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  • 1.
    Broering Chaar, Ana Beatriz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, D3.3 Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Syed, Muhammad Bilal
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hsu, Tun-Wei
    Johansson-Jöesaar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Seco Tools AB, SE-737 82 Fagersta, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jon M.
    Seco Tools AB, SE-737 82 Fagersta, Sweden.
    Henrion, Gérard
    Institute Jean Lamour, Campus ARTEM, University of Lorraine, CNRS, F-54011 Nancy, France.
    Johnson, Lars J. S.
    Sandvik Coromant, SE-126 80 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mücklich, Frank
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, D3.3 Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Effect of Cathodic Arc Guiding Magnetic Field on the Growth of (Ti0.36Al0.64)N Coatings2019In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a modified cathodic arc deposition technique, including an electromagnetic coil that introduces a magnetic field in the vicinity of the source, to study its influence on the growth of (Ti0.36Al0.64)N coatings. By increasing the strength of the magnetic field produced by the coil, the cathode arc spots are steered toward the edge of the cathode, and the electrons are guided to an annular anode surrounding the cathode. As a result, the plasma density between the cathode and substrate decreased, which was observed as a lateral spread of the plasma plume, and a reduction of the deposition rate. Optical emission spectroscopy shows reduced intensities of all recorded plasma species when the magnetic field is increased due to a lower number of collisions resulting in excitation. We note a charge-to-mass ratio decrease of 12% when the magnetic field is increased, which is likely caused by a reduced degree of gas phase ionization, mainly through a decrease in N2 ionization. (Ti0.36Al0.64)N coatings grown at different plasma densities show considerable variations in grain size and phase composition. Two growth modes were identified, resulting in coatings with (i) a fine-grained glassy cubic and wurtzite phase mixture when deposited with a weak magnetic field, and (ii) a coarse-grained columnar cubic phase with a strong magnetic field. The latter conditions result in lower energy flux to the coating’s growth front, which suppresses surface diffusion and favors the formation of c-(Ti,Al)N solid solutions over phase segregated c-TiN and w-AlN.

  • 2.
    Du, Yong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shanghai Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Jiageng
    Shanghai Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xin
    Shanghai Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Lu, Chun
    Shenyang Aerosp Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Jiayue
    Shanghai Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Paul, Biplab
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Flexible n-Type Tungsten Carbide/Polylactic Acid Thermoelectric Composites Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing2018In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible n-type tungsten carbide/polylactic acid (WC/PLA) composites were fabricated by additive manufacturing and their thermoelectric properties were investigated. The preparation of an n-type polymer-based thermoelectric composite with good stability in air atmosphere via additive manufacturing holds promise for application in flexible thermoelectric devices. For WC/PLA volume ratios varying from similar to 33% to 60%, the electrical conductivity of the composites increased from 10.6 to 42.2 S/cm, while the Seebeck coefficients were in the range -11 to -12.3 V/K. The thermal conductivities of the composites varied from similar to 0.2 to similar to 0.28 Wamp;lt;boldamp;gt;mamp;lt;/boldamp;gt;-1amp;lt;boldamp;gt;Kamp;lt;/boldamp;gt;-1 at similar to 300 K.

  • 3.
    Filho, Luimar
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. IHI Ionbond AG, Switzerland.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Engqvist, Hakan
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Towards Functional Silicon Nitride Coatings for Joint Replacements2019In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings are currently under investigation as bearing surfaces for joint implants, due to their low wear rate and the good biocompatibility of both coatings and their potential wear debris. The aim of this study was to move further towards functional SiNx coatings by evaluating coatings deposited onto CoCrMo surfaces with a CrN interlayer, using different bias voltages and substrate rotations. Reactive direct current magnetron sputtering was used to coat CoCrMo discs with a CrN interlayer, followed by a SiNx top layer, which was deposited by reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. The interlayer was deposited using negative bias voltages ranging between 100 and 900 V, and 1-fold or 3-fold substrate rotation. Scanning electron microscopy showed a dependence of coating morphology on substrate rotation. The N/Si ratio ranged from 1.10 to 1.25, as evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Vertical scanning interferometry revealed that the coated, unpolished samples had a low average surface roughness between 16 and 33 nm. Rockwell indentations showed improved coating adhesion when a low bias voltage of 100 V was used to deposit the CrN interlayer. Wear tests performed in a reciprocating manner against Si3N4 balls showed specific wear rates lower than, or similar to that of CoCrMo. The study suggests that low negative bias voltages may contribute to a better performance of SiNx coatings in terms of adhesion. The low wear rates found in the current study support further development of silicon nitride-based coatings towards clinical application.

