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  • 1.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Casado, N.
    University of Basque Country, Spain.
    Rebis, Tomasz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elfwing, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solin, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mecerreyes, D.
    University of Basque Country, Spain; Ikerbasque, Spain.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    High performance PEDOT/lignin biopolymer composites for electrochemical supercapacitors2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 1838-1847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing sustainable organic electrode materials for energy storage applications is an urgent task. We present a promising candidate based on the use of lignin, the second most abundant biopolymer in nature. This polymer is combined with a conducting polymer, where lignin as a polyanion can behave both as a dopant and surfactant. The synthesis of PEDOT/Lig biocomposites by both oxidative chemical and electrochemical polymerization of EDOT in the presence of lignin sulfonate is presented. The characterization of PEDOT/Lig was performed by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, FTIR infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge. PEDOT doped with lignin doubles the specific capacitance (170.4 F g(-1)) compared to reference PEDOT electrodes (80.4 F g(-1)). The enhanced energy storage performance is a consequence of the additional pseudocapacitance generated by the quinone moieties in lignin, which give rise to faradaic reactions. Furthermore PEDOT/Lig is a highly stable biocomposite, retaining about 83% of its electroactivity after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. These results illustrate that the redox doping strategy is a facile and straightforward approach to improve the electroactive performance of PEDOT.

  • 2.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Javad Jafari, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rebis, T.
    Poznan University of Tech, Poland.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Spectroelectrochemical investigation of redox states in a polypyrrole/lignin composite electrode material2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, no 24, p. 12927-12937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report spectroelectrochemical studies to investigate the charge storage mechanism of composite polypyrrole/lignin electrodes. Renewable bioorganic electrode materials were produced by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of a water-soluble lignin derivative acting as a dopant. The resulting composite exhibited enhanced charge storage abilities due to a lignin-based faradaic process, which was expressed after repeated electrochemical redox of the material. The in situ FTIR spectroelectrochemistry results show the formation of quinone groups, and reversible oxidation-reduction of these groups during charge-discharge experiments in the electrode materials. The most significant IR bands include carbonyl absorption near 1705 cm(-1), which is attributed to the creation of quinone moieties during oxidation, and absorption at 1045 cm(-1) which is due to hydroquinone moieties.

  • 3.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Xia, Yuxin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kauffmann, Louis-Dominique
    GenesInk, France.
    Margeat, Olivier
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Ackermann, Jorg
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects of ultraviolet soaking on surface electronic structures of solution processed ZnO nanoparticle films in polymer solar cells2014In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 2, no 41, p. 17676-17682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We systematically show the effect of UV-light soaking on surface electronic structures and chemical states of solution processed ZnO nanoparticle (ZnONP) films in UHV, dry air and UV-ozone. UV exposure in UHV induces a slight decrease in work function and surface-desorption of chemisorbed oxygen, whereas UV exposure in the presence of oxygen causes an increase in work function due to oxygen atom vacancy filling in the ZnO matrix. We demonstrate that UV-light soaking in combination with vacuum or oxygen can tune the work function of the ZnONP films over a range exceeding 1 eV. Based on photovoltaic performance and diode measurements, we conclude that the oxygen atom vacancy filling occurs mainly at the surface of the ZnONP films and that the films consequently retain their n-type behavior despite a significant increase in the measured work function.

  • 4.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Franco Gonzalez, Felipe
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wijeratne, Kosala
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pavlopoulou, Eleni
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Galliani, Daniela
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Italy.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Valiollahi Bisheh, Roudabeh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vapor phase synthesized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene)-trifluoromethanesulfonate as a transparent conductor material2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 43, p. 21304-21312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inorganic transparent conductive oxides have dominated the market as transparent electrodes due to their high conductivity and transparency. Here, we report the fabrication and optimization of the synthesis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) trifluoromethanesulfonate via vapor phase polymerization for the potential replacement of such inorganic materials. The parameters and conditions of the polymerization were investigated and an electrical conductivity of 3800 S cm(-1) and 4500 S cm(-1) after acid treatment were obtained while maintaining an absorbance similar to that of commercial indium tin oxide. This increase in electrical conductivity was rationalized experimentally and theoretically to an increase in the oxidation level and a higher order of crystallinity which does not disrupt the pi-pi stacking of PEDOT chains.

  • 5.
    Cai, Wanzhu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bao, Qinye
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.
    Zaifei, Zaifei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tang, Zheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Self-doped conjugated polyelectrolyte with tuneable work function for effective hole transport in polymer solar cells2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 40, p. 15670-15675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A water-soluble conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE), PEDOT-S (poly(4-(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-2-yl-methoxy)-1-butanesulfonic acid)), is demonstrated to be an excellent hole transport material in several polymer solar cells with different donor's HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital). With a P3TI:PC71BM (poly[6,6′-bis(5′-bromo-3,4′-dioctyl-[2,2′-bithiophen]-5-yl)-1,1′-bis(2-hexyldecyl)-[3,3′-biindolinylidene]-2,2′-dione]:[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester) active layer, the device using PEDOT-S as a hole transport layer (HTL) outperforms the PEDOT:PSS-based devices due to an increased FF (fill factor). The devices' current density–voltage characteristics (JV) show that a PEDOT-S layer can operate well with a wide range of thicknesses as well, helped by its high conductivity and decent transparency. With UV-ozone treatment, the work function of the PEDOT-S can increase from 4.9 eV to 5.2 eV. In TQ1:PC71BM (poly[[2,3-bis(3-octyloxyphenyl)-5,8-quinoxalinediyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl]:PC71BM) devices, which have a deeper donor HOMO than P3TI, Voc is improved from 0.81 V to 0.92 V by 7 min UV-ozone treatment, along with a suppressed reverse injection current and increased Jsc (short-circuit current density) and FF. Topography study shows the excellent coating ability of PEDOT-S. Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) shows the out-of-plane current in PEDOT-S film is one thousand times higher than that in PEDOT:PSS PH 4083 film under the same electric field and has much more uniformly distributed current pathways.

