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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Rzepecka, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Equal Pro-inflammatory Profiles of CCLs, CXCLs, and Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Extracellular Microenvironment In Vivo in Human Dense Breast Tissue and Breast Cancer2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 1994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inflammatory microenvironment affects breast cancer progression. Proteins that govern the inflammatory response are secreted into the extracellular space, but this compartment still needs to be characterized in human breast tissues in vivo. Dense breast tissue is a major risk factor for breast cancer by yet unknown mechanisms and no non-toxic prevention for these patients exists. Here, we used the minimal invasive technique of microdialysis for sampling of extracellular proteins in live tissues in situ in breast cancers of women before surgery and in healthy women having dense or non-dense breast tissue on mammography. Proteins were profiled using a proximity extension assay. Out of the 32 proteins assessed, 26 exhibited similar profiles in breast cancers and dense breast tissues; CCL-4, -7, -8, -11, -15, -16, -22, -23, and -25, CXCL-5, -8, -9, -16 as well as sIL-6R, IL-18, vascular endothelial growth factor, TGF-a, fibroblast growth factor 19, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -3, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator were all increased, whereas CCL-3, CX3CL1, hepatocyte growth factor, and MMP-9 were unaltered in the two tissues. CCL-19 and -24, CXCL-1 and -10, and IL-6 were increased in dense breast tissue only, whereas IL-18BP was increased in breast cancer only. Our results provide novel insights in the inflammatory microenvironment in human breast cancer in situ and define potential novel therapeutic targets. Additionally, we show previously unrecognized similarities of the pro-inflammatory microenvironment in dense breast tissue and breast cancer in vivo suggesting that anti-inflammatory breast cancer prevention trials for women with dense breast tissue may be feasible.

  • 2.
    Ahmad, Fareed
    et al.
    Hannover Medical Sch, Germany.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia; School Basic Appl Science, India.
    Yong, Yean K.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Tan, Hong Y.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ahrenstorf, Gerrit
    Hannover Medical Sch, Germany.
    Jacobs, Roland
    Hannover Medical Sch, Germany.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Schmidt, Reinhold E.
    Hannover Medical Sch, Germany.
    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ansari, Abdul W.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Negative Checkpoint Regulatory Molecule 2B4 (CD244) Upregulation Is Associated with Invariant Natural Killer T Cell Alterations and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Progression2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are implicated in innate immune responses against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the determinants of cellular dysfunction across the iNKT cells subsets are seldom defined in HIV disease. Herein, we provide evidence for the involvement of the negative checkpoint regulator (NCR) 2B4 in iNKT cell alteration in a well-defined cohort of HIV-seropositive anti-retroviral therapy (ART) naive, ART-treated, and elite controllers (ECs). We report on exaggerated 2B4 expression on iNKT cells of HIV-infected treatment-naive individuals. In sharp contrast to CD4-iNKT cells, 2B4 expression was significantly higher on CD4+ iNKT cell subset. Notably, an increased level of 2B4 on iNKT cells was strongly correlated with parameters associated with HIV disease progression. Further, iNKT cells from ARTnaive individuals were defective in their ability to produce intracellular IFN-gamma Together, our results suggest that the levels of 2B4 expression and the downstream co-inhibitory signaling events may contribute to impaired iNKT cell responses.

  • 3.
    Apostolou, Eirini
    et al.
    Univ Athens, Greece; Univ Athens, Greece.
    Moustardas, Petros
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Acad Athens, Greece.
    Iwawaki, Takao
    Kanazawa Med Univ, Japan.
    Tzioufas, Athanasios G.
    Univ Athens, Greece; Univ Athens, Greece.
    Spyrou, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ablation of the Chaperone Protein ERdj5 Results in a Sjogrens Syndrome-Like Phenotype in Mice, Consistent With an Upregulated Unfolded Protein Response in Human Patients2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Sjogrens syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects mainly the exocrine glands. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins have been suggested to participate in autoimmune and inflammatory responses, either acting as autoantigens, or by modulating factors of inflammation. The chaperone protein ERdj5 is an ER-resident disulfide reductase, required for the translocation of misfolded proteins during ER-associated protein degradation. In this study we investigated the role of ERdj5 in the salivary glands (SGs), in association with inflammation and autoimmunity. Methods: In situ expression of ERdj5 and XBP1 activation were studied immunohistochemically in minor SG tissues from primary SS patients and non-SS sicca-complaining controls. We used the mouse model of ERdj5 ablation and characterized its features: Histopathological, serological (antinuclear antibodies and cytokine levels), and functional (saliva flow rate). Results: ERdj5 was highly expressed in the minor SGs of SS patients, with stain intensity correlated to inflammatory lesion severity and anti-SSA/Ro positivity. Moreover, SS patients demonstrated higher XBP1 activation within the SGs. Remarkably, ablation of ERdj5 in mice conveyed many of the cardinal features of SS, like spontaneous inflammation in SGs with infiltrating T and B lymphocytes, distinct cytokine signature, excessive cell death, reduced saliva flow, and production of anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La autoantibodies. Notably, these features were more pronounced in female mice. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a critical connection between the function of the ER chaperone protein ERdj5 and autoimmune inflammatory responses in the SGs and provide evidence for a new, potent animal model of SS.

