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  • 1.
    Andersen, Ken
    et al.
    European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Bigault, Thierry
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Buffet, J. C.
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Correa, Jonathan
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Guerard, Bruno
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khaplanov, Anton
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Kirstein, Oliver
    Linköping University.
    Piscitelli, Fransesco
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    van Esch, P.
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Vettier, Christian
    European Spallation Source, Lund, Sweden.
    10B multi-grid proportional gas counters for large area thermal neutrondetectors2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 720, p. 116-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3He was a popular material in neutrons detectors until its availability dropped drastically in 2008. The development of techniques based on alternative convertors is now of high priority for neutron research institutes. Thin films of 10B or 10B4C have been used in gas proportional counters to detect neutrons, but until now, only for small or medium sensitive area. We present here the multi-grid design, introduced at the ILL and developed in collaboration with ESS for LAN (large area neutron) detectors. Typically thirty 10B4C films of 1 μm thickness are used to convert neutrons into ionizing particles which are subsequently detected in a proportional gas counter. The principle and the fabrication of the multi-grid are described and some preliminary results obtained with a prototype of 200 cm×8 cm are reported; a detection efficiency of 48% has been measured at 2.5 Å with a monochromatic neutron beam line, showing the good potential of this new technique.

  • 2.
    Bertuccio, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.
    Caccia, Stefano
    Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.
    Macera, Daniele
    Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.
    Advances in silicon carbide X-ray detectors2011In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 652, no 1, p. 193-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The latest advances in SiC X-ray detectors are presented: a pixel detector coupled to a custom ultra-low noise CMOS preamplifier has been characterized at room and high temperature. An equivalent noise energy (ENE) of 113 eV FWHM, corresponding to 6.1 electrons r.m.s., has been achieved with the detector/front- end system operating at 30 °C. A Fano factor of F = 0.10 has been estimated from the 55Fe spectrum. When the system is heated up to 100 °C, the measured ENE is 163 eV FWHM (8.9 electrons r.m.s.). It is determined that both at room and at high temperature the performance are fully limited by the noise of the front-end electronics. It is also presented the capability of SiC detectors to operate in environments under unstable temperature conditions without any apparatus for temperature stabilization; it has been proved that a SiC detector can acquire high resolution X-ray spectra without spectral line degradation while the system temperature changes between 30 °C and 75 °C.

  • 3.
    Ekblad, Ulf
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.
    Kinser, Jason M
    George Mason University.
    Atmer, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zetterlund, N
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.
    Image information content and extraction techniques2004In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 525, no 01-Feb, p. 397-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods for detecting changes are discussed. The methods are pixel subtraction, edge segment matching, the dipole method, and the Intersecting Cortical Model (ICM). Image information content and the concept of changes in imagery are also discussed.

  • 4.
    Ekblad, Ulf
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Kinser, Jason M
    George Mason University.
    Atmer, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zetterlund, Nils
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    The intersecting cortical model in image processing2004In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 525, no 01-Feb, p. 392-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Intersecting Cortical Model (ICM), or ICM algorithm, is presented. It is a reduced set of equations of the Pulse-Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) model. The ICM algorithm is especially designed for enhancing features without sharp edges or straight lines in images. The ICM is tested on a series of images of an aircraft moving in the sky in order to detect its motion. The ICM algorithm is shown to be useful even when there is a deficiency in reference points. In another test, the ICM is applied to two images taken from a helicopter over a town area.

