaviors. The specific aimswere to describeeffects of mealworms (palatable food for hens) and haloperidol (a dopamine D2 antagonist) onforaging behaviors and cue-induced anticipatory behaviors in Red Junglefowl (RJF; the wild ancestor of modernlaying hens) and awhite layer hybrid (LSL). RJF (n=26) and LSL (n=20)were initially trained on a conditioningschedule to anticipate mealworms (unconditioned stimulus; US) 25 s after exposure to a red light (conditionedstimulus; CS). For the experiment, hens received haloperidol or saline injections 30 min before exposure to oneCS + US combination. Behavior was registered 10 min before CS and 10 min after US (foraging behaviors), andduring the CS–US interval (anticipatory behaviors). Higher frequencies of CS-induced anticipatory head movements,faster approach to rewards, and higher frequency of foraging behaviors were found in LSL compared toRJF. Haloperidol suppressed CS-induced headmovements in both breeds, and the frequency of foraging behaviorsafter reward delivery. The results support a role of dopamine signaling in the regulation of reward processes inchickens, and suggest that domestication has changed the threshold for perceiving food incentives and/or forexpressing reward-related behaviors that may be indicative of positive motivational affect in hens.

  • 13.
    Sörensen, Ida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Amundin, Mats
    Kolmarden Wildlife Pk, Sweden.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) are able to detect hidden food using olfactory cues alone2019Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 202, s. 69-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) are known to strongly rely on chemical signals for social communication. However, little is known about their use of the sense of smell in foraging and food detection. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether captive meerkats are able to (1) detect hidden food using olfactory cues alone, (2) discriminate between the odor of real food and a single food odor component, and (3) build an association between the odor of real food and a novel odor. We employed the buried food test, widely used with rodents to assess basic olfactory abilities and designed to take advantage of the propensity of certain species to dig. We found that the meerkats were clearly able to find all four food types tested (mouse, thicken, mealworm, banana) using olfactory cues alone and that they successfully discriminated between the odor of real food (banana) and a food odor component (iso-pentyl acetate). In both tasks, the animals dug in the food-bearing corner of the test arena as the first one significantly more often than in the other three corners. No significant association-building between a food odor and a novel odor was found within the 60 trials performed per animal. We conclude that meerkats are able to use olfactory cues when foraging for hidden food. Further, we conclude that the buried food test, employed for the first time with a non-rodent species, is a useful means of assessing basic olfactory capabilities in meerkats.

  • 14.
    Triscoli, Chantal
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Croy, Ilona
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Sailer, Uta
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Touch between romantic partners: Being stroked is more pleasant than stroking and decelerates heart rate2017Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 177, s. 169-175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Touch has been found to entail positive effects in the person receiving it, whereas effects on the person giving touch have previously been unexplored. We investigated whether stroking the partner also is a pleasant experience for the person performing it, and whether it has similar effects on well-being and autonomic nervous function as being stroked or stroking oneself. Furthermore, we compared the hedonic and autonomic nervous effects of strolcing the partner and self-stroking. Methods: In the first experiment, 40 subjects stroked the forearm of their respective partner, while ratings of pleasantness were obtained from both Stroker and Receiver. Heart rate was monitored throughout the session and stroking velocity was tracked. The participants could not see each other faces during the experiment to avoid feedback. In experiment 2, the design was replicated with 20 subjects, and self-stroking and rest conditions were added. Results: Both stroking the partner and self-stroking were performed within a velocity range optimal for activating C-tactile cutaneous afferents. Being stroked, stroking the partner, and self-stroking were all perceived as pleasant. However, being stroked entailed the significantly highest pleasantness ratings, and being stroked was the only condition that significantly decreased heart rate. Individuals in satisfying relationships were more pleased to be touched by their partner and showed a greater decline in heart rate when being touched. Discussion: The data demonstrated a role for affective touch in the regulation of heart rate when being stroked. The absence of autonomic effects when providing the stroking may be due to the absence of visual feedback from the person being stroked. The high pleasantness of giving and receiving touch may foster affective tactile interactions among romantic partners, thus reinforcing the relationship.