  • 6.
    Chen, Youchun
    et al.
    Jilin University, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Shan
    Jilin University, Peoples R China.
    Xue, Lingwei
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Zhiguo
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Li, Haolong
    Jilin University, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Lixin
    Jilin University, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yue
    Jilin University, Peoples R China.
    Li, Fenghong
    Jilin University, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Yongfang
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Insights into the working mechanism of cathode interlayers in polymer solar cells via [(C8H17)(4)N](4)[SiW12O40]2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 48, p. 19189-19196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low-cost (amp;lt;$1 per g), high-yield (amp;gt;90%), alcohol soluble surfactant-encapsulated polyoxometalate complex [(C8H17)(4)N](4)[SiW12O40] has been synthesized and utilized as a cathode interlayer (CIL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs). A power conversion efficiency of 10.1% can be obtained for PSCs based on PTB7-Th (poly[[2,6-4,8-di(5-ethylhexylthienyl) benzo[1,2-b;3,3-b]-dithiophene][3-fluoro-2[(2-ethylhexyl) carbonyl] thieno [3,4-b]-thiophenediyl]]):PC71BM ([6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acidmethyl ester) due to the incorporation of [(C8H17)(4)N](4)[SiW12O40]. Combined measurements of current density-voltage characteristics, transient photocurrent, charge carrier mobility and capacitance-voltage characteristics demonstrate that [(C8H17)(4)N](4)[SiW12O40] can effectively increase the built-in potential, charge carrier density and mobility and accelerate the charge carrier extraction in PSCs. Most importantly, the mechanism of using [(C8H17)(4)N](4)[SiW12O40] as the CIL is further brought to light by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) of the metal/ [(C8H17)(4)N](4)[SiW12O40] interface. The findings suggest that [(C8H17)(4)N](4)[SiW12O40] not only decreased the work function of the metal cathodes but also was n-doped upon contact with the metals, which provide insights into the working mechanism of the CILs simultaneously improving the open circuit voltage, short circuit current and fill factor in the PSCs.

  • 7.
    Diaz de Zerio Mendaza, Amaia
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Melianas, Armantas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nugroho, Ferry A. A.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Backe, Olof
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Olsson, Eva
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Langhammer, Christoph
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mueller, Christian
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    A fullerene alloy based photovoltaic blend with a glass transition temperature above 200 degrees C2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 4156-4162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic solar cells with a high degree of thermal stability require bulk-heterojunction blends that feature a high glass transition, which must occur considerably above the temperatures encountered during device fabrication and operation. Here, we demonstrate for the first time a polymer : fullerene blend with a glass transition temperature above 200 degrees C, which we determine by plasmonic nanospectroscopy. We achieve this strong tendency for glass formation through the use of an alloy of neat, unsubstituted C-60 and C-70, which we combine with the fluorothieno-benzodithiophene copolymer PTB7. A stable photovoltaic performance of PTB7 : C60 : C70 ternary blends is preserved despite annealing the active layer at up to 180 degrees C, which coincides with the onset of the glass transition. Rapid deterioration of the power conversion efficiency from initially above 5% only occurs upon exceeding the glass transition temperature of 224 degrees C of the ternary blend.

  • 8.
    Edberg, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Boosting the capacity of all-organic paper supercapacitors using wood derivatives2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 145-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed and flexible organic electronics is a steadily expanding field of research and applications. One of the most attractive features of this technology is the possibility of large area and high throughput production to form low-cost electronics on different flexible substrates. With an increasing demand for sustainable energy production, low-cost and large volume technologies to store high-quality energy become equally important. These devices should be environmentally friendly with respect to their entire life cycle. Supercapacitors and batteries based on paper hold great promise for such applications due to the low cost and abundance of cellulose and other forest-derived components. We report a thick-film paper-supercapacitor system based on cellulose nanofibrils, the mixed ion-electron conducting polymer PEDOT: PSS and sulfonated lignin. We demonstrate that the introduction of sulfonated lignin into the cellulose-conducting polymer system increases the specific capacitance from 110 to 230 F g(-1) and the areal capacitance from 160 mF cm(-2) to 1 F cm(-2). By introducing lignosulfonate also into the electrolyte solution, equilibrium, with respect to the concentration of the redox molecule, was established between the electrode and the electrolyte, thus allowing us to perform beyond 700 charge/discharge cycles with no observed decrease in performance.

  • 9.
    Elhag, Sami
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tordera, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Deydier, T
    Department of Material Engineering, University of Toulon, FR-83041 Toulon, France .
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    LiU, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Low-temperature growth of polyethylene glycol-doped BiZn2VO6 nanocompounds with enhanced photoelectrochemical properties2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 1112-1119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate scalable, low-cost and low-temperature (<100 °C) aqueous chemical growth of bismuth–zinc vanadate (BiZn2VO6) nanocompounds by BiVO4 growth on ZnO nanobelts (NBs). The nanocompounds were further doped with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to tune the electronic structure of the materials, as a means to lower the charge carrier recombination rate. The chemical composition, morphology, and detailed nanostructure of the BiZn2VO6 nanocompounds were characterized. They exhibit rice-like morphology, are highly dense on the substrate and possess a good crystalline quality. Photoelectrochemical characterization in 0.1 M lithium perchlorate in carbonate propylene shows that BiZn2VO6 nanocompounds are highly suitable as anodes for solar-driven photoelectrochemical applications, providing significantly better performance than with only ZnO NBs. This performance could be attributed to the heterogeneous catalysis effect at nanocompound and ZnO NB interfaces, which have enhanced the electron transfer process on the electrode surface. Furthermore, the charge collection efficiency could be significantly improved through PEG doping of nanocompounds. The photocurrent density of PEG-doped BiZn2VO6 nanocompounds reached values of 2 mA cm−2 at 1.23 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), over 60% larger than that of undoped BiZn2VO6 nanocompounds. Photoluminescence emission experiments confirmed that PEG plays a crucial role in lowering the charge carrier recombination rate. The presented BiZn2VO6 nanocompounds are shown to provide highly competitive performance compared with other state-of-the art photoelectrodes.

  • 10.
    George, Zandra
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Xia, Yuxin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sharma, Anirudh
    University of S Australia, Australia.
    Lindqvist, Camilla
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunther
    Flinders University of S Australia, Australia.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Muller, Christian
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers, Sweden; University of S Australia, Australia.
    Two-in-one: cathode modification and improved solar cell blend stability through addition of modified fullerenes2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 2663-2669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis of dual purpose modified fullerenes with pyridine-as well as amine-functional groups is reported. Addition of these fullerenes to a polymer : fullerene bulk-heterojunction blend based on a thiophene-quinoxaline donor polymer is found to modify the active layer/cathode interface of inverted solar cells (glass/ITO/active layer/MoO3/Al). In particular the open-circuit voltage of devices is increased from 0.1 V to about 0.7 V, which results in a drastic rise in photovoltaic performance with a power conversion efficiency of up to 3%. At the same time, presence of the functionalised fullerene additives prevents the detrimental formation of micrometre-sized fullerene crystals upon annealing at 140 degrees C. As a result, the device performance is retained, which promises significantly increased thermal stability of the bulk-heterojunction blend nanostructure.