  • 5.
    Gontad, F
    et al.
    University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics.
    Lorusso, A
    University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics.
    Panareo, M
    University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics.
    Monteduro, A
    University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics.
    Maruccio, G
    University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Perrone, A
    University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics.
    Nanomechanical and electrical properties of Nb thin films deposited on Pb substrates by pulsed laser deposition as a new concept photocathode for superconductor cavities2015In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 804, p. 132-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a design of photocathode, which combines the good photoemissive properties of lead (Pb) and the advantages of superconducting performance of niobium (Nb) when installed into a superconducting radio-frequency gun. The new configuration is obtained by a coating of Nb thin film grown on a disk of Pb via pulsed laser deposition. The central emitting area of Pb is masked by a shield to avoid the Nb deposition. The nanomechanical properties of the Nb film, obtained through nanoindentation measurements, reveal a hardness of 2.8±0.3 GPa, while the study of the electrical resistivity of the film shows the appearance of the superconducting transitions at 9.3 K and 7.3 K for Nb and Pb, respectively, very close to the bulk material values. Additionally, morphological, structural and contamination studies of Nb thin film expose a very low droplet density on the substrate surface, a small polycrystalline orientation of the films and a low contamination level. These results, together with the acceptable Pb quantum efficiency of 2×10−5 found at 266 nm, demonstrate the potentiality of the new concept photocathode.

  • 6. Hutton, B F
    et al.
    Olsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics.
    Som, Seu
    Erlandsson, Kjell
    Braun, M
    Reducing the influence of spatial resolution to improve quantitative accuracy in emission tomography: A comparison of potential strategies2006In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 569, no 2 SPEC. ISS., p. 462-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this paper is to compare strategies for reducing partial volume effects by either minimizing the cause (i.e. improving resolution) or correcting the effect. Correction for resolution loss can be achieved either by modelling the resolution for use in iterative reconstruction or by imposing constraints based on knowledge of the underlying anatomy. Approaches to partial volume correction largely rely on knowledge of the underlying anatomy, based on well-registered high-resolution anatomical imaging modalities (CT or MRI). Corrections can be applied by considering the signal loss that results by smoothing the high-resolution modality to the same resolution as obtained in emission tomography. A physical phantom representing the central brain structures was used to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of the various strategies for either improving resolution or correcting for partial volume effects. Inclusion of resolution in the reconstruction model improved the measured contrast for the central brain structures but still underestimated the true object contrast (∼0.70). Use of information on the boundaries of the structures in conjunction with a smoothing prior using maximum entropy reconstruction achieved some degree of contrast enhancement and improved the noise properties of the resulting images. Partial volume correction based on segmentation of registered anatomical images and knowledge of the reconstructed resolution permitted more accurate quantification of the target to background ratio for individual brain structures. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Lorusso, A.
    et al.
    University of Salento, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Gontad, F.
    University of Salento, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Solombrino, L.
    University of Salento, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Chiadroni, E.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Perrone, A.
    University of Salento, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Tight comparison of Mg and Y thin film photocathodes obtained by the pulsed laser deposition technique2016In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 836, p. 57-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work Magnesium (Mg) and Yttrium (Y) thin films have been deposited on Copper (Cu) polycrystalline substrates by the pulsed laser ablation technique for photocathode application. Such metallic materials are studied for their interesting photoemission properties and are proposed as a good alternative to the Cu photocathode, which is generally used in radio-frequency guns. Mg and Y films were uniform with no substantial differences in morphology; a polycrystalline structure was found for both of them. Photoemission measurements of such cathodes based on thin films were performed, revealing a quantum efficiency higher than Cu bulk. Photoemission theory according to the three-step model of Spicer is invoked to explain the superior photoemission performance of Mg with respect to Y. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Pachnerova Brabcova, Katerina
    et al.
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic .
    Ambrozova, Iva
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic .
    Koliskova, Zlata
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic .
    Malusek, Alexandr
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic .
    Uncertainties in linear energy transfer spectra measured with track-etched detectors in space2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 713, p. 5-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyallyldiglycol carbonate-based track-etched detectors can measure linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of charged particles. Accuracy of the spectra is affected by many factors whose effects are difficult to quantify. Typically, only uncertainty arising from the randomness of particle detection is reported in scientific literature. The aim of this paper is to classify the sources of uncertainties of an LET spectrum measurement and provide a simple model for the calculation of the combined uncertainty. The model was used for a spectrum measured with the track-etched detector (Harzlas TD-1) on board of the International Space Station from May-October 2009. For some spectrum bins the largest contribution to the combined uncertainty came from the uncertainty arising from the randomness of particle detection. For other bins it came from the uncertainty of the calibration curve. Contribution from the cross talk between bins was small for most of the bins as the width of the bins was relatively large compared to the intrinsic resolution of the track-etched detector. The analysis showed that sources of uncertainties other than the randomness of particle detection should not, in general, be neglected.

