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  • 1.
    Bai, Sai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Colloidal metal halide perovskite nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and applications2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 4, no 18, p. 3898-3904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colloidal metal halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising materials for optoelectronic devices and received considerable attention recently. Their superior photoluminescence (PL) properties provide significant advantages for lighting and display applications. In this Highlight, we discuss recent developments in the design and chemical synthesis of colloidal perovskite NCs, including both organic-inorganic hybrid and all inorganic perovskite NCs. We review the excellent PL properties and current optoelectronic applications of these perovskite NCs. In addition, critical challenges that currently limit the applicability of perovskite NCs are discussed, and prospects for future directions are proposed.

  • 2.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Iandolo, Donata
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ecole Natl Super Mines, France.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Controlling the electrochromic properties of conductive polymers using UV-light2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 6, no 17, p. 4663-4670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of electrochromism in conductive polymers is well known and has been exploited in many scientific reports. Using a newly developed patterning technique for conductive polymers, we manufactured high-resolution electrochromic devices from the complementary polymers PEDOT and polypyrrole. The technique, which combines UV-light exposure with vapor phase polymerization, has previously only been demonstrated with the conductive polymer PEDOT. We further demonstrated how the same technique can be used to control the optical properties and the electrochromic contrast in these polymers. Oxidant exposure to UV-light prior to vapor phase polymerization showed a reduction in polymer electrochromic contrast allowing high-resolution (100 mu m) patterns to completely disappear while applying a voltage bias due to their optical similarity in one redox state and dissimilarity in the other. This unique electrochromic property enabled us to construct devices displaying images that appear and disappear with the change in applied voltage. Finally, a modification of the electrochromic device architecture permitted a dual image electrochromic device incorporating patterned PEDOT and patterned polypyrrole on the same electrode, allowing the switching between two different images.

  • 3.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of S Australia, Australia.
    Fabretto, Manrico
    University of S Australia, Australia.
    Krasowska, Marta
    University of S Australia, Australia.
    Talemi, Pejman
    University of S Australia, Australia; University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Pering, Samuel
    University of Bath, England.
    Murphy, Peter J.
    University of S Australia, Australia.
    Evans, Drew
    University of S Australia, Australia.
    Organic energy devices from ionic liquids and conducting polymers2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 1550-1556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of smart technologies in our daily lives, from smartphones to auto-dimming windows to touch sensors, has become pervasive. With growing desire for these devices to be conformable and flexible, traditional materials are being replaced to create a class of products known as active organic electronic devices (OEDs). These new devices owe their ability to switch electrical and/or optical function to the intimate interaction between an inherently conducting polymer and electrolyte, typically an ionic liquid. Herein, we provide the first observations that specific ionic liquids can reduce or oxidise conducting polymers upon intimate contact in the absence of any electrical stimuli. The ability to reduce or oxidise the inherently conducting polymer depends on the cation and anion pair within the ionic liquid. Extending the utility of this phenomenon is made by fabricating OEDs such as prototype fuel cells, supercapacitors and smart windows.

  • 4.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mitraka, Evangelia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sardar, Samim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Acreo Swedish ICT, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    Acreo Swedish ICT, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus P.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Infrared electrochromic conducting polymer devices2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 5, no 23, p. 5824-5830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is well known for its electrochromic properties in the visible region. Less focus has been devoted to the infrared (IR) wavelength range, although tunable IR properties could enable a wide range of novel applications. As an example, modern day vehicles have thermal cameras to identify pedestrians and animals in total darkness, but road and speed signs cannot be easily visualized by these imaging systems. IR electrochromism could enable a new generation of dynamic road signs that are compatible with thermal imaging, while simultaneously providing contrast also in the visible region. Here, we present the first metal-free flexible IR electrochromic devices, based on PEDOT:Tosylate as both the electrochromic material and electrodes. Lateral electrochromic devices enabled a detailed investigation of the IR electrochromism of thin PEDOT:Tosylate films, revealing large changes in their thermal signature, with effective temperature changes up to 10 [degree]C between the oxidized (1.5 V) and reduced (-1.5 V) states of the polymer. Larger scale (7 [times] 7 cm) vertical electrochromic devices demonstrate practical suitability and showed effective temperature changes of approximately 7 [degree]C, with good optical memory and fast switching (1.9 s from the oxidized state to the reduced state and 3.3 s for the reversed switching). The results are highly encouraging for using PEDOT:Tosylate for IR electrochromic applications.