  • 11.
    Gryszel, Maciej
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Markov, Aleksandr
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Organic heterojunction photocathodes for optimized photoelectrochemical hydrogen peroxide production2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 48, p. 24709-24716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar-to-chemical conversion of sunlight into hydrogen peroxide as a chemical fuel is an emerging carbon-free sustainable energy strategy. The process is based on the reduction of dissolved oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Only limited amounts of photoelectrode materials have been successfully explored for photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen peroxide. Herein we detail approaches to produce robust organic semiconductor photocathodes for peroxide evolution. They are based on evaporated donor-acceptor heterojunctions between phthalocyanine and tetracarboxylic perylenediimide, respectively. These small molecules form nanocrystalline films with good operational stability and high surface area. We discuss critical parameters which allow fabrication of efficient devices. These photocathodes can support continuous generation of high concentrations of peroxide with faradaic efficiency remaining at around 70%. We find that an advantage of the evaporated heterojunctions is that they can be readily vertically stacked to produce tandem cells which produce higher voltages. This feature is desirable for fabricating two-electrode photoelectrochemical cells. Overall, the photocathodes presented here have the highest performance reported to date in terms of photocurrent for peroxide production. These results offer a viable method for peroxide photosynthesis and provide a roadmap of strategies that can be used to produce photoelectrodes with even higher efficiency and productivity.

  • 12.
    Jian, Jingxin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shi, Yuchen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekeroth, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Keraudy, Julien
    Oerlikon Balzers, Liechtenstein.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A nanostructured NiO/cubic SiC p-n heterojunction photoanode for enhanced solar water splitting2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 4721-4728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting offers a promising method to convert the intermittent solar energy into renewable and storable chemical energy. However, the most studied semiconductors generally exhibit a poor PEC performance including low photocurrent, small photovoltage, and/or large onset potential. In this work, we demonstrate a significant enhancement of photovoltage and photocurrent together with a substantial decrease of onset potential by introducing electrocatalytic and p-type NiO nanoclusters on an n-type cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) photoanode. Under AM1.5G 100 mW cm(-2) illumination, the NiO-coated 3C-SiC photoanode exhibits a photocurrent density of 1.01 mA cm(-2) at 0.55 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (V-RHE), a very low onset potential of 0.20 V-RHE and a high fill factor of 57% for PEC water splitting. Moreover, the 3C-SiC/NiO photoanode shows a high photovoltage of 1.0 V, which is the highest value among reported photovoltages. The faradaic efficiency measurements demonstrate that NiO also protects the 3C-SiC surface against photo-corrosion. The impedance measurements evidence that the 3C-SiC/NiO photoanode facilitates the charge transfer for water oxidation. The valence-band position measurements confirm the formation of the 3C-SiC/NiO p-n heterojunction, which promotes the separation of the photogenerated carriers and reduces carrier recombination, thus resulting in enhanced solar water-splitting.

  • 13.
    Jiao, Fei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Naderi, Ali
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schlueter, Joshua
    University of Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Shahi, Maryam
    University of Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Sundstrom, Jonas
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brill, Joseph
    University of Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Lindstrom, Tom
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Correction: Ionic thermoelectric paper (vol 5, pg 16883, 2017)2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, no 37, p. 20053-20053Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 14.
    Jiao, Fei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Naderi, Ali
    Billerudkorsnäs AB, SE-71830 Frövi, Sweden.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schlueter, Joshua
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY40506-0055, USA.
    Shahi, Maryam
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY40506-0055, USA.
    Sundström, Jonas
    Innventia AB Box 5604, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB Box 5604, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brill, Joseph W.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY40506-0055, USA.
    Lindström, Tom
    Innventia AB Box 5604, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ionic Thermoelectric Paper2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, no 32, p. 16883-16888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ionic thermoelectric materials, such as polyelectrolyte like polystyrene sulfonate sodium (PSSNa), constitute a new class ofmaterial attracting interest due to their large Seebeck coefficient and the possibility to be used in ionic thermoelectricsupercapacitors (ITESCs) and field effect transistors. However pure polyelectrolyte membranes are not robust neitherflexible. In this article, we demonstrate the preparation of ionic thermoelectric paper by a simple, scalable and cost-effectivemethod. After composite with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), the resulting NFC-PSSNa paper is flexible and mechanicallyrobust; which is desirable of using roll-to-roll processes. The robust thermoelectric paper NFC-PSSNa combines high ionicconductivity (9 mS/cm), high ionic Seebeck coefficient (8.4 mV/K) and low thermal conductivity (0.75 Wm-1K-1) at 100 RH%,resulting in overall figure-of-merit of 0.025 at room temperature slightly better than the PSSNa. Enabling flexibility androbustness by compositing with cellulose constitutes an advance for scaling up the manufacturing of ionic thermoelectricsupercapacitors; but also enables new applications for conformable thermoelectric devices and flexible electronics

  • 15.
    Karuthedath, Safakath
    et al.
    KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Melianas, Armantas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Kan, Zhipeng
    KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Pranculis, Vytenis
    Ctr Phys Sci and Technol, Lithuania.
    Wohlfahrt, Markus
    KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Khan, Jafar I.
    KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Gorenflot, Julien
    KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Xia, Yuxin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gulbinas, Vidmantas
    Ctr Phys Sci and Technol, Lithuania.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Laquai, Frederic
    KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Thermal annealing reduces geminate recombination in TQ1:N2200 all-polymer solar cells2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 17, p. 7428-7438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    combination of steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements is used to investigate the photophysics of the all-polymer bulk heterojunction system TQ1:N2200. Upon thermal annealing a doubling of the external quantum efficiency and an improved fill factor (FF) is observed, resulting in an increase in the power conversion efficiency. Carrier extraction is similar for both blends, as demonstrated by time-resolved electric-field-induced second harmonic generation experiments in conjunction with transient photocurrent studies, spanning the ps-mu s time range. Complementary transient absorption spectroscopy measurements reveal that the different quantum efficiencies originate from differences in charge carrier separation and recombination at the polymer-polymer interface: in as-spun samples similar to 35% of the charges are bound in interfacial charge-transfer states and recombine geminately, while this pool is reduced to similar to 7% in thermally-annealed samples, resulting in higher short-circuit currents. Time-delayed collection field experiments demonstrate a field-dependent charge generation process in as-spun samples, which reduces the FF. In contrast, field-dependence of charge generation is weak in annealed films. While both devices exhibit significant non-geminate recombination competing with charge extraction, causing low FFs, our results demonstrate that the donor/acceptor interface in all-polymer solar cells can be favourably altered to enhance charge separation, without compromising charge transport and extraction.

