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  • 1.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Transport Economics, Stockholm.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    European Railway Deregulation: An overview of market organization and capacity allocation2022In: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2324-9943, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 594-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway markets in Europe have been reorganized to allow competition between different operators. Thus, European railways have been vertically separated, separating infrastructure management from provisions of train services. This allows several train operators to compete for passengers and freight services. Different ways have emerged for vertical separation, capacity allocation and track access charges. This paper reviews, compares and discusses important deregulation aspects, using examples from a number of European countries to show different possible solutions. The study describes how competition has been introduced and regulated, with a particular focus on describing the different ways capacity is allocated and how conflicting requests by different train operators are resolved. It also reviews the related issue of how access charges are constructed and applied. Although guided by the same European legislation, we conclude that the studied railways have different deregulation outcomes, e.g., market organization, capacity allocation. Besides, few countries have so far managed to create efficient and transparent processes for allocating capacity between competing train operators. Although allowed by the legislation, market-based allocation is absent or never used. In order to foster more competition which can yield substantial social benefits, the survey indicates that most European railways still need to develop and experiment with more efficient and transparent capacity allocation procedures.

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  • 2.
    Ekström, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sumalee, Agachai
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Solving a Mixed Integer Linear Program Approximation of the Toll Design Problem Using Constraint Generation within a Branch and Cut Algorithm2014In: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2324-9943, Vol. 10, no 9, p. 791-819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the global optimality of the toll design problem (TDP) by a mixed integer linear program (MILP) approximation. In the TDP, the objective is to maximize the social surplus by adjusting toll locations and levels in a road traffic network. The resulting optimization problem can be formulated as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC).

    A MILP is obtained by piecewise linear approximation of the non-linear functions in the TDP, and we present a domain reduction scheme to reduce the error introduced by these approximations. Previous approaches for solving the MILP approximation have been relying on a large number of MILPs to be solved iteratively within a cutting constraint algorithm (CCA). This paper instead focuses on the development of a solution algorithm for solving the MILP approximation in which the CCA is integrated within a branch and cut algorithm, which only requires one MILP to be solved.

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  • 3.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Bottleneck mitigation through a variable speedlimit system using connected vehicles2020In: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2324-9943, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 213-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable speed limit (VSL) systems are used to improve the traffic conditions by adjusting the speed limits based on the current traffic situation. Advances in vehicle technology have made it possible to use connected vehicles in VSL systems. Connected vehicles can continuously transmit information about their speed and location, which can be used to estimate the current traffic conditions at arbitrary locations. In this study, we propose a VSL system based on connected vehicles. The aim is to also allow application of VSLs for non-recurrent bottleneck mitigation at arbitrary locations, unlike today's systems which require densely placed detectors or are limited to beforehand known bottleneck locations. The proposed system is evaluated by microscopic traffic simulation. The results indicate that the VSL system manage to improve traffic efficiency in a simulated incident scenario.

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  • 4.
    Wiklund, Mats
    et al.
    Transport Analysis, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Olstam, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Effects of desired speeds for queuing and delay on single-lane road segments2015In: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2324-9943, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 716-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve road safety on parts of the road network carrying low traffic volumes, road designs are proposed including single-lane road segments and periodic overtaking lanes. These roads have been proven to contribute to substantial benefits in terms of road safety. However, overtaking of slower vehicles is only possible on segments including an overtaking lane and not on the single-lane road segments. Driver and vehicle heterogeneity resulting in differences in desired speeds are consequently decisive for the traffic performance. Sufficient quality of service is relying on an appropriate design and distribution of single-lane segments and overtaking lanes. In this paper, we study the effect of the desired speed distribution on traffic performance on single-lane road segments. Expressions are derived for the travel time, delay and percent time spent following. The derived expressions link the desired speed distribution, the single-lane segment length and the traffic flow to the resulting traffic performance. The results are verified through comparison with measures based on microscopic traffic simulation. The conclusion is that there is a good agreement between derived measures and simulation results. The derived measures should therefore not only be of theoretical interest, but also of practical use to estimate traffic performance on single-lane road segments.

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