  • 5.
    Bäcklund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wigenius, Jens
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Fredrik
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Solin, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Amyloid fibrils as dispersing agents for oligothiophenes: control of photophysical properties through nanoscale templating and flow induced fibril alignment2014In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 2, no 37, p. 7811-7822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein we report that protein fibrils formed from aggregated proteins, so called amyloid fibrils, serve as an excellent dispersing agent for hydrophobic oligothiophenes such as alpha-sexithiophene (6T). Furthermore, the protein fibrils are capable of orienting 6T along the fibril long axis, as demonstrated by flow-aligned linear dichroism spectroscopy and polarized fluorescence microscopy. The materials are prepared by solid state mixing of 6T with a protein capable of self-assembly. This results in a water soluble composite material that upon heating in aqueous acid undergoes self-assembly into protein fibrils non-covalently functionalized with 6T, with a typical diameter of 5-10 nm and lengths in the micrometre range. The resulting aqueous fibril dispersions are a readily available source of oligothiophenes that can be processed from aqueous solvent, and we demonstrate the fabrication of macroscopic structures consisting of aligned 6T functionalized protein fibrils. Due to the fibril induced ordering of 6T these structures exhibit polarized light emission.

  • 6.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Knight, Sean
    Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    On the anomalous optical conductivity dispersion of electrically conducting polymers: ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry combined with a Drude-Lorentz model2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, no 15, p. 4350-4362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically conducting polymers (ECPs) are becoming increasingly important in areas such as optoelectronics, biomedical devices, and energy systems. Still, their detailed charge transport properties produce an anomalous optical conductivity dispersion that is not yet fully understood in terms of physical model equations for the broad range optical response. Several modifications to the classical Drude model have been proposed to account for a strong non-Drude behavior from terahertz (THz) to infrared (IR) ranges, typically by implementing negative amplitude oscillator functions to the model dielectric function that effectively reduce the conductivity in those ranges. Here we present an alternative description that modifies the Drude model via addition of positive-amplitude Lorentz oscillator functions. We evaluate this so-called Drude-Lorentz (DL) model based on the first ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry study of ECPs, spanning over four orders of magnitude: from 0.41 meV in the THz range to 5.90 eV in the ultraviolet range, using thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): tosylate (PEDOT: Tos) as a model system. The model could accurately fit the experimental data in the whole ultrawide spectral range and provide the complex anisotropic optical conductivity of the material. Examining the resonance frequencies and widths of the Lorentz oscillators reveals that both spectrally narrow vibrational resonances and broader resonances due to localization processes contribute significantly to the deviation from the Drude optical conductivity dispersion. As verified by independent electrical measurements, the DL model accurately determines the electrical properties of the thin film, including DC conductivity, charge density, and (anisotropic) mobility. The ellipsometric method combined with the DL model may thereby become an effective and reliable tool in determining both optical and electrical properties of ECPs, indicating its future potential as a contact-free alternative to traditional electrical characterization.

  • 7.
    Eklund, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kerdsongpanya, Sit
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Transition-metal-nitride-based thin films as novel energy harvesting materials2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 4, no 18, p. 3905-3914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last few years have seen a rise in the interest in early transition-metal and rare-earth nitrides, primarily based on ScN and CrN, for energy harvesting by thermoelectricity and piezoelectricity. This is because of a number of important advances, among those the discoveries of exceptionally high piezoelectric coupling coefficient in (Sc,Al)N alloys and of high thermoelectric power factors of ScN-based and CrN-based thin films. These materials also constitute well-defined model systems for investigating thermodynamics of mixing for alloying and nanostructural design for optimization of phase stability and band structure. These features have implications for and can be used for tailoring of thermoelectric and piezoelectric properties. In this highlight article, we review the ScN-and CrN-based transition-metal nitrides for thermoelectrics, and drawing parallels with piezoelectricity. We further discuss these materials as a models systems for general strategies for tailoring of thermoelectric properties by integrated theoretical-experimental approaches.