  • 15.
    Ulfendahl, Mats
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hu, Zhengqing
    Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olivius, Petri
    Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Duan, Maoli
    Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wei, Dongguang
    Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A cell therapy approach to substitute neural elements in the inner ear2007Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 92, nr 1-2, s. 75-79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different donor tissues were tested for their capacity to survive, integrate and differentiate in the adult inner ear. Surviving embryonic dorsal root ganglion cells were found within the spiral ganglion neuron region and along the auditory nerve fibers. In the presence of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF), the dorsal root ganglion cells formed extensive growth of neurites that seemed to contact the host neurons. Adult neural stem cells survived relative poorly in the inner car whereas embryonic stem cells showed a somewhat greater capacity for survival and integration. Overall, the survival rate of implanted tissue was quite low in the cochlea. It is concluded that an inner ear cell therapy approach based on the implantation of exogenous cells will require that important survival factors are identified and supplied. In addition, it is possible that the physical properties of the cochlea, e.g., fluid-filled compartments and very limited space for cell proliferation, are unfavorable, at least in the normal cochlea.

  • 16.
    Waldreus, Nana
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hahn, Robert G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Anestesi- och intensivvårdskliniken US. Sodertalje Sjukhus, Sweden .
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US.
    Skoog, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ewerman, Lea
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Lindenberger, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Kardiologiska kliniken US.
    Thirst response to acute hypovolaemia in healthy women and women prone to vasovagal syncope2013Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 120, s. 34-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study measured self-perceived thirst and plasma angiotensin II (ATII) concentrations during graded hypovolaemic stress, induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP), to elucidate the dependence of thirst on haemodynamics. A total of 24 women aged between 20 and 36 (mean age, 23) years rated their thirst on a visual analogue scale, graded from 0 to 100, when LBNP of 20,30 and 40 mm Hg was applied. Half of the women had a history of vasovagal syncope (VVS). The results showed that the thirst score increased three-fold when LBNP was applied, from 11 (median; 25th-75th percentiles, 9-25) to 34 (27-53; P andlt; 0.001). The women in the VVS group had twice as great an increase as those without a history of VVS (P andlt; 0.02). The plasma ATII concentration increased significantly in response to LBNP, both in the VVS group and in the control group, but the changes did not correlate with thirst. Application of LBNP decreased systolic and mean arterial pressures, cardiac output and pulse pressure (P andlt; 0.001 for all), but thirst correlated only with increase in heart rate and, independently, with reduction of mean arterial pressure. In conclusion, thirst and ATII increase in response to hypovolaemic stress, but are not statistically related. The haemodynamic parameter that was most strongly related to thirst was tachycardia.

  • 17.
    Zupan, Manja
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Box 7068, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Buskas, Julia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Altimiras, Jordi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Keeling, Linda J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Box 7068, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Assessing positive emotional states in dogs using heart rate and heartrate variability2016Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 155, s. 102-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since most animal species have been recognized as sentient beings, emotional state may be a good indicator ofwelfare in animals. The goal of this study was to manipulate the environment of nine beagle research dogs tohighlight physiological responses indicative of different emotional experiences. Stimuli were selected to be amore or a less positive food (meatball or food pellet) or social reward (familiar person or less familiar person).That all the stimuli were positive and of different reward value was confirmed in a runway motivation test.Dogs were tested individually while standing facing a display theatre where the different stimuli could beshown by lifting a shutter. The dogs approached and remained voluntarily in the test system. They were testedin four sessions (of 20 s each) for each of the four stimuli. A test session consisted of four presentation phases(1st exposure to stimulus, post exposure, 2nd exposure, and access to reward). Heart rate (HR) and heart ratevariability (HRV) responses were recorded during testing in the experimental room and also when lying restingin a quiet familiar room. A newmethod of ‘stitching’ short periods of HRV data together was used in the analysis.When testing different stimuli, no significant differenceswere observed in HR and LF:HF ratio (relative power inlow frequency (LF) and the high-frequency (HF) range), implying that the sympathetic tone was activated similarlyfor all the stimuli and may suggest that dogs were in a state of positive arousal. A decrease of HF was associatedwith the meatball stimulus compared to the food pellet and the reward phase (interacting with the personor eating the food) was associated with a decrease in HF and RMSSD (root mean square of successive differencesof inter-beat intervals) compared to the preceding phase (looking at the person or food). This suggests that parasympatheticdeactivation is associated with a more positive emotional state in the dog. A similar reduction in HFandRMSSDwas found in the test situation compared to the resting situation. This is congruentwith the expectedautonomic effects related to postural shift i.e. sympathetic activation and parasympathetic withdrawal, duringstanding versus lying, but it cannot explain the parasympathetic deactivation in response to the more positivestimuli since the dogs were always standing in the test situation.Wediscuss the systematic pattern of responses,which support that increased HRand LF:HF ratio are associatedwithemotional arousal, but add the newproposalthat a combined decrease inRMSSD and HFmay reflect a more positively valencedemotional state evenwhen anindividual is already in a positive psychological state.

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