  • 4.
    Appelgren, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Segelmark, Mårten
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Nephrology. Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Marginal-Zone B-Cells Are Main Producers of IgM in Humans, and Are Reduced in Patients With Autoimmune Vasculitis2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 2242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In mice, B1 and marginal zone (MZ) B-cells play an important role in prevention of autoimmunity through production of regulatory cytokines and natural antibodies. There is limited knowledge about the human counterparts of these cells. We therefore investigated functions of MZ-like B-cells and the frequency of circulating MZ-like and Bl-like B-cells in healthy controls (HC), as well as in patients with autoimmune vasculitis to learn more about the role of these cells in autoimmune disease. After stimulation with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) of class B in vitro, MZ-like B-cells were the main producers of IgM whereas switched memory B-cells primarily produced IgG and IgA. TNF and IL-10 were produced by both MZ-like and switched memory B-cells. Neither antibody nor TNF/IL-10 production by the B-cell subsets differed between patients and HC. Patients with autoimmune vasculitis, irrespective of disease activity, had lower percentage and absolute numbers of circulating MZ-like B-cells, and lower absolute numbers of B1-like B-cells. The percentage of B1-like B-cells was reduced during active disease. These findings remained significant when the analysis was confined to active treatment-naive patients (disease onset).Our results suggest that human innate-like B-cells might have a physiological role in prevention of autoimmunity.

  • 5.
    Barcenilla, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Åkerman, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Pihl, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, H.K.H. Kronprinsessan Victorias barn- och ungdomssjukhus Linköping/Motala.
    Casas, Rosaura
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Mass Cytometry Identifies Distinct Subsets of Regulatory T Cells and Natural Killer Cells Associated With High Risk for Type 1 Diabetes2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by autoimmune destruction of insulin producing beta-cells. The time from onset of islet autoimmunity to manifest clinical disease can vary widely in length, and it is fairly uncharacterized both clinically and immunologically. In the current study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from autoantibody-positive children with high risk for T1D, and from age-matched healthy individuals, were analyzed by mass cytometry using a panel of 32 antibodies. Surface markers were chosen to identify multiple cell types including T, B, NK, monocytes, and DC, and antibodies specific for identification of differentiation, activation and functional markers were also included in the panel. By applying dimensional reduction and computational unsupervised clustering approaches, we delineated in an unbiased fashion 132 phenotypically distinct subsets within the major immune cell populations. We were able to identify an effector memory Treg subset expressing HLA-DR, CCR4, CCR6, CXCR3, and GATA3 that was increased in the high-risk group. In addition, two subsets of NK cells defined by CD16(+) CD8(+) CXCR3(+) and CD16(+) CD8(+) CXCR3(+) CD11c(+) were also higher in the same subjects. High-risk individuals did not show impaired glucose tolerance at the time of sampling, suggesting that the changes observed were not the result of metabolic imbalance, and might be potential biomarkers predictive of T1D.

  • 6.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard
    Gottfries Clin AB, Sweden.
    Elfaitouri, Amal
    Benghazi Univ, Libya.
    Rizwan, Muhammad
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Rosén, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Infection Elicited Autoimmunity and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: An Explanatory Model2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) often also called chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a common, debilitating, disease of unknown origin. Although a subject of controversy and a considerable scientific literature, we think that a solid understanding of ME/CFS pathogenesis is emerging. In this study, we compiled recent findings and placed them in the context of the clinical picture and natural history of the disease. A pattern emerged, giving rise to an explanatory model. ME/CFS often starts after or during an infection. A logical explanation is that the infection initiates an autoreactive process, which affects several functions, including brain and energy metabolism. According to our model for ME/CFS pathogenesis, patients with a genetic predisposition and dysbiosis experience a gradual development of B cell clones prone to autoreactivity. Under normal circumstances these B cell offsprings would have led to tolerance. Subsequent exogenous microbial exposition (triggering) can lead to comorbidities such as fibromyalgia, thyroid disorder, and orthostatic hypotension. A decisive infectious trigger may then lead to immunization against autoantigens involved in aerobic energy production and/or hormone receptors and ion channel proteins, producing postexertional malaise and ME/CFS, affecting both muscle and brain. In principle, cloning and sequencing of immunoglobulin variable domains could reveal the evolution of pathogenic clones. Although evidence consistent with the model accumulated in recent years, there are several missing links in it. Hopefully, the hypothesis generates testable propositions that can augment the understanding of the pathogenesis of ME/CFS.

  • 7.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Rizwan, Muhammad
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bohlin-Wiener, Agnes
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Elfaitouri, Amal
    Benghazi Univ, Libya.
    Julin, Per
    Stora Skondal, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Zachrisson, Olof
    Gottfries Clin AB, Sweden.
    Rosén, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard
    Gottfries Clin AB, Sweden.
    Antibodies to Human Herpesviruses in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 1946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis, also referred to as chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disease characterized by myalgia and a sometimes severe limitation of physical activity and cognition. It is exacerbated by physical and mental activity. Its cause is unknown, but frequently starts with an infection. The eliciting infection (commonly infectious mononucleosis or an upper respiratory infection) can be more or less well diagnosed. Among the human herpesviruses (HHV-1 -8), HHV-4 (Epstein-Barr virus; EBV), HHV-6 (including HHV-6A and HHV-6B), and HHV-7, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ME/CFS. It was therefore logical to search for serological evidence of past herpesvirus infection/reactivation in several cohorts of ME/CFS patients (all diagnosed using the Canada criteria). Control samples were from Swedish blood donors. We used whole purified virus, recombinant proteins, and synthetic peptides as antigens in a suspension multiplex immunoassay (SMIA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG). The study on herpesviral peptides based on antigenicity with human sera yielded novel epitope information. Overall, IgG anti-herpes-viral reactivities of ME/CFS patients and controls did not show significant differences. However, the high precision and internally controlled format allowed us to observe minor relative differences between antibody reactivities of some herpesviral antigens in ME/CFS versus controls. ME/CFS samples reacted somewhat differently from controls with whole virus HHV-1 antigens and recombinant EBV EBNA6 and EA antigens. We conclude that ME/CFS samples had similar levels of IgG reactivity as blood donor samples with HHV-1-7 antigens. The subtle serological differences should not be over-interpreted, but they may indicate that the immune system of some ME/CFS patients interact with the ubiquitous herpesviruses in a way different from that of healthy controls.