  • 8.
    Elfwing, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bäcklund, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solin, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Protein nanowires with conductive properties2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, no 25, p. 6499-6504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein we report on the investigation of self-assembled protein nanofibrils functionalized with metallic organic compounds. We have characterized the electronic behaviour of individual nanowires using conductive atomic force microscopy. In order to follow the self assembly process we have incorporated fluorescent molecules into the protein and used the energy transfer between the internalized dye and the metallic coating to probe the binding of the polyelectrolyte to the fibril.

  • 9.
    Imam, Mewlude
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. European Spallat Source ESS AB, Sweden.
    Gaul, Konstantin
    University of Marburg, Germany; University of Marburg, Germany.
    Stegmueller, Andreas
    University of Marburg, Germany; University of Marburg, Germany.
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. European Spallat Source ESS AB, Sweden.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tonner, Ralf
    University of Marburg, Germany; University of Marburg, Germany.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gas phase chemical vapor deposition chemistry of triethylboron probed by boron-carbon thin film deposition and quantum chemical calculations2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, no 41, p. 10898-10906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present triethylboron (TEB) as a single-source precursor for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of BxC thin films and study its gas phase chemistry under CVD conditions by quantum chemical calculations. A comprehensive thermochemical catalogue for the species of the gas phase chemistry of TEB is examined and found to be dominated by beta-hydride eliminations of C2H4 to yield BH3. A complementary bimolecular reaction path based on H-2 assisted C2H6 elimination to BH3 is also significant at lower temperatures in the presence of hydrogen. Furthermore, we find a temperature window of 600-1000 degrees C for the deposition of X-ray amorphous BxC films with 2.5 less than= x less than= 4.5 from TEB. Films grown at temperatures below 600 degrees C contain high amounts of H, while temperatures above 1000 degrees C result in C-rich films. The film density and hardness are determined to be in the range of 2.40-2.65 g cm(-3) and 29-39 GPa, respectively, within the determined temperature window.

  • 10.
    Kakanakova-Gueorguie, Anelia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sahonta, S. -L.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Trinh, Xuan Thang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Humphreys, C. J.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    n-Type conductivity bound by the growth temperature: the case of Al0.72Ga0.28N highly doped by silicon2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 4, no 35, p. 8291-8296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-Al-content AlxGa(1-x)N layers, x similar to 0.72, have been grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) at a temperature ranging from 1000 to 1100 degrees C, together with high flow rate of the dopant precursor silane (SiH4) in order to obtain highly Si-doped Al0.72Ga0.28N layers, similar to 1 x 10(19) cm(-3) as measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Further characterization of the layers by capacitance-voltage (C-V), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements reveals the complex role of growth temperature for the n-type conductivity of high-Al-content AlxGa1-xN. While increasing temperature is essential for reducing the incorporation of carbon and oxygen impurities in the layers, it also reduces the amount of silicon incorporated as a donor.

