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  • 1.
    Amdursky, Nadav
    et al.
    Technion Israel Inst Technol, Israel.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Meredith, Paul
    Swansea Univ, Wales.
    Macroscale Biomolecular Electronics and Ionics2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 3, article id 1802221Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conduction of ions and electrons over multiple length scales is central to the processes that drive the biological world. The multidisciplinary attempts to elucidate the physics and chemistry of electron, proton, and ion transfer in biological charge transfer have focused primarily on the nano- and microscales. However, recently significant progress has been made on biomolecular materials that can support ion and electron currents over millimeters if not centimeters. Likewise, similar transport phenomena in organic semiconductors and ionics have led to new innovations in a wide variety of applications from energy generation and storage to displays and bioelectronics. Here, the underlying principles of conduction on the macroscale in biomolecular materials are discussed, highlighting recent examples, and particularly the establishment of accurate structure-property relationships to guide rationale material and device design. The technological viability of biomolecular electronics and ionics is also discussed.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Malmström, Anna
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Remonen, Tommi
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper2002In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 14, no 20, p. 1460-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An organic electronic paper display technology (see Figure and also inside front cover) is presented. The electrochromic display cell together with the addressing electrochemical transistor form simple smart pixels that are included in matrix displays, which are achieved on coated cellulose-based paper using printing techniques. The ion-electronic technology presented offers an opportunity to extend existing use of ordinary paper.

     

  • 3.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Switchable Charge Traps in Polymer Diodes2005In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 17, no 14, p. 1798-1803Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Anusuyadevi, Prasaanth Ravi
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Sweden.
    Shanker, Ravi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cui, Yuxiao
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Sweden.
    Riazanova, Anastasia V
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Sweden.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svagan, Anna J.
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Sweden.
    Photoresponsive and Polarization-Sensitive Structural Colors from Cellulose/Liquid Crystal Nanophotonic Structures2021In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 33, no 36, article id 2101519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) possess the ability to form helical periodic structures that generate structural colors. Due to the helicity, such self-assembled cellulose structures preferentially reflect left-handed circularly polarized light of certain colors, while they remain transparent to right-handed circularly polarized light. This study shows that combination with a liquid crystal enables modulation of the optical response to obtain light reflection of both handedness but with reversed spectral profiles. As a result, the nanophotonic systems provide vibrant structural colors that are tunable via the incident light polarization. The results are attributed to the liquid crystal aligning on the CNC/glucose film, to form a birefringent layer that twists the incident light polarization before interaction with the chiral cellulose nanocomposite. Using a photoresponsive liquid crystal, this effect can further be turned off by exposure to UV light, which switches the nematic liquid crystal into a nonbirefringent isotropic phase. The study highlights the potential of hybrid cellulose systems to create self-assembled yet advanced photoresponsive and polarization-tunable nanophotonics.

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  • 5.
    Atxabal, Ainhoa
    et al.
    CIC NanoGUNE, Spain.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arnold, Thorsten
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Sun, Xiangnan
    National Centre Nanosci and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Parui, Subir
    CIC NanoGUNE, Spain.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gozalvez, Cristian
    University of Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain.
    Llopis, Roger
    CIC NanoGUNE, Spain.
    Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio
    University of Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain; Basque Fdn Science, Spain.
    Casanova, Felix
    CIC NanoGUNE, Spain; Basque Fdn Science, Spain.
    Ortmann, Frank
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hueso, Luis E.
    CIC NanoGUNE, Spain; Basque Fdn Science, Spain.
    Energy Level Alignment at Metal/Solution-Processed Organic Semiconductor Interfaces2017In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 29, no 19, article id 1606901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy barriers between the metal Fermi energy and the molecular levels of organic semiconductor devoted to charge transport play a fundamental role in the performance of organic electronic devices. Typically, techniques such as electron photoemission spectroscopy, Kelvin probe measurements, and in-device hot-electron spectroscopy have been applied to study these interfacial energy barriers. However, so far there has not been any direct method available for the determination of energy barriers at metal interfaces with n-type polymeric semiconductors. This study measures and compares metal/solution-processed electron-transporting polymer interface energy barriers by in-device hot-electron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. It not only demonstrates in-device hot-electron spectroscopy as a direct and reliable technique for these studies but also brings it closer to technological applications by working ex situ under ambient conditions. Moreover, this study determines that the contamination layer coming from air exposure does not play any significant role on the energy barrier alignment for charge transport. The theoretical model developed for this work confirms all the experimental observations.