  • 9.
    Perrone, A
    et al.
    University of Salento, Italy .
    Gontad, F
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy .
    Lorusso, A
    University of Salento, Italy .
    Di Giulio, M
    University of Salento, Italy .
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ferrario, M
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy .
    Comparison of the properties of Pb thin films deposited on Nb substrate using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 729, p. 451-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pb thin films were prepared at room temperature and in high vacuum by thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques. Films deposited by both the techniques were investigated by scanning electron microscopy to determine their surface topology. The structure of the films was studied by X-ray diffraction in θ–2θ geometry. The photoelectron performances in terms of quantum efficiency were deduced by a high vacuum photodiode cell before and after laser cleaning procedures. Relatively high quantum efficiency (>10−5) was obtained for all the deposited films, comparable to that of corresponding bulk. Finally, film to substrate adhesion was also evaluated using the Daimler–Benz Rockwell-C adhesion test method. Weak and strong points of these two competitive techniques are illustrated and discussed.

  • 10.
    Perrone, Alessio
    et al.
    University of Salento, Italy.
    D'Elia, M
    University of Salento, Italy.
    Di Giulio, M.
    University of Salento, Italy.
    Maruccio, G.
    University of Salento, Italy.
    Cola, A.
    National Council Research, Institute for Microelectronics & Microsystems, Italy.
    Stankova, N.
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria.
    Kovacheva, D.
    Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Non-conventional Cu thin films deposited on Y substrate by sputtering2014In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 752, p. 27-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper (Cu) thin films were deposited on yttrium (Y) substrate by sputtering. During the deposition, a small central area of the Y substrate was shielded to avoid the film deposition and was successively used to study its photoemissive properties. This configuration has two advantages: the cathode presents (i) the quantum efficiency and the work function of Y and (ii) high electrical compatibility when inserted into the conventional radio-frequency gun built with Cu bulk. The photocathode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy to determine surface morphology. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy studies were performed to compare the structure and surface properties of the deposited film. The measured electrical resistivity value of the Cu film was similar to that of high purity Cu bulk. Film to substrate adhesion was also evaluated using the Daimler–Benz Rockwell-C adhesion test method. Finally, the photoelectron performance in terms of quantum efficiency was obtained in a high vacuum photodiode cell before and after laser cleaning procedures. A comparison with the results obtained with a twin sample prepared by pulsed laser deposition is presented and discussed.

  • 11. Somsak, Dangtip
    et al.
    Atac, A
    Bergenwall, B
    Blomgren, J
    Elmgren, K
    Johansson, C
    Klug, J
    Olsson, Nils
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Söderberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Facility for measurements of nuclear cross sections for fast neutron cancer therapy2000In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 452, no 3, p. 484-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A facility for measurements of neutron-induced double-differential light-ion production cross-sections, for application within, e.g., fast neutron cancer therapy, is described. The central detection elements are three-detector telescopes consisting of two silicon detectors and a CsI crystal. Use of ?E-?E-E techniques allows good particle identification for p, d, t, 3He and alpha particles over an energy range from a few MeV up to 100 MeV. Active plastic scintillator collimators are used to define the telescope solid angle. Measurements can be performed using up to eight telescopes at 20░ intervals simultaneously, thus covering a wide angular range. The performance of the equipment is illustrated using experimental data taken with a carbon target at En = 95 MeV. Distortions of the measured charged-particle spectra due to energy and particle losses in the target are corrected using a newly developed computer code. Results from such correction calculations are presented.

