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  • 1.
    Amir, Alia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Musk, Nigel
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Modern Languages. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Language policing: Micro-level language policy-in-process in the foreign language classroom2013In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 151-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines what we call micro-level language policy-in-process – that is, how a target-language-only policy emerges in situ in the foreign language classroom. More precisely, we investigate the role of language policing, the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or pupils to (re-)establish the normatively prescribed target language as the medium of classroom interaction in the English as a foreign language classroom of an international school in Sweden. Using ethnomethodological conversation analysis, we have identified a regular three-step sequence for language policing: (1) a (perceived) breach of the target-language-only rule, (2) an act of language policing and (3) an orientation to the target-language-only rule, usually in the guise of medium switching to the target language. Focusing primarily on teacher-to-pupil policing, where the teacher polices pupils’ (perceived) use of their L1 (Swedish), we identify three different categories of teacher-policing. These categories are based on particular configurations of features deployed in the three steps, such as initiator techniques (e.g.reminders, prompts, warnings and sanctions) and pupils’ responses to being policed (e.g. compliance or contestation).

  • 2.
    McQuade, Robert
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ventura-Medina, Esther
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Anderson, Tony
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Knowledge disagreement formulations in problem-based learning tutorials: Balancing pedagogical demands with ‘saving face’2018In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 227-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a pedagogical approach that aims to develop students’ group-working skills and to challenge their current knowledge, problem-based learning (PBL) provides a unique setting in which to examine disagreements in interaction. Previous research on disagreements in classrooms has typically examined tutor–student interaction or student–student interaction in which a tutor is present. This paper, however, examines tutorless PBL tutorials and focuses specifically on those moments in which knowledge claims are challenged by other students. The data comprise 30 h of video recordings from 24 chemical engineering PBL tutorials in a Scottish university. Conversation analysis was used to identify 101 disagreement formulations, many of which follow the format seen in other classroom settings (e.g. agreement-prefaced disagreements). A subset of disagreement formulations manage epistemic responsibility through invoking expert sources (e.g. tutor-provided worksheets and academically superior out-group members). Through invoking an expert source in this way, students attend to the pedagogical activities – without tutor assistance – while minimising the conversational trouble associated with the act of ‘doing’ disagreement (i.e. indirectly enacting disagreements whilst maintaining a neutral stance). This paper thus contributes to CA literature on disagreements, while providing a unique insight into PBL tutorial interaction. Directions for future research are suggested.

  • 3.
    Musk, Nigel
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Modern Languages. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Correcting spellings in second language learners’ computer-assisted collaborative writing2016In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 36-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study uses multimodal conversation analysis to examine how pupils studying English as a foreign language make spelling corrections in real time while doing collaborative computer-assisted project work. Unlike most previous related investigations, this study focuses on the process rather than evaluating the final product. The findings establish how the initiation and correction of (perceived) spelling errors involve varying configurations of three agents: the pupil currently typing, the other pupil and the computer software. Almost 80% of spelling corrections are carried out by the pupil typing with no intervention from the other pupil or the spellchecker. It is argued that here both the ‘triadic ecology’ and the timing of correction trajectories entail a structural preference for self-correction, which in turn reduces the affordances of the spellchecker and collaboration. Nevertheless, the spellchecker and the other pupil do play a role in catching potential misspellings that the typist has missed. Moreover, rather than right-clicking to activate the spellchecker’s menu of spelling suggestions, the typist typically deletes back to before the faulty letter(s) and then re-types words, which suggests the importance of progressivity of the typing flow as well as no need for the spellchecker’s assistance.

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  • 4.
    Musk, Nigel John
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Culture and Interaction. Department of Culture & Society, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Using online translation tools in computer-assisted collaborative EFL writing2022In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 119-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study applies multimodal conversation analysis to examine how pupils of L2 English in Sweden make use of online translation tools (OTTs), i.e. bilingual dictionaries and Google Translate, in a range of digital collaborative writing tasks. The collection of sequences where pupils use OTTs comes from 31 hours of video-recorded data from four Swedish upper-secondary schools. In contrast to previous research on OTTs, this multimodal micro-analytic study examines the process of using OTTs and links it to the written product, by analysing actions on the screen accompanied by embodied pupil interaction. Thus the analyses track: (1) how and when pupils deploy OTTs, (2) whether the tools help them to resolve lexical gaps and other lexical issues and (3) what problems arise in the process. The study also discusses what help can be offered to overcome the encountered difficulties of using OTTs.

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  • 5.
    Stoewer, Kirsten
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Musk, Nigel John
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Impromptu vocabulary work in English mother tongue instruction2019In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 123-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how unplanned vocabulary work arises out of students’ talk. Furthermore, we show how the teacher and students jointly contribute towards the ensuing teaching trajectories, whereby the vocabulary items are turned into ‘teachables’, i.e. interactionally emergent objects of explicit teaching. In doing so, we also explore what aspects of vocabulary knowledge are targeted.

    This collection-based study uses conversation analysis to examine video recordings of fairly advanced heritage speakers of English from English mother tongue instruction classes in Sweden. The analyses reveal a variety of ways in which the teaching trajectories arise: the teacher’s substitution requests for a more appropriate word; a student’s naming and word-confirmation requests; the teacher’s or a student’s translation and meaning requests. A third of these requests were initiated by a student. The trajectories then developed collaboratively and were tailored to the local context to address issues of meaning, form and use. Establishing the meaning of a word frequently involved (and could combine) requesting/providing, e.g., definitions and translations. Form could be targeted by carefully enunciating topicalised lexis or writing it on the board, and vocabulary use was typically elaborated by contextualising words and sometimes by exploring collocations.