  • 11.
    Li, Cheng
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Chao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Hebei Univ, Peoples R China.
    Guo, Yiting
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yao, Nannan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wu, Yonggang
    Hebei Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Weiwei
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Beijing Univ Chem Technol, Peoples R China.
    A diketopyrrolopyrrole-based macrocyclic conjugated molecule for organic electronics2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, no 13, p. 3802-3810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the first diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) based donor-acceptor macrocyclic conjugated molecule was developed and its application in organic electronics was systematically studied. Macrocyclic molecules, as a fragment of armchair carbon nanotubes, have emerged as functional materials in materials chemistry, but the materials are always limited to cycloparaphenylenes. Using the donor-acceptor design strategy that has been widely used in high performance conjugated polymers for macrocyclic molecules, it will significantly broaden their species with tunable optical and electrical properties. Herein, we synthesize a well-defined macrocyclic molecule containing four electron-deficient DPP units alternating with electron-rich thiophenes. The new molecule was found to show high solubility, near-infrared absorption spectra and 3D charge transport properties. The new macrocyclic molecule as an electron acceptor was applied to non-fullerene organic solar cells, exhibiting an initial efficiency of 0.49%, while the linear molecule with a similar backbone only showed a very low efficiency of 0.03%. Our results demonstrate that donor-acceptor macrocyclic conjugated materials have great potential application in organic electronics.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-27 11:26
  • 12.
    Lunden, Hampus
    et al.
    Swedish Def Res Agcy FOI, Sensor & EW Syst, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Liotta, A.
    University of Lyon 1, France.
    Chateau, D.
    University of Lyon 1, France.
    Lerouge, F.
    University of Lyon 1, France.
    Chaput, F.
    University of Lyon 1, France.
    Parola, S.
    University of Lyon 1, France.
    Brannlund, C.
    Swedish Def Research Agency FOI, Sensor and EW Syst, SE-58111 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ghadyani, Z.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Kildemo, M.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Lopes, C.
    Swedish Def Research Agency FOI, Sensor and EW Syst, SE-58111 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Dispersion and self-orientation of gold nanoparticles in sol-gel hybrid silica - optical transmission properties2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 1026-1034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silica-based hybrid materials doped with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of different shapes were prepared with an adapted sol-gel technology (using MTEOS) and polished to high optical quality. Both spherical (23 and 45 nm in diameter) and bipyramidal (36, 50 and 78 nm in length) AuNPs were prepared and used as dopants. The AuNPs were functionalized with a novel silicone polymer for compatibilization with the sol-gel medium. The glass materials showed well defined localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorbance from the visible to NIR. No redshifts in the spectra, due to the increase in doping concentration, were observed in the glasses, proving that no or very small SPR coupling effects occur. Spectroscopic Muller Matrix Ellipsometry showed that the shorter bipyramidal AuNPs (36 and 50 nm in length) have a clear preferred orientation in the MTEOS matrix, i.e. a tendency to be oriented with their long axis in the plane parallel to the glass surfaces. Dispersions of AuNPs have proven to be good optical power limiters that depend on particle size and geometry. The solid-state glass materials showed good optical power limiting at 532 nm for nanosecond pulses, which did not depend on the size or geometry of the AuNPs. In contrast to the observation at 532 nm, at 600 nm no optical limiting effect was observed. In these solids, as for dispersions of AuNPs, the optical limiting response is caused by scattering.

  • 13.
    Malti, Abdellah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brooke, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Freestanding electrochromic paper2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 4, no 41, p. 9680-9686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic displays based on conducting polymers exhibit higher contrasts and are cheaper, faster, more durable, and easier to synthesize as well as to process than their non-polymeric counterparts. However, current devices are typically based on thin electrochromic layers on top of a reflecting surface, which limits the thickness of the polymer layer to a few hundred nanometers. Here, we embed a light-scattering material within the electrochromic material to achieve a freestanding electrochromic paper-like electrode (50 to 500 mm). The device is based on a cellulose composite combining PEDOT:PSS as the electrochromic material and TiO2 nanoparticles as the reflecting material. Owing to the excellent refractive properties of TiO2, this nanocomposite is white in the neutral state and, when reduced, turns blue resulting in a color contrast around 30. The composite has a granular morphology and, as shown by AFM, an intermingling of TiO2 and PEDOT: PSS at the surface. Variation of the amount of TiO2 within the composite material is shown to result in a trade-off in optical and electrical properties. A proof-of-concept freestanding electrochromic device was fabricated by casting all layers successively to maximize the interlayer conformation. This freestanding device was found to be stable for over 100 cycles when ramped between 3 and -3 V.