  • 6.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Zhang, Xi
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Naficy, Sina
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Salahuddin, Bidita
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhu, Zhonghua
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Plant-Like Tropisms in Artificial Muscles2023In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Helical plants have the ability of tropisms to respond to natural stimuli, and biomimicry of such helical shapes into artificial muscles has been vastly popular. However, the shape-mimicked actuators only respond to artificially provided stimulus, they are not adaptive to variable natural conditions, thus being unsuitable for real-life applications where on-demand, autonomous operations are required. Novel artificial muscles made of hierarchically patterned helically wound yarns that are self-adaptive to environmental humidity and temperature changes are demonstrated here. Unlike shape-mimicked artificial muscles, a unique microstructural biomimicking approach is adopted, where the muscle yarns can effectively replicate the hydrotropism and thermotropism of helical plants to their microfibril level using plant-like microstructural memories. Large strokes, with rapid movement, are obtained when the individual microfilament of yarn is inlaid with hydrogel and further twisted into a coil-shaped hierarchical structure. The developed artificial muscle provides an average actuation speed of approximate to 5.2% s(-1) at expansion and approximate to 3.1% s(-1) at contraction cycles, being the fastest amongst previously demonstrated actuators of similar type. It is demonstrated that these muscle yarns can autonomously close a window in wet climates. The building block yarns are washable without any material degradation, making them suitable for smart, reusable textile and soft robotic devices.

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  • 7.
    Bao, Chunxiong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shenzhen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Jie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Southeast Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Weidong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yan, Zhibo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Qingyu
    Southeast Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Junming
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Wenjing
    Shenzhen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    High Performance and Stable All-Inorganic Metal Halide Perovskite-Based Photodetectors for Optical Communication Applications2018In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 30, no 38, article id 1803422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photodetectors are critical parts of an optical communication system for achieving efficient photoelectronic conversion of signals, and the response speed directly determines the bandwidth of the whole system. Metal halide perovskites, an emerging class of low-cost solution-processed semiconductors, exhibiting strong optical absorption, low trap states, and high carrier mobility, are widely investigated in photodetection applications. Herein, through optimizing the device engineering and film quality, high-performance photodetectors based on all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite (CsPbIxBr3-x), which simultaneously possess high sensitivity and fast response, are demonstrated. The optimized devices processed from CsPbIBr2 perovskite show a practically measured detectable limit of about 21.5 pW cm(-2) and a fast response time of 20 ns, which are both among the highest reported device performance of perovskite-based photodetectors. Moreover, the photodetectors exhibit outstanding long-term environmental stability, with negligible degradation of the photoresponse property after 2000 h under ambient conditions. In addition, the resulting perovskite photodetector is successfully integrated into an optical communication system and its applications as an optical signal receiver on transmitting text and audio signals is demonstrated. The results suggest that all-inorganic metal halide perovskite-based photodetectors have great application potential for optical communication.

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  • 8.
    Benselfelt, Tobias
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Shakya, Jyoti
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Rothemund, Philipp
    Max Planck Inst Intelligent Syst, Germany.
    Lindström, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Piper, Andrew
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Winkler, Thomas E.
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Germany; Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Germany.
    Hajian, Alireza
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Wagberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Keplinger, Christoph
    Max Planck Inst Intelligent Syst, Germany; Univ Colorado, CO 80309 USA; Univ Colorado, CO 80309 USA.
    Hamedi, Mahiar Max
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Electrochemically Controlled Hydrogels with Electrotunable Permeability and Uniaxial Actuation2023In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 35, no 45, article id 2303255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unique properties of hydrogels enable the design of life-like soft intelligent systems. However, stimuli-responsive hydrogels still suffer from limited actuation control. Direct electronic control of electronically conductive hydrogels can solve this challenge and allow direct integration with modern electronic systems. An electrochemically controlled nanowire composite hydrogel with high in-plane conductivity that stimulates a uniaxial electrochemical osmotic expansion is demonstrated. This materials system allows precisely controlled shape-morphing at only -1 V, where capacitive charging of the hydrogel bulk leads to a large uniaxial expansion of up to 300%, caused by the ingress of & AP;700 water molecules per electron-ion pair. The material retains its state when turned off, which is ideal for electrotunable membranes as the inherent coupling between the expansion and mesoporosity enables electronic control of permeability for adaptive separation, fractionation, and distribution. Used as electrochemical osmotic hydrogel actuators, they achieve an electroactive pressure of up to 0.7 MPa (1.4 MPa vs dry) and a work density of & AP;150 kJ m-3 (2 MJ m-3 vs dry). This new materials system paves the way to integrate actuation, sensing, and controlled permeation into advanced soft intelligent systems. The unique properties of hydrogels enable the design of life-like soft intelligent systems. This work demonstrates how the swelling of hydrogels from cellulose nanofibrils and carbon nanotubes can be electrochemically controlled to achieve electrochemical osmotic actuation. This new materials system paves the way for integrated actuation, sensing, and controlled permeation in electrotunable separation membranes or soft actuators.image