  • 4.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Mraz, Stanislav
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Hans, Marcus
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schneider, Jochen M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Control over the Phase Formation in Metastable Transition Metal Nitride Thin Films by Tuning the Al+ Subplantation Depth2019In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of transition metal nitride based coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering, in a broad range of applications including wear-protective coatings on cutting tools and components in automotive engines, is determined by their phase content. The classical example is the precipitation of thermodynamically-favored wurtzite-AlN while alloying TiN with Al to obtain ternary single phase NaCl-structure films with improved high-temperature oxidation resistance. Here, we report on reactive high-power impulse and direct current magnetron co-sputtering (HiPIMS/DCMS) growth of Ti0.31Al0.69N and Zr0.48Al0.52N thin films. The Al concentrations are intentionally chosen to be higher than theoretically predicted solubility limits for the rock salt structure. The goal is to investigate the effect of the incident Al+ energy E-Al(+), controlled by varying the amplitude of the substrate bias applied synchronously with the Al+-rich portion of the ion flux from the Al-HiPIMS source, on the crystalline phase formation. For EAl+ amp;lt;= 60 eV, films contain predominantly the wurtzite phase. With increasing E-Al(+), and thus, the Al subplantation depth, the relative fraction of the NaCl structure increases and eventually for E-Al(+) amp;gt; 250 eV, Ti0.31Al0.69N and Zr0.48Al0.52N layers contain more than 95% of the rock salt phase. Thus, the separation of the film forming species in time and energy domains determines the phase formation of Ti0.31Al0.69N and Zr0.48Al0.52N layers and enables the growth of the cubic phase outside of the predicted Al concentration range. The new film growth concept can be applied to the entire family of multinary transition metal aluminum nitrides, where one of the metallic film constituents is available in the ionized form while the other arrives as neutral.

  • 5.
    Zhang, Pimin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Peng, Ru Lin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Xin-Hai
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Investigation of Element Effect on High-Temperature Oxidation of HVOF NiCoCrAlX Coatings2018In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 129-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    MCrAlX (M: Ni or Co or both, X: minor elements) coatings have been used widely to protect hot components in gas turbines against oxidation and heat corrosion at high temperatures. Understanding the influence of the X-elements on oxidation behavior is important in the design of durable MCrAlX coatings. In this study, NiCoCrAlX coatings doped with Y + Ru and Ce, respectively, were deposited on an Inconel-792 substrate using high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF). The samples were subjected to isothermal oxidation tests in laboratory air at 900, 1000, and 1100 °C and a cyclic oxidation test between 100 and 1100 °C with a 1-h dwell time at 1100 °C. It was observed that the coating with Ce showed a much higher oxidation rate than the coating with Y + Ru under both isothermal and cyclic oxidation tests. In addition, the Y + Ru-doped coating showed significantly lower β phase depletion due to interdiffusion between the coating and the substrate, resulting from the addition of Ru. Simulation results using a moving phase boundary model and an established oxidation-diffusion model showed that Ru stabilized β grains, which reduced β-depletion of the coating due to substrate interdiffusion. This paper, combining experiment and simulation results, presents a comprehensive study of the influence of Ce and Ru on oxidation behavior, including an investigation of the microstructure evolution in the coating surface and the coating-substrate interface influenced by oxidation time.

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