  • 14.
    Mei, A. B.
    et al.
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Tuteja, M.
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Sangiovanni, Davide
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Haasch, R. T.
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Rockett, A.
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Growth, nanostructure, and optical properties of epitaxial VNx/MgO(001) (0.80 <= x <= 1.00) layers deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 4, no 34, p. 7924-7938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    VNx/MgO(001) films, similar to 300 nm thick, with x ranging from 1.00 (stoichiometric) to 0.80 are grown by magnetically-unbalanced reactive magnetron sputter deposition in mixed N-2/Ar atmospheres. The combination of lattice-resolution cross-sectional electron microscopy with X-ray diffraction omega = 2 theta, phi-scans, pole figures, and high resolution reciprocal space maps show that VNx layers are epitaxial single crystals which grow cube-on-cube with respect to their substrates: (001)VNx vertical bar vertical bar (001)(MgO) and [100]VNx vertical bar vertical bar [100](MgO). VNx (001) relaxed lattice parameters a(0)(x) decrease linearly from 0.4134 (x = 1.00) to 0.4098 nm (x = 0.80), in agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Near-stoichiometric VNx layers (0.95 less than or similar to x less than or similar to 1.0) are fully relaxed during growth, while films with lower x values are partially strained as a result of increased anion vacancies impeding dislocation glide. VNx complex dielectric functions epsilon((h) over bar omega) are determined between 0.7 and 4.5 eV using variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and valence states are probed via ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) in concert with DFT calculations. VN(001) UPS spectra exhibit a feature at binding energies ranging from the Fermi level to 3 eV, together with two peaks deeper in the valence band. These results are consistent with electronic densities of states computed by scaling Kohn-Sham electronic eigenvalues to account for many-body interactions. Imaginary VN(001) dielectric functions epsilon((h) over bar omega) determined by ellipsometry also agree with theoretical values obtained within the random-phase approximation using scaled eigenvalues. Analyses of optical matrix element calculations reveal that VNx dielectric responses are controlled by the phase space for interband transitions; band-structure analyses indicate that epsilon(2)(amp;lt;(hover baramp;gt;omega) spectral features in the infrared-visible range arise primarily from the combination of intraband and d-d transitions, while features at higher energies result primarily from p-d interband transitions. The combined nanostructural and spectroscopic analyses establish that, surprisingly, N vacancies are essentially non-nteracting in high-quality epitaxial VNx containing vacancy concentrations up to similar to 10(22) cm(-3) (x = 0.80).

  • 15.
    Mitraka, Evangelia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Douheret, O.
    University of Mons UMons, Belgium.
    Leclere, P.
    University of Mons UMons, Belgium.
    Nilsson, M.
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, P.
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, G.
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Lazzaroni, R.
    University of Mons UMons, Belgium.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solution processed liquid metal-conducting polymer hybrid thin films as electrochemical pH-threshold indicators2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, no 29, p. 7604-7611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A global and accurate mapping of the environment could be achieved if sensors and indicators are mass-produced at low cost. Printed electronics using polymeric (semi) conductors offer a platform for such sensor/indicator based circuits. Herein, we present the material concept for an electrochemical pH-threshold indicator based on a printable hybrid electrode which comprises a liquid metal alloy (GaInSn) embedded in a conducting polymer matrix (PEDOT). This hybrid electrode displays a large variation in open circuit potential versus pH in an electrochemical cell, which when connected to the gate of an electrochemical transistor leads to a dramatic change in the drain current in a narrow range of pH.

  • 16.
    Murugesan, Murali
    et al.
    Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zanden, Carl
    Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Luo, Xin
    Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; School of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Key Laboratory of New Displays and System Integration, Shanghai University, China .
    Ye, Lilei
    SHT Smart High-Tech AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Johan
    Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; School of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Key Laboratory of New Displays and System Integration, Shanghai University, China .
    A carbon fiber solder matrix composite for thermalmanagement of microelectronic devices2014In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 2, no 35, p. 7184-7187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A carbon fiber based tin-silver-copper alloy matrix composite (CF-TIM) was developed via electrospinning of a mesophase pitch with polyimide and carbonization at 1000 °C, followed by sputter coating with titanium and gold, and alloy infiltration. The carbonized fibers, in film form, showed a thermal conductivity of ∼4 W m-1 K-1 and the CF-TIM showed an anisotropic thermal conductivity of 41 ± 2 W m-1 K-1 in-plane and 20 ± 3 W m-1 K-1 through-plane. The thermal contact resistance of the CF-TIM was estimated to be below 1 K mm2 W-1. The CF-TIM showed no reduction in effective through-plane thermal conductivity after 1000 temperature cycles, which indicates the potential use of CF-TIM in thermal management applications.