  • 8.
    Chenna Narendra, Sudeep
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Chalise, Jaya Prakash
    Osaka Univ, Japan.
    Biggs, Sophie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kalinke, Ulrich
    Zentrum Expt and Klin Infekt Forsch, Germany.
    Magnusson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Regulatory T-Cells Mediate IFN-alpha-Induced Resistance against Antigen-Induced Arthritis2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: CD4(+)FoxP3(+)CD25(+) regulatory T-cells (T-regs) are important for preventing tissue destruction. Here, we investigate the role of T-regs for protection against experimental arthritis by IFN-alpha. Methods: Arthritis was triggered by intra-articular injection of methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) in wild-type mice, Foxp3DTReGFP(+/-) mice [allowing selective depletion of T-regs by diphtheria toxin (DT)] and CD4-Cre(+/-) IFNA1R flox/flox mice (devoid of IFNAR signaling in T-cells) earlier immunized with mBSA, with or without treatment with IFN-alpha or the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-metabolite kynurenine. T-regs were depleted in DT-treated Foxp3DTReGFP(+/-) mice and enumerated by FoxP3 staining. Suppressive capacity of FACS-sorted CD25(+high)CD4(+) T-regs was tested in vivo by adoptive transfer and ex vivo in cocultures with antigen-stimulated CFSE-stained T-responder (CD25-CD4(+)) cells. IDO was inhibited by 1-methyl tryptophan. Results: Both control mice and mice devoid of IFNAR-signaling in T helper cells were protected from arthritis by IFN-alpha. Depletion of T-regs in the arthritis phase, but not at immunization, abolished the protective effect of IFN-alpha and kynurenine against arthritis. IFN-alpha increased the number of T-regs in ex vivo cultures upon antigen recall stimulation but not in naive cells. IFN-alpha also increased the suppressive capacity of T-regs against mBSA-induced T-responder cell proliferation ex vivo and against arthritis when adoptively transferred. The increased suppressive activity against proliferation conferred by IFN-alpha was clearly reduced by in vivo inhibition of IDO at immunization, which also abolished the protective effect of IFN-alpha against arthritis. Conclusion: By activating IDO during antigen sensitization, IFN-alpha activates T-regs, which prevent arthritis triggered by antigen rechallenge. This is one way by which IFN-alpha suppresses inflammation.

  • 9.
    Crisci, Elisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. North Carolina State Univ, NC USA.
    Svanberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ellegård, Rada
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical genetics.
    Khalid, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. King Khalid Univ, Saudi Arabia.
    Hellblom, Julia
    Not Found:Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin and Expt Med, Div Mol Virol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Okuyama, Kazuki
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bhattacharya, Pradyot
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nyström, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    Cent Univ Tamil Nadu, India.
    Eriksson, Kristina
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    HSV-2 Cellular Programming Enables Productive HIV Infection in Dendritic Cells2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 2889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Genital herpes significantly enhances the acquisition and transmission of HIV-1 by creating a microenvironment that supports HIV infection in the host. Dendritic cells (DCs) represent one of the first innate cell types that encounter HIV-1 and HSV-2 in the genital mucosa. HSV-2 infection has been shown to modulate DCs, rendering them more receptive to HIV infection. Here, we investigated the potential mechanisms underlying HSV-2-mediated augmentation of HIV-1 infection. We demonstrated that the presence of HSV-2 enhanced productive HIV-1 infection of DCs and boosted inflammatory and antiviral responses. The HSV-2 augmented HIV-1 infection required intact HSV-2 DNA, but not active HSV-2 DNA replication. Furthermore, the augmented HIV infection of DCs involved the cGAS-STING pathway. Interestingly, we could not see any involvement of TLR2 or TLR3 nor suppression of infection by IFN-beta production. The conditioning by HSV-2 in dual exposed DCs decreased protein expression of IFI16, cGAS, STING, and TBK1, which is associated with signaling through the STING pathway. Dual exposure to HSV-2 and HIV-1 gave decreased levels of several HIV-1 restriction factors, especially SAMHD1, TREX1, and APOBEC3G. Activation of the STING pathway in DCs by exposure to both HSV-2 and HIV-1 most likely led to the proteolytic degradation of the HIV-1 restriction factors SAMHD1, TREX1, and APOBEC3G, which should release their normal restriction of HIV infection in DCs. This released their normal restriction of HIV infection in DCs. We showed that HSV-2 reprogramming of cellular signaling pathways and protein expression levels in the DCs provided a setting where HIV-1 can establish a higher productive infection in the DCs. In conclusion, HSV-2 reprogramming opens up DCs for HIV-1 infection and creates a microenvironment favoring HIV-1 transmission.