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  • 9.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ion Electron-Coupled Functionality in Materials and Devices Based on Conjugated Polymers2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 22, article id 1805813Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling between charge accumulation in a conjugated polymer and the ionic charge compensation, provided from an electrolyte, defines the mode of operation in a vast array of different organic electrochemical devices. The most explored mixed organic ion-electron conductor, serving as the active electrode in these devices, is poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrelensulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). In this progress report, scientists of the Laboratory of Organic Electronics at Linkoping University review some of the achievements derived over the last two decades in the field of organic electrochemical devices, in particular including PEDOT:PSS as the active material. The recently established understanding of the volumetric capacitance and the mixed ion-electron charge transport properties of PEDOT are described along with examples of various devices and phenomena utilizing this ion-electron coupling, such as the organic electrochemical transistor, ionic-electronic thermodiffusion, electrochromic devices, surface switches, and more. One of the pioneers in this exciting research field is Prof. Olle Inganas and the authors of this progress report wish to celebrate and acknowledge all the fantastic achievements and inspiration accomplished by Prof. Inganas all since 1981.

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  • 10.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Dodabalapur, A
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Bao, ZN
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Slusher, RE
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Solid-state droplet laser made from an organic blend with a conjugated polymer emitter1997In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 968-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lasers based on organic materials have been produced with a wide range of resonator design and in a variety of geometries. A new strategy is presented for fabricating permanently near-spherical whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasers from a blend of PPV7 and PBD (see Figure) by a melting and resolidification process. The thresholds and quality factors of these resonators are estimated and discussed.

  • 11.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Granström, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Ultraviolet electroluminescence from an organic light emitting diode1995In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 900-903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extension of the emission region for organic LEDs into the ultraviolet region is reported. Emission at 394 nm is achieved by modifying the geometry of a device based on poly(octylphenyl)bithiophene (PTOPT) and poly(octylphenyl)oxadiazole (PBD) which had previously been shown to emit white light. Through changing the geometry the red and green emission peaks have been suppressed and the UV band (from the PBD) enhanced.

  • 12.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Wennerström, Olof
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hjertberg, Thomas
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Green Electroluminescence in Poly-(3-cyclohexylthiophene) light-emitting diodes1994In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 488-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electoluminescent devices based on polythiophene-system this films have been demonstrated that together span the entire visible range, steric hindrance being used to vary the bandgap between compunds. Poly-(3-cyclohexylthiophene), see Figures, exhibits green electoluminescence. Possible interpretations of this observation are proposed.

  • 13.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Organic bioelectronics2007In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 19, no 20, p. 3201-3213Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades, organic electroactive materials have been explored as the working material in a vast array of electronic devices, promising low-cost, flexible, and easily manufactured systems. The same materials also possess features that make them unique in bioelectronics applications, where electronic signals are translated into biosignals and vice versa. Here we review, in the broadest sense, the field of organic bioelectronics, describing the electronic properties and mechanisms of the organic electronic materials that are utilized in specific biological experiments.

  • 14.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, D
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Dyreklev, P
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Norberg, P
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Nordlinder, S
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Ersman, PA
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, G
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Wikner, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hederén, J
    DU Radio, Ericsson AB, SE-583 30, Linköping, Sweden..
    Hentzell, H
    Swedish ICT Research, Box 1151, SE-164 26, Kista, Sweden..
    Browsing the Real World using Organic Electronics, Si-Chips, and a Human Touch.2016In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1911-1916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronics have been developed according to an orthodox doctrine advocating "all-printed, "all-organic and "ultra-low-cost primarily targeting various e-paper applications. In order to harvest from the great opportunities afforded with organic electronics potentially operating as communication and sensor outposts within existing and future complex communication infrastructures, high-quality computing and communication protocols must be integrated with the organic electronics. Here, we debate and scrutinize the twinning of the signal-processing capability of traditional integrated silicon chips with organic electronics and sensors, and to use our body as a natural local network with our bare hand as the browser of the physical world. The resulting platform provides a body network, i.e., a personalized web, composed of e-label sensors, bioelectronics, and mobile devices that together make it possible to monitor and record both our ambience and health-status parameters, supported by the ubiquitous mobile network and the resources of the "cloud".