  • 16.
    Li, Hao
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shang, Huan
    Cent China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Shi, Yuchen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Lizhi
    Cent China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Atomically manipulated proton transfer energizes water oxidation on silicon carbide photoanodes2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 47, p. 24358-24366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surmounting the sluggish water oxidation kinetics beyond the hole-dominated thermodynamic effect is a topic of great scientific interest to establish fully renewable hydrogen technology from solar-powered water splitting. Herein, we demonstrate that the bottleneck of photoelectrochemical water oxidation can be overcome via atomic manipulation of proton transfer on the polar surfaces of silicon carbide (SiC) photoanodes. On the typical carbon-face SiC, where proton-coupled electron transfer governed the interfacial hole transfer for water oxidation, substantial energy loss was inevitable due to the highly activated proton-transfer steps. Via preferentially exposing the silicon-face, we enabled surface-catalyzed barrierless O-H breaking with a facile proton exchange and migration character. This mechanistically shifted the rate limiting step of water oxidation from sluggish proton-coupled electron transfer to a more energy-favorable electron transfer. The proof-of-concept study introduced here may open up new possibilities to design sophisticated photoelectrodes for an unbiased solar water splitting cell via surface engineering.

  • 17.
    Li, Liyuan
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Lu, Feixue
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Chao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liang, Weihua
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Kuga, Shigenori
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Dong, Zhichao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Yang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Yong
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Min
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Flexible double-cross-linked cellulose-based hydrogel and aerogel membrane for supercapacitor separator2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 47, p. 24468-24478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cellulose-based flexible double-cross-linked hydrogel with hierarchical porosity (max. 80%) was obtained by a facile solution-phase method by using polydopamine (PDA) as a crosslinker between cellulose and polyacrylamide (PAM). The investigation on the ratio of dopamine/acrylamide (DA/AM) reveals that the - stacking of the catechol groups in PDA and the abundant hydrogen bonds distributed in the gel network exert key effects on the hydrogels mechanical properties. At the premium ratio of 0.4 (C-4-DM-40), the mechanical and self-healing properties of the hydrogel are superior to those of other hydrogels. Fe3+-functionalizing endows the hydrogel with enhanced conductivity and sensitivity, as evidenced by the 3-fold increase in resistance variation (R/R-0) in a finger-bending monitoring test. An electric double layer supercapacitor using the KOH-saturated C-4-DM-40 aerogel membrane as a polymer electrolyte presents high capacitance of 172 F g(-1) at 1.0 A g(-1) and long cycling life of 10000 cycles with 84.7% capacitance retention due to electrolyte retention of 548.6%. Remarkably, an integrated micro-supercapacitor is fabricated by directly depositing activated carbon materials onto the C-4-DM-40 hydrogel membrane. The device shows areal capacitance of 275.8 mF cm(-2) and volumetric capacitance of 394.1 F cm(-3) at 10 mV s(-1). These findings suggest that the multi-functional cellulose-based hydrogels reported in this study display various potentials for practical applications not only in human health monitoring but also in portable and energy-storage devices.

  • 18.
    Li, Xiaodong
    et al.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Wenjun
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Xueyan
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Yulei
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fang, Junfeng
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Critical role of the external bias in improving the performance of polymer solar cells with a small molecule electrolyte interlayer2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 504-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A small-molecule electrolyte based on the popular ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA-N) is introduced as an efficient cathode interlayer in inverted polymer solar cells, helping to deliver power conversion efficiency over 9%. The strong dependence of device performance on the external bias suggests that the ion motion plays a critical role in improving the performance of devices with electrolyte interlayers.

  • 19.
    Li, Yongxi
    et al.
    Soochow University, Peoples R China; Soochow University, Peoples R China; Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xiaodong
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Fu-Peng
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Zhou, Yi
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Jiang, Zuo-Quan
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Song, Bo
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Xia, Yuxin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Zhi-Guo
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Yongfang
    Soochow University, Peoples R China; Soochow University, Peoples R China; Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Liao, Liang-Sheng
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Non-fullerene acceptor with low energy loss and high external quantum efficiency: towards high performance polymer solar cells2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 16, p. 5890-5897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A non-fullerene electron acceptor bearing a fused 10-heterocyclic ring (indacenodithiophenoindacenodithiophene) with a narrow band gap (similar to 1.5 eV) was designed and synthesized. It possesses excellent planarity and enhanced effective conjugation length compared to previously reported fused-ring electron acceptors. When this acceptor was paired with PTB7-Th and applied in polymer solar cells, a power conversion efficiency of 6.5% was achieved with a high open circuit voltage of 0.94 V. More significantly, an energy loss as low as 0.59 eV and an external quantum efficiency as high as 63% were obtained simultaneously.

  • 20.
    Mitraka, Evangelia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Oxygen-induced doping on reduced PEDOT2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 4404-4412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has shown promise as air electrode in renewable energy technologies like metal-air batteries and fuel cells. PEDOT is based on atomic elements of high abundance and is synthesized at low temperature from solution. The mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) over chemically polymerized PEDOT: Cl still remains controversial with eventual role of transition metal impurities. However, regardless of the mechanistic route, we here demonstrate yet another key active role of PEDOT in the ORR mechanism. Our study demonstrates the decoupling of conductivity (intrinsic property) from electrocatalysis (as an extrinsic phenomenon) yielding the evidence of doping of the polymer by oxygen during ORR. Hence, the PEDOT electrode is electrochemically reduced (undoped) in the voltage range of ORR regime, but O-2 keeps it conducting; ensuring PEDOT to act as an electrode for the ORR. The interaction of oxygen with the polymer electrode is investigated with a battery of spectroscopic techniques.