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  • 6.
    van der Meij, Sofie
    et al.
    Center for Language and Cognition Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Gosen, Myrte
    Center for Language and Cognition Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Willemsen, Annerose
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    ‘Yes? I have no idea’: teacher turns containing epistemic disclaimers in upper primary school whole-class discussions2022In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022, article id 2103008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from whole-class discussions in Dutch upper primary school show that teachers occasionally explicitly take downgraded epistemic stances through epistemic disclaimers such as ‘ik weet het niet’ (English: I don’t know (it)), which contrasts with their institutionally assigned epistemic authority. In the current study, we have collected turns in which such epistemic disclaimers occur, and analysed them using conversation analysis. In our analyses, we focused on the positions of the turns in which epistemic disclaimers occur, and on the varying ways in which these turns influence the subsequent course of interaction. We have found that teachers’ epistemic disclaimers occur in initiating turns, facilitating student participation, but also in responsive turns. The latter vary in the extent to which they facilitate participation, ranging from facilitating student participation in a similar way to the initiating turns, to blocking further student contributions altogether. This study furthermore demonstrates that teachers employ epistemic disclaimers to navigate two teacher roles, namely those of a teacher with epistemic authority, and of a facilitator of whole class-discussions.

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  • 7.
    van der Ploeg, Mara
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Willemsen, Annerose
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Richter, Louisa
    Otto Friedrich Univ Bamberg, Germany.
    Keijzer, Merel
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Koole, Tom
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Requests for assistance in the third-age language classroom2022In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 386-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this conversation analytic study, we investigate requests for assistance in the third-age (65+) language classroom. Seven Dutch seniors participated in a one-month course of English as a foreign language. We found that these seniors asked many language-related questions which fell into one of three categories: (1) production-oriented questions, (2) comprehension-oriented questions and (3) wonderment questions. These questions differ in the ways the sequences are shaped: (a) what precedes the request for assistance, (b) the person who is recruited to provide the assistance, (c) the person who offers the assistance, and (d) the response to the provided assistance and the subsequent interaction. We found wonderment questions to be the most prevalent category. Our findings suggest that the senior learners in our data show clear ownership and agency over their own learning process, demonstrated by their active participation and frequent (wonderment) questions in the classroom.

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  • 8.
    Wallner, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Constructing moments of insight: Accounting for learning in classroom discussions on narrative fiction reading2024In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores booktalk situations in which student teachers discuss a narrative text and construct in situ accounts of learning when recalling their reading. This study contributes to knowledge about the role of narrative fiction in general educational practice, as well as to the understanding of situated constructions of learning. Video and audio recordings were made in a seminar involving two groups of five master’s students, and the situated interaction was analysed using discursive reception theory. The results show that students construct what are here called moments of insight: a social action constructing a significant shift in participants’ self-described cognitive or emotional development, related to the reading. Students construct themselves as having been changed as both teachers and learners, either through the reading experience or when reflecting upon that experience. This demonstrates both how booktalk enables students to reflect upon their reading and their own cognitive development, and how situated classroom interaction studies enable us to engage with student learning in a naturalistic setting. This has an impact on our view of narrative fiction in educational practice, as well as educational research methods and practices.

  • 9.
    Wallner, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Eriksson Barajas, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    ‘It’s not her, it’s hen’: situated classroom use of the Swedish gender-neutral pronoun hen2022In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish gender-neutral pronoun (GNP) hen has been in popular use since its (re)introduction to the public in 2012. Earlier research, analysing newspapers, academic papers and blogs, shows two uses of hen: when gender is unknown and when gender is irrelevant. However, there is a lack of studies of verbal, situated, uses of hen. In this article, we analyse recordings of year-eight students using hen when discussing a Nemi comic. Drawing on discursive psychology, we explore how students negotiate the gender of two unknown characters, and co-construct hen as the proper pronoun use. Adding to previous research, the analysis shows how students make both gendering as well as not gendering into accountable, repairable actions, and how they verbally use hen as a norm-critical other-repair, specifically as an action promoting GNP use. Thus, this exploratory case study contributes knowledge on the situated use of hen, something hitherto unexplored. These results are in turn important to research on gender-neutral pronouns, and our knowledge on their situated use, as well as norm-critical work in schools.

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  • 10.
    Willemsen, Annerose
    et al.
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Gosen, Myrte
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Koole, Tom
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    De Glopper, Kees
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Teachers’ pass-on practices in whole-class discussions: how teachers return the floor to their students2020In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 297-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a conversation analytic study into the pass-on turns that teachers produce to return the floor to the class following one student’s contribution, in the context of whole-class discussions around texts in 4th grade history and geography lessons. These pass-on turns are remarkable, as the teachers take the turn in order to convey that they will not be responding, but are instead giving their students the opportunity to do so. Our bottom-up analyses allowed us to identify different practices and their projections, and revealed their effects on the ensuing responses. Whereas minimal pass-on practices do not alter the sequential implications of the preceding student turn and typically lead to responses to the student turn, more elaborate practices do slightly alter the sequential implications and mostly lead to responses to the pass-on turn itself, or to an earlier turn produced by the teacher. The analyses show that, although the pass-on turns seem to sustain the Teacher-Student-Teacher-Student participation pattern, this does not hinder the activity of having a whole-class discussion in which students discuss the topic at hand and critically consider and challenge the contributions of their classmates.

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