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  • 15.
    Bobbert, Peter A.
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Sharma, Abhinav
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Mathijssen, Simon G. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Philips Research Labs, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    de Leeuw, Dago M.
    Philips Research Labs, Netherlands.
    Operational Stability of Organic Field-Effect Transistors2012In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 24, no 9, p. 1146-1158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are considered in technological applications for which low cost or mechanical flexibility are crucial factors. The environmental stability of the organic semiconductors used in OFETs has improved to a level that is now sufficient for commercialization. However, serious problems remain with the stability of OFETs under operation. The causes for this have remained elusive for many years. Surface potentiometry together with theoretical modeling provide new insights into the mechanisms limiting the operational stability. These indicate that redox reactions involving water are involved in an exchange of mobile charges in the semiconductor with protons in the gate dielectric. This mechanism elucidates the established key role of water and leads in a natural way to a universal stress function, describing the stretched exponential-like time dependence ubiquitously observed. Further study is needed to determine the generality of the mechanism and the role of other mechanisms.

  • 16.
    Bohme, O
    et al.
    Tech Univ Cottbus, D-03044 Cottbus, Germany Linkoping Univ, Swedish Sensor Ctr, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Schmeisser, D
    Tech Univ Cottbus, D-03044 Cottbus, Germany Linkoping Univ, Swedish Sensor Ctr, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nanoparticles as the active element of high-temperature metal-insulator-silicon carbide gas sensors2001In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 597-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sensor performance of MISiC (metal-insulator-silicon carbide) diode devices depends on their temperature pretreatment: an activation step at 600 degreesC leads to fast-responding devices with extraordinarily high signals but the devices fail when operated above 700 degreesC. The authors focus on the key role of nanoparticles in high-temperature gas sensor applications of these MISiC devices, presenting a model in which the interface dipole moment of nanoparticles is seen as the driving force and explaining the difference in response of capacitor-configuration and Schottky-diode-configuration devices.

  • 17.
    Campana, Alessandra
    et al.
    CNR-ISMN, Bologna, Italy; University of Bologna, Italy .
    Cramer, Tobias
    CNR-ISMN, Bologna, Italy.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Biscarini, Fabio
    CNR-ISMN, Bologna, Italy; University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy .
    Electrocardiographic recording with conformable organic electrochemical transistor fabricated on resorbable bioscaffold2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 23, p. 3874-3878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electrochemical transistors are fabricated on a poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) substrate. Fast and sensitive performance of the transistors allows recording of the electrocardiogram. The result paves the way for new types of bioelectronic interfaces with reduced invasiveness due to bioresorption and soft mechanical properties.

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  • 18.
    Cao, Danfeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hara, Emilio Satoshi
    Department of Biomaterials, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biohybrid Variable-Stiffness Soft Actuators that Self-Create Bone2022In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 34, no 8, article id 2107345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by the dynamic process of initial bone development, in which a soft tissue turns into a solid load-bearing structure, the fabrication, optimization, and characterization of bioinduced variable-stiffness actuators that can morph in various shapes and change their properties from soft to rigid are hereby presented. Bilayer devices are prepared by combining the electromechanically active properties of polypyrrole with the compliant behavior of alginate gels that are uniquely functionalized with cell-derived plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs), previously shown to mineralize within 2 days, which promotes the mineralization in the gel layer to achieve the soft to stiff change by growing their own bone. The mineralized actuator shows an evident frozen state compared to the movement before mineralization. Next, patterned devices show programmed directional and fixated morphing. These variable-stiffness devices can wrap around and, after the PMNF-induced mineralization in and on the gel layer, adhere and integrate onto bone tissue. The developed biohybrid variable-stiffness actuators can be used in soft (micro-)robotics and as potential tools for bone repair or bone tissue engineering.