  • 21.
    Peng, Zuosheng
    et al.
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Xia, Yuxin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. S China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Xiong, Kang
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Hu, Zhanhao
    S China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Ian James, David
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Chen, Junwu
    S China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    A dual ternary system for highly efficient ITO-free inverted polymer solar cells2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, no 36, p. 18365-18371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, it has been found that a very fine nanostructure can be realized by mixing 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) - a high-boiling solvent into a binary chlorobenzene (CB) : 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) solvent mixture to form a ternary solvent system. An improvement in energy level alignment is also obtained by doping ICBA into a binary PTB7 : PCBM[70] blend, whereby the ternary solute system provides a new pathway for charge transfer from PTB7 to the PCBM[ 70] : ICBA alloy. This is confirmed by imaging the surface morphology of the active layer using AFM and TEM, monitoring the transient film formation process and measuring the charge transfer states with Fourier transform photocurrent spectroscopy. An encouraging PCE of 7.65% is achieved from the dual ternary system, which is the highest value ever reported for an ITO-free inverted polymer solar cell with a PEDOT:PSS layer as the top semitransparent electrode - a system which is compatible with low-cost large-area roll-to-roll manufacturing.

  • 22.
    Peng, Zuosheng
    et al.
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Yangdong
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Xia, Yuxin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Xiong, Kang
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Cai, Chaosheng
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Xia, Lianpeng
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Hu, Zhanhao
    S China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Kai
    S China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Fei
    S China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    One-step coating inverted polymer solar cells using a conjugated polymer as an electron extraction additive2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, no 41, p. 20500-20507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a facile technique of blending a conjugated polymer thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM[70]) active materials with a conjugated interfacial modification polymer poly[(9,9-bis(3-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN) to simplify the coating process and improve the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cell (PSC) performance. The reason for and result of PFN self-organization via a spontaneous vertical delamination onto the ITO surface were investigated by charge transfer state, optical modelling based on transfer matrix formalism, surface energy measurement, scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and impedance spectroscopy analysis in conjunction with atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The relaxed charge transfer state demonstrates that PFN doping has a negligible impact on the donor: acceptor heterojunction interface. The optical simulation of device structures indicates that doping PFN into a BHJ has nearly no influence on the photon absorption profile of the active layer. Very encouraging device performance was achieved in the one-step coating PFN: BHJ PSC with ITO as the cathode, which is comparable to that of the two-step coating PSC. Moreover, for ITO-free inverted PSCs with PEDOT:PSS as the incident light top-electrode, decent device performance can also be obtained, demonstrating the remarkable universality through this facile strategy.

  • 23.
    Qian, Deping
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Liu, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Himmelberger, Scott
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Linares, Mathieu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Muller, Christian
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Zaifei, Zaifei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Salleo, Alberto
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zou, Yingping
    Central S University, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modulating molecular aggregation by facile heteroatom substitution of diketopyrrolopyrrole based small molecules for efficient organic solar cells2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, no 48, p. 24349-24357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In conjugated polymers and small molecules of organic solar cells, aggregation induced by intermolecular interactions governs the performance of photovoltaics. However, little attention has been paid to the connection between molecular structure and aggregation within solar cells based on soluble small molecules. Here we demonstrate modulation of intermolecular aggregation of two synthesized molecules through heteroatom substitution to develop an understanding of the role of aggregation in conjugated molecules. Molecule 1 (M1) based on 2-ethylhexyloxy-benzene substituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene (BDTP) and diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) displays strong aggregation in commonly used organic solvents, which is reduced in molecule 2 (M2) by facile oxygen atom substitution on the BDTP unit confirmed by absorption spectroscopy and optical microscopy, while it successfully maintains molecular planarity and favorable charge transport characteristics. Solar cells based on M2 exhibit more than double the photocurrent of devices based on M1 and yield a power conversion efficiency of 5.5%. A systematic investigation of molecular conformation, optoelectronic properties, molecular packing and crystallinity as well as film morphology reveals structure dependent aggregation responsible for the performance difference between the two conjugated molecules.

  • 24.
    Rebis, Tomasz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Poznan University of Tech, Poland.
    Yang Nilsson, Ting
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hybrid materials from organic electronic conductors and synthetic-lignin models for charge storage applications2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 1931-1940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Homopolymers and copolymers of the monolignols syringol (S) and guaiacol (G) were prepared as well-defined lignin model compounds. Polymerisation was performed by phenol-formaldehyde condensation, also including the monomer hydroquinone (HQ) to extend the range of redox processes in these synthetic lignins (SLig). The chemical structures of the SLig samples were characterized by C-13 and quantitative P-31 NMR, and the molecular weight was monitored by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Subsequently, SLig were incorporated into two different electron-conducting matrix - single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and polypyrrole (PPy), respectively. As a result, the hybrid materials, with a controlled amount of SWNT or with an unknown amount of PPy, were assembled and compared. The charge storage properties in the investigated materials are attributed to contributions from both the double-layer capacitance of the conducting matrix, and the faradaic reactions provided by quinone groups immobilized in the electrodes. The results indicate a considerable improvement of charge capacity, with the synthetic lignins incorporated in the hybrid materials. With a PPy carrying S, G and HQ, better performance is obtained than has previously been obtained with lignin derivatives, showing a maximum capacity of 94 mA h g(-1). Moreover, a low amount of electronic conductor (20% wt of SWNT) is adequate to perform efficient electron communication between redox active quinones and the electrode surface, providing 72 mA h g(-1).