  • 17.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zeglio, Erica
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Organic electrochemical transistors from supramolecular complexes of conjugated polyelectrolyte PEDOTS2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, no 10, p. 2987-2993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Counterion exchange strategies are used to modify the hydrophilic character of the self-doped conjugated polyelectrolyte PEDOTS. The supramolecular complexes, soluble in organic solvents, are suitable to fabricate finely performing thin active layers in organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs). We demonstrate that ionic transport in these PEDOTS based complexes, thus their performance in OECT devices, is governed by a delicate balance among degree of doping, wettability and porosity, which can be controlled by a precise tuning of the polyelectrolyte/hydrophobic counterion ratio. We also show that the device operation can be modulated by varying the composition of the aqueous electrolyte in a range compatible with biological processes, making these materials suitable candidates to be interfaced with living cells.

  • 18.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wanzhu, Cai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ever Aguirre, Luis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Chuan Fei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The contraction of PEDOT films formed on a macromolecular liquid-like surface2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 654-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vapour phase polymerized (VPP) PEDOT obtained using triblock copolymer PEG-PPG-PEG: Fe(III) tosylate polymeric oxidative layers has shown record-high conductivity and unique thermoelectric properties. These properties are related to the molecular weight, morphology and doping of PEDOT. Here we show that in its unwashed condition, the PEDOT chain adopts a neutral benzenoid conformation. The polymer chain converts into the charged quinoid structure after the removal of oxidizers with solvent washing. X-ray diffraction results suggest that the dopant is also incorporated into the packed polymer after the washing process. The changes in the chain structure and doping lead to the characteristic polaron and bipolaron absorption in the 800 and 1200 nm range. We observed a large contraction of the film after washing that is likely due to these changes, along with the removal of excessive polymer: oxidizer trapped in the PEDOT matrix. The contraction of films can be completely suppressed by mechanical clamping. PEDOT films without contraction show both a higher conductivity and higher optical transparency.

  • 19.
    Sardar, Samim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wojcik, Pawel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kang, Evan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shanker, Ravi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Structural coloration by inkjet-printing of optical microcavities and metasurfaces2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, no 28, p. 8698-8704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural color generation by plasmonic and other means has attracted significant interest as a solution to avoid inks based on dyes. Prominent advantages include better robustness compared with organic dyes while also providing high chromaticity and brightness in ultrathin films. However, lack of cheap and scalable fabrication techniques has so far limited structural coloration to only a few applications and functional devices. Here, we demonstrate reflective (plasmonic) structural coloration at high resolution by inkjet printing on non-patterned surfaces. The method is flexible, scalable to large areas, and avoids complicated or costly fabrication steps. Optical microcavities on flexible plastic substrates were made starting with an inkjet-printed silver film as a bottom mirror. Inkjet-printed organic dielectric micropixels then served as the spacer layer, resulting in optical microcavities with reflective structural colors after coating with a thin semi-transparent metallic top layer. Optimization of ink formulation allowed for uniform pixels with minimum coffee stain effects as well as control of spacer thickness (around 50-150 nm) and color by varying the solid content of the ink. We investigate the possibility to obtain red, green and blue (RGB) pixels and demonstrate the improvement of particularly the blue coloration using wavelength-dependent plasmon absorption of gold nanoislands as a top mirror. Inkjet printing of optical microcavities and plasmonic cavities may find use in various applications, such as reflective displays in color.

  • 20.
    Shi, Shengwei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sun, Zhengyi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    Fudan University, Peoples R China.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ma, Dongge
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Effects of side groups on the kinetics of charge carrier recombination in dye molecule-doped multilayer organic light-emitting diodes2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 46-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The carrier recombination coefficient (gamma) in dye molecule-doped multilayer organic light-emitting diodes was quantified by transient electroluminescence. It was found that gamma and device efficiency were both strongly dependent on the molecular structures of the dopants.

