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  • 1.
    Havarinasab, Said
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology.
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå Universitet.
    Ekstrand, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Dose and Hg species determine the T-helper cell activation in murine autoimmunity2007In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 229, no 1-2, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inorganic mercury (mercuric chloride-HgCl2) induces in mice an autoimmune syndrome (HgIA) with T cell-dependent polyclonal B cell activation and hypergammaglobulinemia, dose- and H-2-dependent production of autoantibodies targeting the 34 kDa nucleolar protein fibrillarin (AFA), and systemic immune-complex deposits. The organic mercury species methylmercury (MeHg) and ethylmercury (EtHg-in the form of thimerosal) induce AFA, while the other manifestations of HgIA seen after treatment with HgCl2 are present to varying extent. Since these organic Hg species are converted to the autoimmunogen Hg2+ in the body, their primary autoimmunogen potential is uncertain and the subject of this study. A moderate dose of HgCl2 (8 mg/L drinking water - internal dose 148 μg Hg/kg body weight [bw]/day) caused the fastest AFA response, while the induction was delayed after higher (25 mg/L) and lower (1.5 and 3 mg/L) doses. The lowest dose of HgCl2 inducing AFA was 1.5 mg/L drinking water which corresponded to a renal Hg2+ concentration of 0.53 μg/g. Using a dose of 8 mg HgCl2/L this threshold concentration was reached within 24 h, and a consistent AFA response developed after 8-10 days. The time lag for the immunological part of the reaction leading to a consistent AFA response was therefore 7-9 days. A dose of thimerosal close to the threshold dose for induction of AFA (2 mg/L drinking water-internal dose 118 μg Hg/kg bw per day), caused a renal Hg2+ concentration of 1.8 μg/g. The autoimmunogen effect of EtHg might therefore be entirely due to Hg2+ formed from EtHg in the body. The effect of organic and inorganic Hg species on T-helper type 1 and type 2 cells during induction of AFA was assessed as the presence and titre of AFA of the IgG1 and IgG2a isotype, respectively. EtHg induced a persistent Th1-skewed response irrespectively of the dose and time used. A low daily dose of HgCl2 (1.5-3 mg/L) caused a Th1-skewed AFA response, while a moderate dose (8 mg/L) after 2 weeks resulted in a balanced or even Th2-skewed response. Higher daily doses of HgCl2 (25 mg/L) caused a balanced Th2-Th1 response already from onset. In conclusion, while metabolically formed Hg2+ might be the main AFA-inducing factor also after treatment with EtHg, the quality of the Hg-induced AFA response is modified by the species of Hg as well as the dose. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Häggqvist, Bo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Havarinasab, Said
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björn, Erik
    Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The immunosuppressive effect of methylmercury does not preclude development of autoimmunity in genetically susceptible mice2005In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 208, no 1, p. 149-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a common environmental pollutant due to both natural and anthropogenic sources. Although the central nervous system (CNS) is considered the critical organ for the toxic effect of MeHg, it has recently been suggested that the immune system might be at least as sensitive as the CNS.

    We have examined the effects of MeHg on the immune system in genetically metal-susceptible mice. Subcutaneous (sc) injections of 2 mg MeHg/kg body weight (bw) every third day (internal dose ca. 540 μg Hg/kg bw/day) to A.SW mice of the H-2s haplotype, caused during the first week a 47 and 9% reduction of B- and T-cells, respectively, which indicates immunosuppression. Subsequently, an autoimmune syndrome developed which shared certain features with the syndrome induced by inorganic mercury in H-2s mice, including antibodies targeting the 34 kDa nucleolar protein fibrillarin, increased expression of IL-4 mRNA, increase of Th2-type of immunoglobulins (IgE and IgG1), and increased MHC class II expression on B-cells. However, the response using MeHg was attenuated compared with even lower doses of Hg in the form of inorganic mercury, and specifically lacked the increased expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA, the polyclonal B-cell activation (PBA), and the systemic immune-complex (IC) deposits which are induced by inorganic mercury. Increasing the dose of MeHg increased the titre of anti-nucleolar antibodies and shortened the induction time, but did not lead to stronger immunostimulation or systemic IC-deposits. The kidney and liver selectively accumulated MeHg, while the blood, spleen and lymph nodes showed lower levels of MeHg. The accumulation of MeHg and Hg2+ increased throughout the 30-day period. The fraction of Hg2+ in the kidney varied between 4 and 22%, and the lymph nodes showed a maximum of 30% Hg2+.

    We conclude first that MeHg has quantitatively different effect on the immune system compared with inorganic mercury, and secondly that an initial immunosuppression induced by a xenobiotic does not preclude subsequent immunostimulation and autoimmunity.