  • 25.
    Ruoko, Tero-Petri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tampere Univ Technol, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Tampere Univ Technol, Finland.
    Iivonen, Tomi
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Ulkuniemi, Riina
    Tampere Univ Technol, Finland.
    Lahtonen, Kimmo
    Tampere Univ Technol, Finland.
    Ali-Loeytty, Harri
    Tampere Univ Technol, Finland.
    Mizohata, Kenichiro
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Valden, Mika
    Tampere Univ Technol, Finland.
    Leskelae, Markku
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Tkachenko, Nikolai V.
    Tampere Univ Technol, Finland.
    Charge carrier dynamics in tantalum oxide overlayered and tantalum doped hematite photoanodes2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 3206-3215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We employ atomic layer deposition to prepare 50 nm thick hematite photoanodes followed by passivating them with a 0.5 nm thick Ta2O5-overlayer and compare them with samples uniformly doped with the same amount of tantalum. We observe a three-fold improvement in photocurrent with the same onset voltage using Ta-overlayer hematite photoanodes, while electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under visible light irradiation shows a decreased amount of surface states under water splitting conditions. The Tadoped samples have an even higher increase in photocurrent along with a 0.15 V cathodic shift in the onset voltage and decreased resistivity. However, the surface state capacitance for the Ta-doped sample is twice that of the reference photoanode, which implies a larger amount of surface hole accumulation. We further utilize transient absorption spectroscopy in the sub-millisecond to second timescale under operating conditions to show that electron trapping in both Ta2O5-passivated and Ta-doped samples is markedly reduced. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy in the sub-picosecond to nanosecond timescale shows faster charge carrier dynamics and reduced recombination in the Ta-doped hematite photoanode resulting in the increased photoelectrochemical performance when compared with the Ta2O5-overlayer sample. Our results show that passivation does not affect the poor charge carrier dynamics intrinsic to hematite based photoanodes. The Ta-doping strategy results in more efficient electron extraction, solving the electron trapping issue and leading to increased performance over the surface passivation strategy.

  • 26.
    Szymanski, N. J.
    et al.
    Univ Toledo, OH 43606 USA.
    Walters, L. N.
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Hellman, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. CALTECH, CA 91125 USA.
    Gall, D.
    Rensselaer Polytech Inst, NY 12180 USA.
    Khare, S. V.
    Univ Toledo, OH 43606 USA.
    Dynamical stabilization in delafossite nitrides for solar energy conversion2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 42, p. 20852-20860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delafossite structured ternary nitrides, ABN(2), have been of recent experimental investigation for applications such as tandem solar and photoelectrochemical cells. We present a thorough first principles computational investigation of their stability, electronic structure, and optical properties. Nine compounds, where A = Cu, Ag, Au and B = V, Nb, Ta, were studied. For three of these compounds, CuTaN2, CuNbN2, and AgTaN2, our computations agree well with experimental results. Optimized lattice parameters, formation energies, and mechanical properties have been computed using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Phonon density of states computed at zero-temperature shows that all compounds are dynamically unstable at low temperatures. Including finite-temperature anharmonic effects stabilizes all compounds at 300 K, with the exception of AgVN2. Analysis of Crystal Orbital Hamiltonian Populations (COHP) provides insight into the bonding and antibonding characters of A-N and B-N pairs. Instability at low temperatures can be attributed to strong A-N antibonding character near the Fermi energy. B-N bonding is found to be crucial in maintaining stability of the structure. AgVN2 is the only compound to display significant B-N antibonding below the Fermi energy, as well as the strongest degree of A-N antibonding, both of which provide explanation for the sustained instability of this compound up to 900 K. Hybrid functional calculations of electronic and optical properties show that real static dielectric constants in the semiconductors are related to corresponding band gaps through the Moss relation. CuTaN2, CuNbN2, AgTaN2, AgNbN2, AgVN2, AuTaN2, and AuNbN2 exhibit indirect electronic band gaps while CuVN2 and AuVN2 are metallic. Imaginary parts of the dielectric function are characterized by d-d interband transitions in the semiconductors and d-d intraband transitions in the metals. Four compounds, CuTaN2, CuNbN2, AgTaN2, and AgNbN2, are predicted to exhibit large light absorption in the range of 1.0 to 1.7 eV, therefore making these materials good candidates for solar-energy conversion applications. Two compounds, AuTaN2 and AuNbN2, have band gaps and absorption onsets near the ideal range for obtaining high solar-cell conversion efficiency, suggesting that these compounds could become potential candidates as absorber materials in tandem solar cells or for band-gap engineering by alloying.

  • 27.
    Tang, Zheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elfwing, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Melianas, Armantas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bao, Qinye
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fully-solution-processed organic solar cells with a highly efficient paper-based light trapping element2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, no 48, p. 24289-24296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the use of low cost paper as an efficient light-trapping element for thin film photovoltaics. We verify its use in fully-solution processed organic photovoltaic devices with the highest power conversion efficiency and the lowest internal electrical losses reported so far, the architecture of which - unlike most of the studied geometries to date - is suitable for upscaling, i.e. commercialization. The use of the paper-reflector enhances the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the organic photovoltaic device by a factor of approximate to 1.5-2.5 over the solar spectrum, which rivals the light harvesting efficiency of a highly-reflective but also considerably more expensive silver mirror back-reflector. Moreover, by detailed theoretical and experimental analysis, we show that further improvements in the photovoltaic performance of organic solar cells employing PEDOT:PSS as both electrodes rely on the future development of high-conductivity and high-transmittance PEDOT:PSS. This is due optical losses in the PEDOT:PSS electrodes.

  • 28.
    Tang, Zheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Donghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Jing
    Donghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Melianas, Armantas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wu, Yang
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Kroon, Renee
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Li, Weiwei
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Ma, Wei
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Australia.
    Ma, Zaifei
    Donghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wanzhu, Cai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tress, Wolfgang
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Relating open-circuit voltage losses to the active layer morphology and contact selectivity in organic solar cells2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 26, p. 12574-12581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that voltage losses due to both radiative and non-radiative recombination of charge carriers are strongly dependent on D/A phase separation. By processing the active layer with various solvent additives, we create distinct morphologies that lead to significantly different device open-circuit voltages (V-OC), even though the charge transfer state energy (E-CT) of the D/A blend remains rather constant. We find that radiative recombination losses are significantly increased for a finely intermixed morphology, due to the large D/A interface area. This leads to a total recombination loss of E-CT - qV(OC) approximate to 0.7 eV. However, considerably smaller losses (0.5 eV), due to suppressed non-radiative recombination, are possible in solar cells where the D/A materials are organized to only allow for selective charge carrier extraction. Using a drift diffusion model, we show that the origin of the reduced non-radiative recombination losses is related to an effect which has not been considered for optimized solar cells - the suppression of minority carrier diffusion to the wrong contact. Our results suggest that the built-in field is not sufficiently strong even in optimized organic solar cells and that selective carrier extraction is critical for further improvements in V-OC.