  • 21.
    Silvearv, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Peter
    Linköping University, National Supercomputer Centre (NSC).
    Jones, Sarah. L. T.
    National University of Ireland University of Coll Cork, Ireland.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Royal Institute Technology KTH, Sweden.
    Larsson, J. Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden; National University of Ireland University of Coll Cork, Ireland.
    Establishing the most favorable metal-carbon bond strength for carbon nanotube catalysts2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, no 14, p. 3422-3427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied a wide range of transition metals to find potential carbon nanotube (CNT) catalysts for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) production. The adhesion strengths between a CNT and a metal cluster were calculated using first principle density functional theory (DFT) for all 1st, 2nd and 3rd row transition metals. We have developed the criterion that the metal-carbon adhesion strength per bond must fulfill a Goldilocks principle for catalyzing CNT growth and used it to identify, besides the well known catalysts Fe, Co and Ni, a number of other potential catalysts, namely Y, Zr, Rh, Pd, La, Ce and Pt. Our results are consistent with previous experiments performed either in a carbon arc discharge environment or by a CVD-process with regard to CNT catalyst activity.

  • 22.
    Stenberg, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Erdtman, Edvin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sukkaew, Pitsiri
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matching precursor kinetics to afford a more robust CVD chemistry: a case study of the C chemistry for silicon carbide using SiF4 as Si precursor2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 5, p. 5818-5823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is one of the technology platforms forming the backbone of the semiconductor industry and is vital in the production of electronic devices. To upscale a CVD process from the lab to the fab, large area uniformity and high run-to-run reproducibility are needed. We show by a combination of experiments and gas phase kinetics modeling that the combinations of Si and C precursors with the most well-matched gas phase chemistry kinetics gives the largest area of of homoepitaxial growth of SiC. Comparing CH4, C2H4 and C3H8 as carbon precursors to the SiF4 silicon precursor, CH4 with the slowest kinetics renders the most robust CVD chemistry with large area epitaxial growth and low temperature sensitivity. We further show by quantum chemical modeling how the surface chemistry is impeded by the presence of F in the system which limits the amount of available surface sites for the C to adsorb.

  • 23.
    Sun, Hengda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gerasimov, Jennifer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    n-Type organic electrochemical transistors: materials and challenges2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 6, no 44, p. 11778-11784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) have emerged as an enabling technology for the development of a variety of applications ranging from digital logic circuits to biosensors and artificial synapses for neuromorphic computing. To date, most of the reported OECTs rely on the use of p-type (hole transporting) conducting and semiconducting polymers as the channel material, while electron transporting (n-type) OECTs are yet immature, thus precluding the realization of advanced complementary circuitry. In this highlight, we review and discuss recent achievements in the area of n-type OECTs, in particular targeting recently reported n-type channel materials and how these have enabled a considerable advancement of OECT circuit capabilities. Further, the critical challenges currently limiting the performance of n-channel OECTs are summarized and discussed, setting material design guidelines for the next generation n-type and complementary OECTs.

  • 24.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bubnova, Olga
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Optoelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brooke, Robert
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evans, Drew R.
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Australia.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Acido-basic control of the thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) thin films2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, p. 10616-10623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PEDOT-Tos is one of the conducting polymers that displays the most promising thermoelectric properties. Until now, it has been utterly difficult to control all the synthesis parameters and the morphology governing the thermoelectric properties. To improve our understanding of this material, we study the variation in the thermoelectric properties by a simple acido-basic treatment. The emphasis of this study is to elucidate the chemical changes induced by acid (HCl) or base (NaOH) treatment in PEDOT-Tos thin films using various spectroscopic and structural techniques. We could identify changes in the nanoscale morphology due to anion exchange between tosylate and Cl- or OH-. But, we identified that changing the pH leads to a tuning of the oxidation level of the polymer, which can explain the changes in thermoelectric properties. Hence, a simple acid-base treatment allows finding the optimum for the power factor in PEDOT-Tos thin films.

  • 25.
    Wang, Chuanfei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ni, Shaofei
    Department of Chemistry, South University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, China.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of water vapor and oxygen on non-fullerene small molecule acceptors2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 879-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the rapid development of non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs), the efficiency of organic solar cells is steadily being improved. The stability of organic solar cells also is expected to be enhanced with the introduction of the NFAs, yet the stability of NFAs themselves have been less investigated to date. In this paper, the stability of a set of typical NFAs was studied in situ employing photoelectron spectroscopy. The studied molecules show higher resistance to water vapor and thermal stress compared to fullerenes. For water vapor exposure, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of NFAs undergoes only minor and reversible changes and the NFAs/substrate work function stays constant. Exposure to oxygen gas significantly modified the electronic structure of the NFAs and the effect was only partially reversible by annealing. However, the presence of water vapor was shown to slow down the degradation caused by oxygen. This is in stark contrast to fullerenes that undergo irreversible degradation upon water vapor exposure.