  • 10.
    Ellegård, Rada
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical genetics.
    Khalid, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. King Khalid Univ, Saudi Arabia.
    Svanberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Holgersson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thoren, Ylva
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wittgren, Mirja Karolina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nyström, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia; Cent Univ Tamil Nadu, India.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Complement-Opsonized HIV-1 Alters Cross Talk Between Dendritic Cells and Natural Killer (NK) Cells to Inhibit NK Killing and to Upregulate PD-1, CXCR3, and CCR4 on T Cells2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells, and T cells play critical roles during primary HIV-1 exposure at the mucosa, where the viral particles become coated with complement fragments and mucosa-associated antibodies. The microenvironment together with subsequent interactions between these cells and HIV at the mucosal site of infection will determine the quality of immune response that ensues adaptive activation. Here, we investigated how complement and immunoglobulin opsonization influences the responses triggered in DCs and NK cells, how this affects their cross talk, and what T cell phenotypes are induced to expand following the interaction. Our results showed that DCs exposed to complement-opsonized HIV (C-HIV) were less mature and had a poor ability to trigger IFN-driven NK cell activation. In addition, when the DCs were exposed to C-HIV, the cytotolytic potentials of both NK cells and CD8 T cells were markedly suppressed. The expression of PD-1 as well as co-expression of negative immune checkpoints TIM-3 and LAG-3 on PD-1 positive cells were increased on both CD4 as well as CD8 T cells upon interaction with and priming by NK-DC cross talk cultures exposed to C-HIV. In addition, stimulation by NK-DC cross talk cultures exposed to C-HIV led to the upregulation of CD38, CXCR3, and CCR4 on T cells. Together, the immune modulation induced during the presence of complement on viral surfaces is likely to favor HIV establishment, dissemination, and viral pathogenesis.

  • 11.
    Imgenberg-Kreuz, Juliana
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Carlsson Almlöf, Jonas Carlsson
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Leonard, Dag
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Syvanen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Ronnblom, Lars
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Sandling, Johanna K.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Shared and Unique Patterns of DNA Methylation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Primary Sjogrens Syndrome2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 1686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To performa cross-comparative analysis of DNA methylation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), patients with primary Sjogrens syndrome (pSS), and healthy controls addressing the question of epigenetic sharing and aiming to detect disease-specific alterations. Methods: DNA extracted from peripheral blood from 347 cases with SLE, 100 cases with pSS, and 400 healthy controls were analyzed on the Human Methylation 450k array, targeting 485,000 CpG sites across the genome. A linear regression model including age, sex, and blood cell type distribution as covariates was fitted, and association p-values were Bonferroni corrected. A random forest machine learning classifier was designed for prediction of disease status based on DNA methylation data. Results: We established a combined set of 4,945 shared differentially methylated CpG sites (DMCs) in SLE and pSS compared to controls. In pSS, hypomethylation at type I interferon induced genes was mainly driven by patients who were positive for Ro/SSA and/or La/SSB autoantibodies. Analysis of differential methylation between SLE and pSS identified 2,244 DMCs with a majority of sites showing decreased methylation in SLE compared to pSS. The random forest classifier demonstrated good performance in discerning between disease status with an area under the curve (AUC) between 0.83 and 0.96. Conclusions: The majority of differential DNA methylation is shared between SLE and pSS, however, important quantitative differences exist. Our data highlight neutrophil dysregulation as a shared mechanism, emphasizing the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune diseases. The current study provides evidence for genes and molecular pathways driving common and disease-specific pathogenic mechanisms.

  • 12.
    Kumar, Arun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. GSK, Italy.
    Meldgaard, Trine Sundebo
    GSK, Italy; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Bertholet, Sylvie
    GSK, Italy; GSK, MD 20850 USA.
    Novel Platforms for the Development of a Universal influenza vaccine2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 600Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite advancements in immunotherapeutic approaches, influenza continues to cause severe illness, particularly among immunocompromised individuals, young children, and elderly adults. Vaccination is the most effective way to reduce rates of morbidity and mortality caused by influenza viruses. Frequent genetic shift and drift among influenzavirus strains with the resultant disparity between circulating and vaccine virus strains limits the effectiveness of the available conventional influenza vaccines. One approach to overcome this limitation is to develop a universal influenza vaccine that could provide protection against all subtypes of influenza viruses. Moreover, the development of a novel or improved universal influenza vaccines may be greatly facilitated by new technologies including virus-like particles, T-cell-inducing peptides and recombinant proteins, synthetic viruses, broadly neutralizing antibodies, and nucleic acid-based vaccines. This review discusses recent scientific advances in the development of next-generation universal influenza vaccines.