  • 29.
    Valenti, M.
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biskos, G.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands; Cyprus Institute, Cyprus.
    Schmidt-Ott, A.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Smith, W. A.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Plasmonic nanoparticle-semiconductor composites for efficient solar water splitting2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 46, p. 17891-17912Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a promising technology that uses light absorbing semiconductors to convert solar energy directly into a chemical fuel (i.e., hydrogen). PEC water splitting has the potential to become a key technology in achieving a sustainable society, if high solar to fuel energy conversion efficiencies are obtained with earth abundant materials. This review article discusses recent developments and discoveries in the mechanisms by which the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in metallic nanoparticles can increase or complement a neighbouring semiconductor in light absorption for catalytic water splitting applications. These mechanisms can mitigate the intrinsic optical limitations of semiconductors (e.g., metal oxides) for efficient solar water splitting. We identify four types of enhancement mechanisms in the recent literature: (i) light scattering, (ii) light concentration, (iii) hot electron injection (HEI), and (iv) plasmon-induced resonance energy transfer (PIRET). (i) Light scattering and (ii) light concentration are light trapping mechanisms that can increase the absorption of light with energies above the semiconductor optical band-edge. These two mechanisms are ideal to enhance the absorption of promising semiconductors with narrow bandgap energies that suffer from limited absorption coefficients and bulk charge recombination. On the other hand, (iii) HEI and the recently discovered (iv) PIRET are mechanisms that can enhance the absorption also below the semiconductor optical band-edge. Therefore, HEI and PIRET have the potential to extend the light utilization to visible and near-infrared wavelengths of semiconductors with excellent electrochemical properties, but with large bandgap energies. New techniques and theories that have been developed to elucidate the above mentioned plasmonic mechanisms are presented and discussed for their application in metal oxide photoelectrodes. Finally, other plasmonic and non-plasmonic effects that do not increase the device absorption, but affect the electrochemical properties of the semiconductor (e.g., charge carrier transport) are also discussed, since a complete understanding of these phenomena is fundamental for the design of an efficient plasmonic NP-semiconductor water splitting device.

  • 30.
    Wang, Yuming
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Nana
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Qian, Deping
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Wang, Jianpu
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huang, Wei
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Light-induced degradation of fullerenes in organic solar cells: a case study on TQ1:PC71BM2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 25, p. 11884-11889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of organic solar cells (OSCs) is critical for practical applications of this emerging technology. Unfortunately, in spite of intensive investigations, the degradation mechanisms in OSCs have not been clearly understood yet. In this report, we employ a range of spectroscopic and transport measurements, coupled with drift-diffusion modelling, to investigate the light-induced degradation mechanisms of fullerene-based OSCs. We find that trap states formed in the fullerene phase under illumination play a critical role in the degradation of the open-circuit voltage (V-OC) in OSCs. Our results indicate that the degradation is intrinsic to the fullerenes in OSCs and that alternative acceptor materials are desired for the development of stable OSCs.

  • 31.
    Weclawski, Marek K.
    et al.
    Polish Academic Science, Poland.
    Jakesova, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Charyton, Martyna
    Polish Academic Science, Poland.
    Demitri, Nicola
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy.
    Koszarna, Beata
    Polish Academic Science, Poland.
    Oppelt, Kerstin
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Sariciftci, Serdar
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Gryko, Daniel T.
    Polish Academic Science, Poland.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biscoumarin-containing acenes as stable organic semiconductors for photocatalytic oxygen reduction to hydrogen peroxide2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, no 39, p. 20780-20788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen peroxide and other reactive oxygen species has been predicted to be an efficient strategy, yet few organic materials systems support these types of photochemical conversion reactions. Herein we report a simple synthetic route to yield biscoumarin-containing acenes, semiconducting small molecules with exceptional stability and tunable electrochemical and electrical properties. We find that these semiconductors are photo(electro) catalysts capable of reducing oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Visible light irradiation of thin films on insulating substrates in pure water results in H2O2 photogeneration with water as the sacrificial electron donor. Thin films on conducting substrates are robust catalytic photocathodes for producing H2O2. These semiconductor photoelectrodes retain their catalytic properties in a pH range from 2-13. Photocatalytic or photoelectrocatalytic deployment of biscoumarin-containing acenes does not lead to measurable degradation. This work demonstrates a strategy to synthesize stable organic semiconductors not only suitable for thin-film electronic devices but also next-generation photocatalytic concepts.

  • 32.
    Wijeratne, Kosala
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brooke, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-Tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) electrode in Thermogalvanic Cells2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, no 37, p. 19619-19625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in thermogalvanic cells (TGCs) has grown because it is a candidate technology for harvesting electricity from natural and waste heat. However, the cost of TGCs has a major component due to the use of the platinum electrode. Here, we investigate new alternative electrode material based on conducting polymers, more especially poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-Tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) together with the Ferro/Ferricyanide redox electrolyte. The power generated by the PEDOT-Tos based TGCs increases with the conducting polymer thickness/multilayer and reaches values similar to the flat platinum electrode based TGCs. The physics and chemistry behind this exciting result as well as the identification of the limiting phenomena are investigated by various electrochemical techniques. Furthermore, a preliminary study is provided for the stability of the PEDOT-Tos based TGCs.

  • 33.
    Xia, Yuxin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ma, Wei
    Xi An Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tang, Zheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jin, Yizheng
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Chenhui
    University of Calif Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Kroon, Renee
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Cheng
    University of Calif Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    University of S Australia, Australia.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Inverted all-polymer solar cells based on a quinoxaline-thiophene/naphthalene-diimide polymer blend improved by annealing2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 3835-3843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the effect of thermal annealing on the photovoltaic parameters of all-polymer solar cells based on a quinoxaline-thiophene donor polymer (TQ1) and a naphthalene diimide acceptor polymer (N2200). The annealed devices show a doubled power conversion efficiency compared to nonannealed devices, due to the higher short-circuit current (J(sc)) and fill factor (FF), but with a lower open circuit voltage (V-oc). On the basis of the morphology-mobility examination by several scanning force microscopy techniques, and by grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, we conclude that better charge transport is achieved by higher order and better interconnected networks of the bulk heterojunction in the annealed active layers. The annealing improves charge transport and extends the conjugation length of the polymers, which do help in charge generation and meanwhile reduce recombination. Photoluminescence, electroluminescence, and light intensity dependence measurements reveal how this morphological change affects charge generation and recombination. As a result, the J(sc) and FF are significantly improved. However, the smaller band gap and the higher HOMO level of TQ1 upon annealing causes a lower V-oc. The blend of an amorphous polymer TQ1, and a semi-crystalline polymer N2200, can thus be modified by thermal annealing to double the power conversion efficiency.