  • 3.
    Ljunggren, Stefan A
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Iggland, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rönn, Monika
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P M
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Altered heart proteome in fructose-fed Fisher 344 rats exposed to bisphenol A.2016In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 347-349, p. 6-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is an artificial estrogen initially produced for medical purposes but is today widely used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Exposure-related reproductive disorders have been found, but recently it has also been suggested that BPA may be involved in obesity, diabetes, myocardial hypertrophy and myocardial infarction in humans. To mimic a modern lifestyle, female rats were fed with fructose or fructose plus BPA (0.25mg/L drinking water). The myocardial left ventricle proteome of water controls, fructose-fed and fructose-fed plus BPA supplemented rats was explored. The proteome was investigated using nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry identification. In total, 41 proteins were significantly altered by BPA exposure compared to water or fructose controls. Principal component analysis and cellular process enrichment analysis of altered proteins suggested increased fatty acid transport and oxidation, increased ROS generation and altered structural integrity of the myocardial left ventricle in the fructose-fed BPA-exposed rats, indicating unfavorable effects on the myocardium. In conclusion, BPA exposure in the rats induces major alterations in the myocardial proteome.

  • 4. Marcusson-Ståhl, Maritha
    et al.
    Cederbrant, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    A flow-cytometric NK-cytotoxicity assay adapted for use in rat repeated dose toxicity studies.2003In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 193, p. 269-279Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Mellergård, Johan
    et al.
    Havarinasab, Said
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Short- and long-term effects of T-cell modulating agents in experimental autoimmunity2004In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 196, no 3, p. 197-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the easy and reliable induction of a disease condition with many of the features present in human autoimmunity, mercury-induced autoimmunity (mHgAI) in rodents is a favourable autoimmune model. Genetically susceptible (H-2 s) mice develop in response to mercury (Hg) a systemic autoimmune condition with antinucleolar antibodies (ANoA) targeting the protein fibrillarin, transient polyclonal B-cell activation, hyperimmunoglobulinemia, and systemic immune-complex (IC) deposits. In order to study the short- and long-term effects of treatment with immunomodulating agents on the disease parameters in HgAI, groups of B10.S (H-2s) mice were given 6mg HgCl2/l drinking water for 22 weeks. Three weeks initial treatment with cyclosporin A (CyA), a high dose of tacrolimus (HD tacrolimus), or anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (a-CD4) inhibited induction of ANoA and IC deposit by Hg. This effect persisted for the subsequent 19 weeks when the mice were only treated with Hg. Initial treatment with anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibody (a-IL-4) for 3 weeks inhibited induction of IgE and IC deposits by Hg, but not ANoA. However, subsequent treatment with Hg without a-IL-4 for 19 weeks induced IC deposits. The T-cell modulating agents aggravated some of the HgAI disease parameters: a-CD4 stimulated the polyclonal B-cell activation, a-IL-4 increased the IgG antichromatin antibody response, and a low dose of tacrolimus (LD tacrolimus) enhanced the ANoA, the polyclonal B-cell activation, and the IC deposits. We conclude that a short initial treatment with a-CD4 or CyA efficiently protects against induction of systemic autoimmunity for an extended period of time. However, some of the T-cell modulating agents, especially a low dose of tacrolimus, aggravate autoimmune manifestations not only during ongoing treatment, but also after treatment with these agents has ceased.

  • 6.
    Rönn, Monika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Work and Environmental Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Berglund, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Malmberg, Filio
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lind, Monica P
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bisphenol A exposure increases liver fat in juvenile fructose-fed Fischer 344 rats2013In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 303, p. 125-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to induce obesity in rodents. To evaluate if exposure also later in life could induce obesity or liver damage we investigated these hypothesises in an experimental rat model.

    Methods

    From five to fifteen weeks of age, female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to BPA via drinking water (0.025, 0.25 or 2.5 mg BPA/L) containing 5% fructose. Two control groups were given either water or 5% fructose solution. Individual weight of the rats was determined once a week. At termination magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess adipose tissue amount and distribution, and liver fat content. After sacrifice the left perirenal fat pad and the liver were dissected and weighed. Apolipoprotein A-I in plasma was analyzed by western blot.

    Results

    No significant effects on body weight or the weight of the dissected fad pad were seen in rats exposed to BPA, and MRI showed no differences in total or visceral adipose tissue volumes between the groups. However, MRI showed that liver fat content was significantly higher in BPA-exposed rats than in fructose controls (p = 0.04). BPA exposure also increased the apolipoprotein A-I levels in plasma (p < 0.0001).

    Conclusion

    We found no evidence that BPA exposure affects fat mass in juvenile fructose-fed rats. However, the finding that BPA in combination with fructose induced fat infiltration in the liver at dosages close to the current tolerable daily intake (TDI) might be of concern given the widespread use of this compound in our environment.

1 - 6 of 6
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