  • 13.
    Lee, Man K. S.
    et al.
    Baker Heart and Diabet Inst, Australia; Monash Univ, Australia.
    Al-Sharea, Annas
    Baker Heart and Diabet Inst, Australia; Monash Univ, Australia.
    Shihata, Waled A.
    Baker Heart and Diabet Inst, Australia.
    Veiga, Camilla Bertuzzo
    Baker Heart and Diabet Inst, Australia.
    Cooney, Olivia D.
    Baker Heart and Diabet Inst, Australia.
    Fleetwood, Andrew J.
    Royal Melbourne Hosp, Australia; Univ Melbourne, Australia; Western Hlth, Australia.
    Flynn, Michelle C.
    Baker Heart and Diabet Inst, Australia.
    Claeson, Ellen
    Not Found:Linkoping Univ, Fac Med and Hlth Sci, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Palmer, Clovis S.
    Burnet Inst, Australia.
    Lancaster, Graeme I.
    Baker Heart and Diabet Inst, Australia.
    Henstridge, Darren C.
    Baker Heart and Diabet Inst, Australia.
    Hamilton, John A.
    Royal Melbourne Hosp, Australia; Univ Melbourne, Australia; Western Hlth, Australia.
    Murphy, Andrew J.
    Baker Heart and Diabet Inst, Australia.
    Glycolysis Is Required for LPS-Induced Activation and Adhesion of Human CD14(+)CD16(-) Monocytes2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 2054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monocytes in humans consist of 3 subsets; CD14(+)CD16(-) (classical), CD14(+)CD16(+) (intermediate) and CD14(dim)CD16+ (non-classical), which exhibit distinct and heterogeneous responses to activation. During acute inflammation CD14(+)CD16(-) monocytes are significantly elevated and migrate to the sites of injury via the adhesion cascade. The field of immunometabolism has begun to elucidate the importance of the engagement of specific metabolic pathways in immune cell function. Yet, little is known about monocyte metabolism and the role of metabolism in mediating monocyte activation and adherence to vessels. Accordingly, we aimed to determine whether manipulating the metabolism of CD14(+)CD16(-) monocytes alters their ability to become activated and adhere. We discovered that LPS stimulation increased the rate of glycolysis in human CD14(+)CD16(-) monocytes. Inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxy-D-glucose blunted LPS-induced activation and adhesion of monocytes. Mechanistically, we found that increased glycolysis was regulated by mTOR-induced glucose transporter (GLUT)- 1. Furthermore, enhanced glycolysis increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of p38 MAPK, which lead to activation and adhesion of monocytes. These findings reveal that glycolytic metabolism is critical for the activation of CD14(+)CD16(-) monocytes and contributes to our understanding of the interplay between metabolic substrate preference and immune cell function.

  • 14.
    Lennikov, Anton
    et al.
    Univ Missouri, MO 65211 USA; Johns Hopkins Univ, MD 21218 USA.
    Saddala, Madhu Sudhana
    Univ Missouri, MO 65211 USA; Johns Hopkins Univ, MD 21218 USA.
    Mukwaya, Anthonny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Tang, Shibo
    Cent S Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Hu
    Univ Missouri, MO 65211 USA; Johns Hopkins Univ, MD 21218 USA.
    Autoimmune-Mediated Retinopathy in CXCR5-Deficient Mice as the Result of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Associated Proteins Accumulation2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 1903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that CXCR5(-/-) mice develop retinal degeneration (RD) with age, a characteristic related to age macular degeneration (AMD). RD in these mice is not well-understood, and in this study, we sought to characterize further the RD phenotype and to gain mechanistic insights into the function of CXCR5 in the retina. CXCR5(-/-) and WT control mice were used. Fundus images demonstrated a significant (p amp;lt; 0.001) increase of hypo-pigmented spots in the retina of aged CXCR5(-/-) mice compared with WT control mice. PAS staining indicated localization of deposits in the sub-retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) layer. AMD-associated proteins Cryab, amyloid beta, and C3d were detected within the RPE/sub-RPE tissues by immunofluorescence (IF). In addition, western blot analysis of COX-2, Arg1, and VEGF-a revealed an increase in the signaling of these molecules within the RPE/choroid complex. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated a drusen-like structure of sub-RPE deposits with an accumulation of vacuolated cellular debris. Loss of photoreceptors was detected by peanut lectin staining and was corroborated by a reduction in MAP2 signaling. Loss of blood-retinal barrier integrity was demonstrated by a reduction of ZO-1 expression. Inflammatory cells were detected in the sub-RPE space, with an increase in IBA-1 positive microglia cells on the surface of the RPE. Mass spectrometry analysis of CXCR5(-/-) mouse RPE/choroid proteins extracts, separated by SDS-page and incubated with autologous serum, identified autoantibodies against AMD-associated proteins: Cryaa, Cryab, and Anxa2. In vitro evaluations in BV-2 cell culture indicated a significant increase in production of Arg-1 (p amp;lt; 0.001) and COX-2 (p amp;lt; 0.01) in the presence of anti-CXCR5 antibody when compared with Igg-treated control BV-2 cells stimulated with IL-4 and TNF alpha/IFN gamma, respectively. Anti-CXCR5 antibody treatment without stimulating agents did not affect Arg-1 and COX-2 expression; this suggests that CXCR5 may have a regulatory role in microglia cells activation. These results indicate that with age, CXCR5(-/-) mice develop RD characterized by microglia dysfunction, increased production of CXCL13 in the RPE progressive photoreceptor, neuronal loss, and sub-RPE deposition of cellular debris, resulting in the production of immunogenic proteins and autoimmune-mediated RD.