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  • 19.
    Chae, Soosang
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany.
    Choi, Won Jin
    Univ Michigan, MI 48109 USA.
    Fotev, Ivan
    Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf eV, Germany; Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Bittrich, Eva
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany.
    Uhlmann, Petra
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany; Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany; Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Makarov, Denys
    Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf eV, Germany.
    Wagner, Jens
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany; Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Pashkin, Alexej
    Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf eV, Germany.
    Fery, Andreas
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany; Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Stretchable Thin Film Mechanical-Strain-Gated Switches and Logic Gate Functions Based on a Soft Tunneling Barrier2021In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 33, no 41, article id 2104769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical-strain-gated switches are cornerstone components of material-embedded circuits that perform logic operations without using conventional electronics. This technology requires a single material system to exhibit three distinct functionalities: strain-invariant conductivity and an increase or decrease of conductivity upon mechanical deformation. Herein, mechanical-strain-gated electric switches based on a thin-film architecture that features an insulator-to-conductor transition when mechanically stretched are demonstrated. The conductivity changes by nine orders of magnitude over a wide range of tunable working strains (as high as 130%). The approach relies on a nanometer-scale sandwiched bilayer Au thin film with an ultrathin poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomeric barrier layer; applied strain alters the electron tunneling currents through the barrier. Mechanical-force-controlled electric logic circuits are achieved by realizing strain-controlled basic (AND and OR) and universal (NAND and NOR) logic gates in a single system. The proposed material system can be used to fabricate material-embedded logics of arbitrary complexity for a wide range of applications including soft robotics, wearable/implantable electronics, human-machine interfaces, and Internet of Things.

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  • 20.
    Chen, Desui
    et al.
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Dong
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Dai, Xingliang
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Zhenxing
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Lin, Jian
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Deng, Yunzhou
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Hao, Yanlei
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Ci
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Haiming
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jin, Yizheng
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Shelf-Stable Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with High Operational Performance2020In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 32, article id 2006178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum-dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) promise a new generation of high-performance, large-area, and cost-effective electroluminescent devices for both display and solid-state lighting technologies. However, a positive ageing process is generally required to improve device performance for state-of-the-art QLEDs. Here, it is revealed that the in situ reactions induced by organic acids in the commonly used encapsulation acrylic resin lead to positive ageing and, most importantly, the progression of in situ reactions inevitably results in negative ageing, i.e., deterioration of device performance after long-term shelf storage. In-depth mechanism studies focusing on the correlations between the in situ chemical reactions and the shelf-ageing behaviors of QLEDs inspire the design of an electron-transporting bilayer, which delivers both improved electrical conductivity and suppressed interfacial exciton quenching. This material innovation enables red QLEDs exhibiting neglectable changes of external quantum efficiency (>20.0%) and ultralong operational lifetime (T-95: 5500 h at 1000 nits) after storage for 180 days. This work provides design principles for oxide electron-transporting layers to realize shelf-stable and high-operational-performance QLEDs, representing a new starting point for both fundamental studies and practical applications.

  • 21. Chen, LC
    et al.
    Godovsky, D
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Groningen, Stratingh Inst, NL-9747 AG Groningen, Netherlands Eindhoven Univ Technol, Lab Macromol & Organ Chem, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Organ Chem, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Polymer Technol, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Hummelen, JC
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Groningen, Stratingh Inst, NL-9747 AG Groningen, Netherlands Eindhoven Univ Technol, Lab Macromol & Organ Chem, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Organ Chem, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Polymer Technol, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Janssens, RAJ
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Groningen, Stratingh Inst, NL-9747 AG Groningen, Netherlands Eindhoven Univ Technol, Lab Macromol & Organ Chem, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Organ Chem, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Polymer Technol, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, M
    Andersson, MR
    Polymer photovoltaic devices from stratified multilayers of donor-acceptor blends2000In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 12, no 18, p. 1367-1370Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Chen, LC
    et al.
    Roman, LS
    Linkoping Univ, Appl Phys Lab, IFM, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Organ Chem & Polymer Technol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Eindhoven Univ Technol, Lab Macromol & Organ Chem, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Johansson, DM
    Svensson, M
    Andersson, MR
    Janssen, RAJ
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Excitation transfer in polymer photodiodes for enhanced quantum efficiency2000In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 12, no 15, p. 1110-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The realization of polymer solar cells is the driving force behind this research. In an idea inspired by photosynthesis, the authors have constructed efficient bilayer photodiodes by a well-chosen combination of conjugated polymers (see Figure) in the donor layer. Forster energy transfer within the donor layer allows the absorbed light to be channeled to the C-60 acceptor layer, improving the total photoconversion of the blend device.