  • 34.
    Xia, Yuxin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Xiaofeng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ever Aguirre, Luis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Semitransparent all-polymer solar cells through lamination2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 42, p. 21186-21192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we demonstrate all-polymer solar cells where all the layers are made from polymers. We use PEDOT:PSS as the semitransparent anode and polyethyleneimine modified PEDOT:PSS as the semitransparent cathode, both of which are slot-die printed on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Active layers are deposited on the cathode and anode surfaces by spin coating separately. These layers are then joined through a roll-to-roll compatible lamination process. This results in a semitransparent and flexible solar cell. We have used two polymer-polymer systems and several combinations, and the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) obtained is 2.3% with a mean transparency amp;gt;35% within the visible light range. By laminating a thin layer acceptor polymer to a thick polymer-polymer blend, we can improve the performance by reducing recombination, compared to laminating blend to blend, which is verified by the trap-limited charge transport, CELIV and electroluminescence.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-10-22 11:33
  • 35.
    Yang, Daobin
    et al.
    Yamagata Univ, Japan; Yamagata Univ, Japan.
    Wang, Yuming
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sano, Takeshi
    Yamagata Univ, Japan; Yamagata Univ, Japan; Yamagata Univ, Japan.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sasabe, Hisahiro
    Yamagata Univ, Japan; Yamagata Univ, Japan; Yamagata Univ, Japan.
    Kido, Junji
    Yamagata Univ, Japan; Yamagata Univ, Japan; Yamagata Univ, Japan.
    A minimal non- radiative recombination loss for efficient non- fullerene all- small- molecule organic solar cells with a low energy loss of 0.54 eV and high open- circuit voltage of 1.15 V+2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 28, p. 13918-13924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) are considered as a promising next-generation photovoltaic technology because of their light weight, flexibility, and the potential of roll-to-roll fabrication. However, the relatively large energy loss (E-loss) from the optical bandgap (E-g) of the absorber to the open-circuit voltage (V-oc) of the device hinders further improvement of the PCEs of OSCs. Here, we report efficient non-fullerene all-small-molecule organic solar cells (NF all-SMOSCs), using DR3TBDTT and O-IDTBR as the donor and acceptor, respectively. We obtain a high electroluminescence yield (EQE(EL)) value of up to approximate to 4 x 10(-4) corresponding to a 0.21 eV non-radiative recombination loss, which is the smallest value for bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) OSCs so far. As a result, a low E-loss of 0.54 eV and a considerably high V-oc of 1.15 V are obtained for BHJ NF all-SMOSCs.

  • 36.
    Zhang, Jiangbin
    et al.
    Univ Cambridge, England; Imperial Coll London, England.
    Kan, Bin
    Nankai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Pearson, Andrew J.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Parnell, Andrew J.
    Univ Sheffield, England.
    Cooper, Joshaniel F. K.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, England.
    Liu, Xiaoke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Cambridge, England.
    Conaghan, Patrick J.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Hopper, Thomas R.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Wu, Yutian
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Wan, Xiangjian
    Nankai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greenham, Neil C.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Bakulin, Artem A.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Chen, Yongsheng
    Nankai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Friend, Richard H.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Correction: Efficient non-fullerene organic solar cells employing sequentially deposited donor–acceptor layers(vol 6, pg 18225, 2018)2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 43, p. 21618-21618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Correction for Efficient non-fullerene organic solar cells employing sequentially deposited donor-acceptor layers by Jiangbin Zhang et al., J. Mater. Chem. A, 2018, 6, 18225-18233.

  • 37.
    Zhang, Jiangbin
    et al.
    Univ Cambridge, England; Imperial Coll London, England.
    Kan, Bin
    Nankai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Pearson, Andrew J.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Parnell, Andrew J.
    Univ Sheffield, England.
    Cooper, Joshaniel F. K.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, England.
    Liu, Xiaoke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Cambridge, England.
    Conaghan, Patrick J.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Hopper, Thomas R.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Wu, Yutian
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Wan, Xiangjian
    Nankai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greenham, Neil C.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Bakulin, Artem A.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Chen, Yongsheng
    Nankai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Friend, Richard H.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Efficient non-fullerene organic solar cells employing sequentially deposited donor-acceptor layers2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 37, p. 18225-18233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) have recently outperformed their fullerene counterparts in binary bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). Further development of NFA OSCs may benefit other novel OSC device structures that alter or extend the standard BHJ concept. Here, we report such a new processing route that forms a BHJ-like morphology between sequentially processed polymer donor and NFA with high power conversion efficiencies in excess of 10%. Both devices show similar charge generation and recombination behaviours, supporting formation of similar BHJ active layers. We correlate the approximate to 30 meV smaller open-circuit voltage in sq-BHJ devices to more substantial non-radiative recombination by voltage loss analysis. We also determine the exciton diffusion length of benchmark polymer PBDB-T to be 10 +/- 3 nm. Our results demonstrate high-efficiency OSC devices using sequential deposition method and provide new opportunities to further improve performance of state-of-the-art OSCs.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-08-31 12:25
  • 38.
    Zhen, Hongyu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.
    Hou, Qiong
    S China Normal University, Peoples R China S China University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Li, Kan
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Ma, Zaifei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Solution-processed bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells employing Ir complexes as electron donors2014In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 2, no 31, p. 12390-12396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore enhancing photocurrent in organic solar cells (OSCs) via harvesting triplet excitons, two novel bicycloiridium complexes (R-1 and R-2) are designed and synthesized. Conventional bulk-heterojunction triplet OSCs are solution processed using R-1 or R-2 as sole electron donors and phenyl-C-71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the electron acceptor. A decent short circuit current (J(sc)) of 6.5 mA cm(-2) is achieved though the overlap between the absorption spectrum (with similar to 550 nm absorption onset) of R-2 and the solar flux is relatively small. With an open circuit voltage of 0.74 V and a fill factor of 0.42, an encouraging power conversion efficiency of 2.0% is achieved in the OSCs based on R-2 and PC71BM without any processing additives and post-treatments. Our preliminary result demonstrates the possibility of utilizing Ir complexes as sole electron donors in OSCs, which extends available soluble small molecules for OSCs.

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