  • 15.
    Meziane, El Kahina
    et al.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Potts, Nicola D.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Viertlboeck, Birgit C.
    Ludwig Maximillian Univ, Germany.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krupa, Andrew P.
    Univ Sheffield, England.
    Burke, Terry A.
    Univ Sheffield, England.
    Brown, Stewart
    Aviagen Ltd, Scotland.
    Watson, Kellie A.
    Univ Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Richardson, David S.
    Univ East Anglia, England.
    Pizzari, Tommaso
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Goebel, Thomas W.
    Ludwig Maximillian Univ, Germany.
    Kaufman, Jim
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Bi-Functional Chicken Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors With a Single Extracellular Domain (ChIR-AB1): Potential Framework Genes Among a Relatively Stable Number of Genes Per Haplotype2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 2222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The leukocyte receptor complex (LRC) in humans encodes many receptors with immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) extracellular domains, including the killer Ig-like receptors (KIRs) expressed on natural killer (NK) cells among others, the leukocyte Ig-like receptors (LILRs) expressed on myeloid and B cells, and an Fc receptor (FcR), all of which have important roles in the immune response. These highly-related genes encode activating receptors with positively-charged residues in the transmembrane region, inhibitory receptors with immuno-tyrosine based motifs (ITIMs) in the cytoplasmic tail, and bi-functional receptors with both. The related chicken Ig-like receptors (ChIRs) are almost all found together on a microchromosome, with over 100 activating (A), inhibitory (B), and bi-functional (AB) genes, bearing either one or two extracellular Ig-like domains, interspersed over 500-1,000 kB in the genome of an individual chicken. Sequencing studies have suggested rapid divergence and little overlap between ChIR haplotypes, so we wished to begin to understand their genetics. We chose to use a hybridization technique, reference strand-mediated conformational analysis (RSCA), to examine the ChIR-AB1 family, with a moderate number of genes dispersed across the microchromosome. Using fluorescently-labeled references (FLR), we found that RSCA and sequencing of ChIR-AB1 extracellular exon gave two groups of peaks with mobility correlated with sequence relationship to the FLR. We used this system to examine widely-used and well-characterized experimental chicken lines, finding only one or a few simple ChIR haplotypes for each line, with similar numbers of peaks overall. We found much more complicated patterns from a broiler line from a commercial breeder and a flock of red junglefowl, but trios of parents and offspring from another commercial chicken line show that the complicated patterns are due to heterozygosity, indicating a relatively stable number of peaks within haplotypes of these birds. Some ChIR-AB1 peaks were found in all individuals from the commercial lines, and some of these were shared with red junglefowl and the experimental lines derived originally from egg-laying chickens. Overall, this analysis suggests that there are some simple features underlying the apparent complexity of the ChIR locus.

  • 16.
    Rao Muvva, Jagadeeswara
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Venkata Ramanarao, Parasa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lerm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Mattias
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Brighenti, Susanna
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Polarization of Human Monocyte-Derived Cells With Vitamin D Promotes Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection2020In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 3157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Understanding macrophage behavior is key to decipher Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) pathogenesis. We studied the phenotype and ability of human monocyte-derived cells polarized with active vitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D-3] to control intracellular Mtb infection compared with polarization of conventional subsets, classical M1 or alternative M2. Methods: Human blood-derived monocytes were treated with active vitamin D or different cytokines to obtain 1,25(OH)(2)D-3-polarized as well as M1- and M2-like cells or fully polarized M1 and M2 subsets. We used an in vitro macrophage Mtb infection model to assess both phenotype and functional markers i.e., inhibitory and scavenger receptors, costimulatory molecules, cytokines, chemokines, and effector molecules using flow cytometry and quantitative mRNA analysis. Intracellular uptake of bacilli and Mtb growth was monitored using flow cytometry and colony forming units. Results: Uninfected M1 subsets typically expressed higher levels of CCR7, TLR2, and CD86, while M2 subsets expressed higher CD163, CD200R, and CD206. Most of the investigated markers were up-regulated in all subsets after Mtb infection, generating a mixed M1/M2 phenotype, while the expression of CD206, HLADR, and CD80 was specifically up-regulated (P amp;lt; 0.05) on 1,25(OH)(2)D-3-polarized macrophages. Consistent with the pro-inflammatory features of M1 cells, Mtb uptake and intracellular Mtb growth was significantly (P amp;lt; 0.01-0.001 and P amp;lt; 0.05-0.01) lower in the M1 (19.3%) compared with the M2 (82.7%) subsets 4 h post-infection. However, infectivity rapidly and gradually increased in M1 cells at 24-72 h. 1,25(OH)(2)D-3-polarized monocyte-derived cells was the most potent subset to inhibit Mtb growth at both 4 and 72 h (P amp;lt; 0.05-0.01) post-Mtb infection. This ability was associated with high mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 but also anti-inflammatory IL-10, while expression of the immunosuppressive enzyme IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase) remained low in Mtb-infected 1,25(OH)(2)D-3-polarized cells compared with the other subsets. Conclusions: Mtb infection promoted a mixed M1/M2 macrophage activation, and 1,25(OH)(2)D-3-polarized monocyte-derived cells expressing LL-37 but not IDO, were most effective to control intracellular Mtb growth. Macrophage polarization in the presence of vitamin D may provide the capacity to mount an antimicrobial response against Mtb and simultaneously prevent expression of inhibitory molecules that could accelerate local immunosuppression in the microenvironment of infected tissue.