  • 23.
    Chen, Shangshang
    et al.
    Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China; Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yuming
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Lin
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Jingbo
    Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Yuzhong
    Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Danlei
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Yao, Huatong
    Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Guangye
    Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Ma, Wei
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Friend, Richard H.
    Cavendish Lab, England.
    Chow, Philip C. Y.
    Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China; HKUST Shenzhen Res Inst, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yan, He
    Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China; HKUST Shenzhen Res Inst, Peoples R China.
    Efficient Nonfullerene Organic Solar Cells with Small Driving Forces for Both Hole and Electron Transfer2018In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 30, no 45, article id 1804215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State-of-the-art organic solar cells (OSCs) typically suffer from large voltage loss (V-loss) compared to their inorganic and perovskite counterparts. There are some successful attempts to reduce the V-loss by decreasing the energy offsets between the donor and acceptor materials, and the OSC community has demonstrated efficient systems with either small highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) offset or negligible lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) offset between donors and acceptors. However, efficient OSCs based on a donor/acceptor system with both small HOMO and LUMO offsets have not been demonstrated simultaneously. In this work, an efficient nonfullerene OSC is reported based on a donor polymer named PffBT2T-TT and a small-molecular acceptor (O-IDTBR), which have identical bandgaps and close energy levels. The Fourier-transform photocurrent spectroscopy external quantum efficiency (FTPS-EQE) spectrum of the blend overlaps with those of neat PffBT2T-TT and O-IDTBR, indicating the small driving forces for both hole and electron transfer. Meanwhile, the OSCs exhibit a high electroluminescence quantum efficiency (EQE(EL)) of approximate to 1 x 10(-4), which leads to a significantly minimized nonradiative V-loss of 0.24 V. Despite the small driving forces and a low V-loss, a maximum EQE of 67% and a high power conversion efficiency of 10.4% can still be achieved.

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  • 24.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rossi, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shanker, Ravi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cincotti, Giancarlo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gamage, Sampath
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tunable Structural Color Images by UV-Patterned Conducting Polymer Nanofilms on Metal Surfaces2021In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 33, no 33, article id 2102451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise manipulation of light-matter interactions has enabled a wide variety of approaches to create bright and vivid structural colors. Techniques utilizing photonic crystals, Fabry-Perot cavities, plasmonics, or high-refractive-index dielectric metasurfaces have been studied for applications ranging from optical coatings to reflective displays. However, complicated fabrication procedures for sub-wavelength nanostructures, limited active areas, and inherent absence of tunability of these approaches impede their further development toward flexible, large-scale, and switchable devices compatible with facile and cost-effective production. Here, a novel method is presented to generate structural color images based on monochromic conducting polymer films prepared on metallic surfaces via vapor phase polymerization and ultraviolet (UV) light patterning. Varying the UV dose enables synergistic control of both nanoscale film thickness and polymer permittivity, which generates controllable structural colors from violet to red. Together with grayscale photomasks this enables facile fabrication of high-resolution structural color images. Dynamic tuning of colored surfaces and images via electrochemical modulation of the polymer redox state is further demonstrated. The simple structure, facile fabrication, wide color gamut, and dynamic color tuning make this concept competitive for applications like multifunctional displays.

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  • 25.
    Christian Roelofs, W. S.
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Philips Research Labs, Netherlands.
    Spijkman, Mark-Jan
    Philips Research Labs, Netherlands.
    Mathijssen, Simon G. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Janssen, Rene A. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    de Leeuw, Dago M.
    Max Planck Institute Polymer Research, Germany; King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Eindhoven University of Technology, MB, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Fundamental Limitations for Electroluminescence in Organic Dual-Gate Field-Effect Transistors2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 26, p. 4450-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dual-gate organic field-effect transistor is investigated for electrically pumped lasing. The two gates can independently accumulate electrons and holes, yielding current densities exceeding the lasing threshold. Here, the aim is to force the electrons and holes to recombine by confining the charges in a single semiconducting film. It is found that independent hole and electron accumulation is mutually exclusive with vertical recombination and light emission.

  • 26.
    Cohen, Adi
    et al.
    Weizmann Inst Sci, Israel.
    Brenner, Thomas M.
    Weizmann Inst Sci, Israel.
    Klarbring, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sharma, Rituraj
    Weizmann Inst Sci, Israel.
    Fabini, Douglas H.
    Max Planck Inst Solid State Res, Germany.
    Korobko, Roman
    Weizmann Inst Sci, Israel.
    Nayak, Pabitra K.
    Tata Inst Fundamental Res, India.
    Hellman, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yaffe, Omer
    Weizmann Inst Sci, Israel.
    Diverging Expressions of Anharmonicity in Halide Perovskites2022In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 34, no 14, article id 2107932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead-based halide perovskite crystals are shown to have strongly anharmonic structural dynamics. This behavior is important because it may be the origin of their exceptional photovoltaic properties. The double perovskite, Cs2AgBiBr6, has been recently studied as a lead-free alternative for optoelectronic applications. However, it does not exhibit the excellent photovoltaic activity of the lead-based halide perovskites. Therefore, to explore the correlation between the anharmonic structural dynamics and optoelectronic properties in lead-based halide perovskites, the structural dynamics of Cs2AgBiBr6 are investigated and are compared to its lead-based analog, CsPbBr3. Using temperature-dependent Raman measurements, it is found that both materials are indeed strongly anharmonic. Nonetheless, the expression of their anharmonic behavior is markedly different. Cs2AgBiBr6 has well-defined normal modes throughout the measured temperature range, while CsPbBr3 exhibits a complete breakdown of the normal-mode picture above 200 K. It is suggested that the breakdown of the normal-mode picture implies that the average crystal structure may not be a proper starting point to understand the electronic properties of the crystal. In addition to our main findings, an unreported phase of Cs2AgBiBr6 is also discovered below approximate to 37 K.