  • 12.
    Stefanescu, I
    et al.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany .
    Abdullahi, Y
    Technical University of Munich, Germany .
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Defendi, I
    Technical University of Munich, Germany .
    Hall-Wilton, R
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, Sweden .
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Seiler, D
    Technical University of Munich, Germany .
    Zeitelhack, K
    Technical University of Munich, Germany .
    Development of a novel macrostructured cathode for large-area neutron detectors based on the B-10-containing solid converter2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 727, p. 109-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel design for a macrostructured cathode that can be coated with a thin layer of the B-10 solid converter and mounted to replace the Boron-lined flat parallel plates of a proportional counter used for slow neutron detection. The proposed design consists of a 3D regular pattern exhibiting millimeter deep grooves with an opening angle of alpha = 45 degrees, which could be created in the substrate material by milling or forming. When a commonly used coating method like magnetron sputtering is employed to deposit the Boron-layer, due to the line-of-sight distribution of the ions, the thickness of the coating on the side of the grooves will be reduced by a factor similar to sin alpha/2 with respect to the thickness of the layer deposited on a flat surface normal to the ion flux. The effective neutron absorption film thickness is in this case similar for the sidewalls of the grooves and a surface at normal incidence, yielding comparable absorption efficiencies. However, the escape efficiency for the reaction products is higher for the sidewalls, owing to the thinner coating. This leads to a higher overall detection efficiency for the grooved cathode when compared to a flat cathode with the same surface area and coated with a Boron layer with roughly the same thickness. In this paper we present and discuss the GEANT4 simulations performed to optimize the geometry of the cathode, the manufacturing and coating by magnetron sputtering, as well as the proof-of-principle measurements carried out in order to assess the performance of the proposed design.

  • 13.
    Xu, Cheng
    et al.
    AlbaNova University of Centre, Sweden .
    Chen, Han
    AlbaNova University of Centre, Sweden .
    Persson, Mats
    AlbaNova University of Centre, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Staffan
    AlbaNova University of Centre, Sweden .
    Danielsson, Mats
    AlbaNova University of Centre, Sweden .
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bornefalk, Hans
    AlbaNova University of Centre, Sweden .
    Energy resolution of a segmented silicon strip detector for photon-counting spectral CT2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 715, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the energy resolution of a segmented silicon strip detector for photon-counting spectral computed tomography (CT). The detector response to different monochromatic photon energies and various photon fluxes was characterized at the Elettra synchrotron. An RMS energy resolution of 1.50 keV has been demonstrated for 22 keV photons at zero flux, and it deteriorated as a function of input count rate at a rate of 5.1 eV mm(2)/Mcps. The charge sharing effect has been evaluated. The results show that around 11.1% of the interacting photons experience charge sharing for 22 keV photons and 15.3% for 30 keV.

  • 14.
    Xu, Cheng
    et al.
    AlbaNova University Centre.
    Danielsson, Mats
    AlbaNova University Centre.
    Karlsson, Staffan
    AlbaNova University Centre.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bornefalk, Hans
    AlbaNova University Centre.
    Preliminary evaluation of a silicon strip detector for photon-counting spectral CT2012In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 677, p. 45-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An edge-on silicon strip detector designed for photon-counting spectral computed tomography (CT) is presented. Progress on the development of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to process the pulses and sort them into energy bins is reported upon. The ASIC and detector are evaluated in terms of electronic noise, energy resolution, count rate linearity under high-frequency periodic pulses, threshold variation and gain. The high-frequency periodic pulses are injected both by means of an external pulse generator and a pulsed laser illuminating the silicon diode. The pulsed laser system has similar to 100 ps pulse width and thus generates near instantaneous pulses in the diode, thus mimicking real X-ray conversions. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe evaluation shows a low thermal noise level of 0.77 key RMS, an energy resolution of 1.5 keV RMS when electron-hole pairs are generated in the detector diode by the laser injection. The test results furthermore indicate a good energy-discriminating capability of the detector with the thresholds spread out, assigning the external pulses to higher and higher energy bins as the pulse intensity is increased.

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