  • 17.
    Ravindran, Avinash
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Ronnberg, Elin
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Joakim S.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Mazzurana, Luca
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Safholm, Jesper
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Orre, Ann-Charlotte
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Al-Ameri, Mamdoh
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Peachell, Peter
    Univ Sheffield, England.
    Adner, Mikael
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Dahlen, Sven-Erik
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Mjösberg, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Gunnar
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    An Optimized Protocol for the Isolation and Functional Analysis of Human Lung Mast Cells2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 2193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mast cells are tissue-resident inflammatory cells defined by their high granularity and surface expression of the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fc + RI, and CD117/KIT, the receptor for stem cell factor (SCF). There is a considerable heterogeneity among mast cells, both phenotypically and functionally. Human mast cells are generally divided into two main subtypes based on their protease content; the mucosa-associated MCT (tryptase positive and chymase negative mast cell) and the connective tissue associated-residing MCTC (tryptase and chymase positive mast cell). Human lung mast cells exhibit heterogeneity in terms of cellular size, expression of cell surface receptors, and secreted mediators. However, knowledge about human lung mast cell heterogeneity is restricted to studies using immunohistochemistry or purified mast cells. Whereas the former is limited by the number of cellular markers that can be analyzed simultaneously, the latter suffers from issues related to cell yield. Aim: To develop a protocol that enables isolation of human lung mast cells at high yields for analysis of functional properties and detailed analysis using single-cell based analyses of protein (flow cytometry) or RNA (RNA-sequencing) expression. Methods: Mast cells were isolated from human lung tissue by a sequential combination of washing, enzymatic digestion, mechanical disruption, and density centrifugation using Percoll (WEMP). As a comparison, we also isolated mast cells using a conventional enzyme-based protocol. The isolated cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: We observed a significant increase in the yield of total human lung CD45(+) immune cells and an even more pronounced increase in the yield of CD117(+) mast cells with the WEMP protocol in comparison to the conventional protocols. In contrast, the frequency of the rare lymphocyte subset innate lymphoid cells group 2 (ILC2) did not differ between the two methods. Conclusion: The described WEMP protocol results in a significant increase in the yield of human lung mast cells compared to a conventional protocol. Additionally, the WEMP protocol enables simultaneous isolation of different immune cell populations such as lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes while retaining their surface marker expression that can be used for advanced single-cell analyses including multi-color flow cytometry and RNA-sequencing.

  • 18.
    Saeidi, Alireza
    et al.
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Zandi, Keivan
    Emory Univ, GA USA.
    Cheok, Yi Ying
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Saeidi, Hamidreza
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Wong, Won Fen
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Lee, Chalystha Yie Qin
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Cheong, Heng Choon
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Yong, Yean Kong
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia; Xiamen Univ Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Shankar, Esaki Muthu
    Cent Univ Tamil Nadu, India.
    T-Cell Exhaustion in Chronic Infections: Reversing the State of Exhaustion and Reinvigorating Optimal Protective Immune Responses2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 2569Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    T-cell exhaustion is a phenomenon of dysfunction or physical elimination of antigen-specific T cells reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections as well as cancer. Exhaustion appears to be often restricted to CD8+ T cells responses in the literature, although CD4+ T cells have also been reported to be functionally exhausted in certain chronic infections. Although our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the transcriptional regulation of T-cell exhaustion is advancing, it is imperative to also explore the central mechanisms that control the altered expression patterns. Targeting metabolic dysfunctions with mitochondrion-targeted antioxidants are also expected to improve the antiviral functions of exhausted virus-specific CD8+ T cells. In addition, it is crucial to consider the contributions of mitochondrial biogenesis on T-cell exhaustion and how mitochondrial metabolism of T cells could be targeted whilst treating chronic viral infections. Here, we review the current understanding of cardinal features of T-cell exhaustion in chronic infections, and have attempted to focus on recent discoveries, potential strategies to reverse exhaustion and reinvigorate optimal protective immune responses in the host.

  • 19.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Segelmark, Mårten
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Nephrology.
    Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis2016In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 7, no UNSP 256Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A group of pauci-immune vasculitides, characterized by neutrophil-rich necrotizing inflammation of small vessels and the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs), is referred to as ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ANCAs against proteinase 3 (PR3) (PR3-ANCA) or myeloperoxidase (MPO) (MPO-ANCA) are found in over 90% of patients with active disease, and these ANCAs are implicated in the pathogenesis of AAV. Dying neutrophils surrounding the walls of small vessels are a histological hallmark of AAV. Traditionally, it has been assumed that these neutrophils die by necrosis, but neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been visualized at the sites of vasculitic lesions. AAV patients also possess elevated levels of NETs in the circulation. ANCAs are capable of inducing NETosis in neutrophils, and their potential to do so has been shown to be affinity dependent and to correlate with disease activity. Neutrophils from AAV patients are also more prone to release NETs spontaneously than neutrophils from healthy blood donors. NETs contain proinflammatory proteins and are thought to contribute to vessel inflammation directly by damaging endothelial cells and by activating the complement system and indirectly by acting as a link between the innate and adaptive immune system through the generation of PR3-and MPO-ANCA. Injection of NET-loaded myeloid dendritic cells into mice results in circulating PR3-and MPO-ANCA and the development of AAV-like disease. NETs have also been shown to be essential in a rodent model of drug-induced vasculitis. NETs induced by propylthiouracil could not be degraded by DNaseI, implying that disordered NETs might be important for the generation of ANCAs. NET degradation was also highlighted in another study showing that AAV patients have reduced DNaseI activity resulting in less NET degradation. With this in mind, it might be that prolonged exposure to proteins in the NETs due to the overproduction of NETs and/or reduced clearance of NETs is important in AAV. However, not all ANCAs are pathogenic and some might possibly also aid in the clearance of NETs. A dual role for ANCAs in relation to circulating NET levels has been proposed because a negative correlation was observed between PR3-ANCA and NET remnants in patients in remission.