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  • 27.
    Conings, Bert
    et al.
    Hasselt University, Belgium; University of Oxford, England.
    Babayigit, Aslihan
    Hasselt University, Belgium; University of Oxford, England.
    Klug, Matthew T.
    University of Oxford, England.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oxford, England.
    Gauquelin, Nicolas
    University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Sakai, Nobuya
    University of Oxford, England.
    Tse-Wei Wang, Jacob
    University of Oxford, England.
    Verbeeck, Johan
    University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Boyen, Hans-Gerd
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Snaith, Henry J.
    University of Oxford, England.
    A Universal Deposition Protocol for Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells with High Efficiency Based on Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskite Families2016In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 48, p. 10701-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A robust and expedient gas quenching method is developed for the solution deposition of hybrid perovskite thin films. The method offers a reliable standard practice for the fabrication of a non-exhaustive variety of perovskites exhibiting excellent film morphology and commensurate high performance in both regular and inverted structured solar cell architectures.

  • 28.
    Cucchi, Matteo
    et al.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne EPFL, Switzerland; Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Parker, Daniela
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gkoupidenis, Paschalis
    Max Planck Inst Polymer Res, Germany.
    Kleemann, Hans
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    In Liquido Computation with Electrochemical Transistors and Mixed Conductors for Intelligent Bioelectronics2023In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Next-generation implantable computational devices require long-term-stable electronic components capable of operating in, and interacting with, electrolytic surroundings without being damaged. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) emerged as fitting candidates. However, while single devices feature impressive figures of merit, integrated circuits (ICs) immersed in common electrolytes are hard to realize using electrochemical transistors, and there is no clear path forward for optimal top-down circuit design and high-density integration. The simple observation that two OECTs immersed in the same electrolytic medium will inevitably interact hampers their implementation in complex circuitry. The electrolytes ionic conductivity connects all the devices in the liquid, producing unwanted and often unforeseeable dynamics. Minimizing or harnessing this crosstalk has been the focus of very recent studies. Herein, the main challenges, trends, and opportunities for realizing OECT-based circuitry in a liquid environment that could circumnavigate the hard limits of engineering and human physiology, are discussed. The most successful approaches in autonomous bioelectronics and information processing are analyzed. Elaborating on the strategies to circumvent and harness device crosstalk proves that platforms capable of complex computation and even machine learning (ML) can be realized in liquido using mixed ionic-electronic conductors (OMIECs).

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  • 29.
    Cui, Yong
    et al.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Chenyi
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Science and Technology Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Yao, Huifeng
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Jie
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; Ocean University of China, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yuming
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jia, Guoxiao
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Science and Technology Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hou, Jianhui
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Efficient Semitransparent Organic Solar Cells with Tunable Color enabled by an Ultralow-Bandgap Nonfullerene Acceptor2017In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 29, no 43, article id 1703080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semitransparent organic solar cells (OSCs) show attractive potential in power-generating windows. However, the development of semitransparent OSCs is lagging behind opaque OSCs. Here, an ultralow-bandgap non-fullerene acceptor, "IEICO-4Cl", is designed and synthesized, whose absorption spectrum is mainly located in the near-infrared region. When IEICO-4Cl is blended with different polymer donors (J52, PBDB-T, and PTB7-Th), the colors of the blend films can be tuned from purple to blue to cyan, respectively. Traditional OSCs with a nontransparent Al electrode fabricated by J52: IEICO-4Cl, PBDB-T: IEICO-4Cl, and PTB7-Th: IEICO-4Cl yield power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 9.65 +/- 0.33%, 9.43 +/- 0.13%, and 10.0 +/- 0.2%, respectively. By using 15 nm Au as the electrode, semitransparent OSCs based on these three blends also show PCEs of 6.37%, 6.24%, and 6.97% with high average visible transmittance (AVT) of 35.1%, 35.7%, and 33.5%, respectively. Furthermore, via changing the thickness of Au in the OSCs, the relationship between the transmittance and efficiency is studied in detail, and an impressive PCE of 8.38% with an AVT of 25.7% is obtained, which is an outstanding value in the semitransparent OSCs.