  • 26.
    Wang, Heyong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yu, Hongling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Weidong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yan, Zhibo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Chuan Fei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Jun-Ming
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xiaoke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China; Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes based on a solution-processed tin dioxide electron transport layer2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 6, no 26, p. 6996-7002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve high-performance perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs), an appropriate functional layer beneath the perovskite emissive layer is significantly important to modulate the morphology of the perovskite film and to facilitate charge injection and transport in the device. Herein, for the first time, we report efficient n-i-p structured PeLEDs using solution-processed SnO2 as an electron transport layer. Three-dimensional perovskites, such as CH(NH2)(2)PbI3 and CH3NH3PbI3, are found to be more chemically compatible with SnO2 than with commonly used ZnO. In addition, SnO2 shows good transparency, excellent morphology and suitable energy levels. These properties make SnO2 a promising candidate in both three-and low-dimensional PeLEDs, among which a high external quantum efficiency of 7.9% has been realized. Furthermore, interfacial materials that are widely used to improve the device performances of ZnO-based PeLEDs are also applied on SnO2-based PeLEDs and their effects have been systematically studied. In contrast to ZnO, SnO2 modified by these interfacial materials shows detrimental effects due to photoluminescence quenching.

  • 27.
    Zhang, Qian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jiao, Fei
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ground-state charge transfer for NIR absorption with donor/acceptor molecules: interactions mediated via energetics and orbital symmetries2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 275-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interactions between electron donors (D) and acceptors (A) of organic semiconducting molecules are of great interest to organic electronics, e.g. electrical doping of organic semiconductors (OSCs), photo-generation of charges in organic solar cells, and light-emitting/detecting devices based on OSCs. A blend of D/A OSC is typically characterized by weak van der Waals interactions or integer charge transfer (ICT) between neighboring D/A molecules. In between these two scenarios of physical blends and ICT complexes, orbital hybridization between adjacent D/A molecules serves as a third alternative, characterized by an in situ formation of a ground state complex featuring partial charge transfer between participating donor and acceptor molecules. In this work is presented a comprehensive experimental study on partial charge-transfer complex (CPX) formed via orbital hybridization. Thiophenes and phthalocyanines are used as electron donors, while acceptor molecules of different geometries and electron affinities are employed with the aim to clarify how orbital symmetry, energy level alignment and steric hindrance affect orbital hybridization and subsequent tuning of the optical band-gap into the near infrared (NIR) region.

  • 28.
    Zhong, Yong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Cergy Pontoise, France.
    Nguyen, Giao T. M.
    Univ Cergy Pontoise, France.
    Plesse, Cedric
    Univ Cergy Pontoise, France.
    Vidal, Frederic
    Univ Cergy Pontoise, France.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tailorable, 3D structured and micro-patternable ionogels for flexible and stretchable electrochemical devices2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 256-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new family of ionogels for electrochemical devices was developed from a mixture of multifunctional thiols, diacrylate and triethylamine in the presence of ionic liquid using Michael addition chemistry. Polymerization kinetic studies show that the ionic liquid not only acts as an ion source but also a co-catalyst in the polymerization. Ionogels with tailorable surface and mechanical properties were prepared using three approaches: off-stoichiometry, methacrylate addition, and dithiol chain extender addition. 3-Dimensional ionogels were constructed by bonding the flexible ionogel film together using the ionogel solution as an ionic adhesive. A tube actuator with PEDOT-PSS patterned on inner and outer wall was prepared to illustrate the potential of these ionogels with reactive surfaces. In addition, micro-patterns of the ionogels were obtained by photolithography and soft imprinting lithography. All in all, this thiol acrylate Michael chemistry provides a platform to prepare various forms (films, micro-patterns, 3-dimensional structures, and adhesive) of ionogels for the next generation of flexible electrochemical devices.

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