  • 20.
    Vazquez Rodriguez, Gabriela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Jensen, Lasse D
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Adipocytes Promote Early Steps of Breast Cancer Cell Dissemination via Interleukin-82018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, p. 1-17, article id 1767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fat is a major tissue component in human breast cancer (BC). Whether breast adipocytes (BAd) affect early stages of BC metastasis is yet unknown. BC progression is dependent on angiogenesis and inflammation, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are key regulators of these events. Here, we show that BAd increased the dissemination of estrogen receptor positive BC cells (BCC) in vivo in the zebrafish model of metastasis, while dissemination of the more aggressive and metastatic BCC such as estrogen receptor negative was unaffected. While anti-VEGF and anti-IL-8 exhibited equal inhibition of angiogenesis at the primary tumor site, anti-IL-8 reduced BCC dissemination whereas anti-VEGF had minor effects on this early metastatic event. Mechanistically, overexpression of cell-adhesion molecules in BCC and neutrophils via IL-8 increased the dissemination of BCC. Importantly, the extracellular in vivo levels of IL-8 were 40-fold higher than those of VEGF in human BC. Our results suggest that IL-8 is a clinical relevant and promising therapeutic target for human BC.

  • 21.
    Wesolowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Kozak Ljunggren, Monika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Jedlina, Luiza
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Basalaj, Katarzyna
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Legocki, Andrzej
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Wedrychowic, Halina
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Kesik-Brodacka, Malgorzata
    Inst Biotechnol and Antibiot, Poland.
    A Preliminary Study of a Lettuce-Based Edible Vaccine Expressing the Cysteine Proteinase of Fasciola hepatica for Fasciolosis Control in Livestock2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 2592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oral vaccination with edible vaccines is one of the most promising approaches in modern vaccinology. Edible vaccines are an alternative to conventional vaccines, which are typically delivered by injection. Here, freeze-dried transgenic lettuce expressing the cysteine proteinase of the trematode Fasciola hepatica (CPFhVV) was used to orally vaccinate cattle and sheep against fasciolosis, which is the most important trematode disease due to the parasites global distribution, wide spectrum of host species and significant economic losses of farmers. In the study, goals such as reducing the intensity of infection, liver damage and F. hepatica fecundity were achieved. Moreover, we demonstrated that the host sex influenced the outcome of infection following vaccination, with female calves and male lambs showing better protection than their counterparts. Since differences occurred following vaccination and infection, different immunization strategies should be considered for different sexes and host species when developing new control methods. The results of the present study highlight the potential of oral vaccination with plant-made and plant-delivered vaccines for F. hepatica infection control.

  • 22.
    Yong, Yean K.
    et al.
    Xiamen Univ Malaysia, Malaysia; Univ Malaya, Malaysia; Xiamen Univ Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Saeidi, Alireza
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Tan, Hong Y.
    Xiamen Univ Malaysia, Malaysia; Univ Malaya, Malaysia; Xiamen Univ Malaysia, Malaysia; Xiamen Univ Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Rosmawati, Mohamed
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Enström, Philip F.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Al Batran, Rami
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Vasuki, V.
    Govt Thiruvarur Med Coll and Hosp, India.
    Chattopadhyay, Indranil
    Cent Univ Tamil Nadu, India.
    Murugesan, Amudhan
    Govt Theni Med Coll and Hosp, India.
    Vignesh, Ramachandran
    Univ Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia; Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Rajarajeswaran, Jayakumar
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ansari, Abdul W.
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Vadivelu, Jamuna
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ussher, James E.
    Univ Otago, New Zealand.
    Velu, Vijayakumar
    Emory Vaccine Ctr, GA USA.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia; Cent Univ Tamil Nadu, India; Cent Univ Tamil Nadu, India.
    Hyper-Expression of PD-1 Is Associated with the Levels of Exhausted and Dysfunctional Phenotypes of Circulating CD161(++)TCR iV alpha 7.2(+) Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, defined as CD161(++) TCR iV alpha 7.2(+) T cells, play an important role in the innate defense against bacterial infections, and their functionality is impaired in chronic viral infections. Here, we investigated the frequency and functional role of MAIT cells in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The peripheral CD3(+)CD161(++)TCR iV alpha 7.2(+) MAIT cells in chronic HBV-infected patients and healthy controls were phenotypically characterized based on CD57, PD-1, TIM-3, and CTLA-4, as well as HLA-DR and CD38 expression. The frequency of MAIT cells was significantly decreased among chronic HBV-infected individuals as compared to controls. Expression of CD57, PD-1, CTLA-4, as well as HLA-DR and CD38 on MAIT cells was significantly elevated in chronic HBV-infected individuals relative to controls. The percentage of T cell receptor (TCR) iVa7.2+ CD161(+) MAIT cells did not correlate with HBV viral load but inversely with HLA-DR on CD4(+) T cells and MAIT cells and with CD57 on CD8(+) T cells suggesting that decrease of MAIT cells may not be attributed to direct infection by HBV but driven by HBV-induced chronic immune activation. The percentage and expression levels of PD-1 as well as CTLA-4 on MAIT cells inversely correlated with plasma HBV-DNA levels, which may suggest either a role for MAIT cells in the control of HBV infection or the effect of HBV replication in the liver on MAIT cell phenotype. We report that decrease of TCR iV alpha 7.2(+) MAIT cells in the peripheral blood and their functions were seemingly impaired in chronic HBV-infected patients likely because of the increased expression of PD-1.

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