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  • 1.
    Gunn, Harriet M.
    et al.
    Childrens Hospital Westmead, Australia; University of Sydney, Australia.
    Emilsson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gabriel, Melissa
    Childrens Hospital Westmead, Australia.
    Maguire, Ann M.
    Childrens Hospital Westmead, Australia; University of Sydney, Australia.
    Steinbeck, Katharine S.
    Childrens Hospital Westmead, Australia; University of Sydney, Australia.
    Metabolic Health in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Longitudinal Study in a Long-Term Follow-Up Clinic2016In: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology, ISSN 2156-5333, Vol. 5, no 1, 24-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk of metabolic dysfunction as a late effect of cancer treatment. However, pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) lacks a unified definition, limiting the diagnosis of MetS in CCS. This study evaluated individual metabolic health risk factors and potential areas for intervention in this at-risk population. Methods: This single center, retrospective observational longitudinal study evaluated the metabolic health of all CCS attending an oncology long-term follow-up clinic at a university hospital in Sydney, Australia (January 2012-August 2014). Participants were 276 CCS (52.2% male; mean age 18.0 years; range 6.8-37.9 years), at least 5 years disease free with a broad spectrum of oncological diagnoses. Primary metabolic health risk factors included raised body mass index, hypertension, and hypertransaminasemia. Participants treated with cranial radiotherapy (n=47; 17.0% of cohort) had additional biochemical variables analyzed: fasting glucose/insulin, HDL/LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results: Hypertension was common (19.0%), with male sex (pamp;lt;0.01) and being aged 18 years or above (pamp;lt;0.01) identified as risk factors. Cranial irradiation was a risk factor for overweight/obesity (47.8% in cranial radiotherapy-treated participants vs. 30.4%; p=0.02). Hypertransaminasemia was more prevalent among participants treated with radiotherapy (15.6% vs. 7.3%; p=0.03), and overweight/obese participants (17.6% vs. 8.2%; p=0.04). Conclusion: Metabolic health risk factors comprising MetS are common in CCS, placing this population at risk of premature adverse cardiovascular consequences. Proactive surveillance and targeted interventions are required to minimize these metabolic complications, and a unified definition for pediatric MetS would improve identification and monitoring.

  • 2.
    Gunn, Harriet M.
    et al.
    Childrens Hospital Westmead, Australia; University of Sydney, Australia.
    Rinne, Ida
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Emilsson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gabriel, Melissa
    Childrens Hospital Westmead, Australia.
    Maguire, Ann M.
    University of Sydney, Australia; Childrens Hospital Westmead, Australia.
    Steinbeck, Katharine S.
    Childrens Hospital Westmead, Australia; University of Sydney, Australia.
    Primary Gonadal Insufficiency in Male and Female Childhood Cancer Survivors in a Long-Term Follow-Up Clinic2016In: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology, ISSN 2156-5333, Vol. 5, no 4, 344-350 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk of primary gonadal insufficiency (PGI). This study evaluated the prevalence and clinical characteristics of PGI in CCS. Methods: In this single-center, retrospective, observational, longitudinal study, we characterized CCS with PGI attending the oncology Long-Term Follow-Up (LTFU) Clinic at an Australian university hospital (January 2012-August 2014). From a cohort of 276 CCS, 54 (32 males) met criteria for PGI: elevated gonadotropins plus low estradiol/amenorrhoea (females) or low testosterone/small testicles for age (males). Results: Median age at primary diagnosis was 4.8 years (inter-quartile range [IQR] 3.0-9.7 years) and at LTFU, it was 22.3 years (IQR 18.2-25.7 years). Fifty-three participants (98.1%) were treated with known highly gonadotoxic therapies: alkylating chemotherapy (96.3%), radiotherapy (70.3%), total body irradiation (29.6%), bone marrow transplantation (51.9%), or multimodal protocols (68.5%). At primary diagnosis, 86.7% participants were Tanner stage I and at LTFU, 89.1% participants were Tanner stage V. More females (95.5%; n=21) than males (40.6%; n=13) were treated with hormone development therapy (HDT) (pamp;lt;0.01). Of these, more than half (n=18; 7 males) required pubertal induction. There was no significant difference in serum luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone (LH/FSH), testosterone/estradiol between those untreated and those treated with HDT. Among those on HDT, 60.7% had persistently elevated FSHLH and 33.3% had low testosterone or estradiol. Six males had semen analysis (five azoospermic, one oligospermic). Psychological assessment was documented in 61.1% of participants, and two-thirds reported fertility concerns. Conclusion: PGI is an evolving phenotype that is common in CCS. Suboptimal treatment and non-adherence occur frequently. Ongoing assessment is essential to ensure prompt diagnosis, adequate intervention and to promote HDT adherence.

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