  • 30.
    Cui, Yong
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Yao, Huifeng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Jianqi
    Natl Ctr Nanosci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Xian, Kaihu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Tao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Hong, Ling
    Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yuming
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Ye
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Ma, Kangqiao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    An, Cunbin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    He, Chang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Wei, Zhixiang
    Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Natl Ctr Nanosci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hou, Jianhui
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Single-Junction Organic Photovoltaic Cells with Approaching 18% Efficiency2020In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 32, no 19, article id 1908205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimizing the molecular structures of organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials is one of the most effective methods to boost power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). For an excellent molecular system with a certain conjugated skeleton, fine tuning the alky chains is of considerable significance to fully explore its photovoltaic potential. In this work, the optimization of alkyl chains is performed on a chlorinated nonfullerene acceptor (NFA) named BTP-4Cl-BO (a Y6 derivative) and very impressive photovoltaic parameters in OPV cells are obtained. To get more ordered intermolecular packing, the n-undecyl is shortened at the edge of BTP-eC11 to n-nonyl and n-heptyl. As a result, the NFAs of BTP-eC9 and BTP-eC7 are synthesized. The BTP-eC7 shows relatively poor solubility and thus limits its application in device fabrication. Fortunately, the BTP-eC9 possesses good solubility and, at the same time, enhanced electron transport property than BTP-eC11. Significantly, due to the simultaneously enhanced short-circuit current density and fill factor, the BTP-eC9-based single-junction OPV cells record a maximum PCE of 17.8% and get a certified value of 17.3%. These results demonstrate that minimizing the alkyl chains to get suitable solubility and enhanced intermolecular packing has a great potential in further improving its photovoltaic performance.

  • 31.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhou, Jie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ahmed, Bilal
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Halim, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tao, Quanzheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thörnberg, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Helmer, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O Å
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Out-Of-Plane Ordered Laminate Borides and Their 2D Ti-Based Derivative from Chemical Exfoliation2021In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 33, no 38, article id 2008361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploratory theoretical predictions in uncharted structural and compositional space are integral to materials discoveries. Inspired by M5SiB2 (T2) phases, the finding of a family of laminated quaternary metal borides, M M-4 SiB2, with out-of-plane chemical order is reported here. 11 chemically ordered phases as well as 40 solid solutions, introducing four elements previously not observed in these borides are predicted. The predictions are experimentally verified for Ti4MoSiB2, establishing Ti as part of the T2 boride compositional space. Chemical exfoliation of Ti4MoSiB2 and select removal of Si and MoB2 sub-layers is validated by derivation of a 2D material, TiOxCly, of high yield and in the form of delaminated sheets. These sheets have an experimentally determined direct band gap of approximate to 4.1 eV, and display characteristics suitable for supercapacitor applications. The results take the concept of chemical exfoliation beyond currently available 2D materials, and expands the envelope of 3D and 2D candidates, and their applications.

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  • 32.
    Diaz de Zerio Mendaza, Amaia
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Melianas, Armantas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rossbauer, Stephan
    University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England; University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England.
    Backe, Olof
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Nordstierna, Lars
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Erhart, Paul
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Olsson, Eva
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Anthopoulos, Thomas D.
    University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England; University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Muller, Christian
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    High-Entropy Mixtures of Pristine Fullerenes for Solution-Processed Transistors and Solar Cells2015In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 27, no 45, p. 7325-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solubility of pristine fullerenes can be enhanced by mixing C-60 and C-70 due to the associated increase in configurational entropy. This "entropic dissolution" allows the preparation of field-effect transistors with an electron mobility of 1 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) and polymer solar cells with a highly reproducible power-conversion efficiency of 6%, as well as a thermally stable active layer.

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  • 33.
    Duan, Yulong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rahmanudin, Aiman
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kim, Nara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mohammadi, Mohsen
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tuneable Anisotropic Plasmonics with Shape-Symmetric Conducting Polymer Nanoantennas2023In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of nanophotonic applications rely on polarization-dependent plasmonic resonances, which usually requires metallic nanostructures that have anisotropic shape. This work demonstrates polarization-dependent plasmonic resonances instead by breaking symmetry via material permittivity. The study shows that molecular alignment of a conducting polymer can lead to a material with polarization-dependent plasma frequency and corresponding in-plane hyperbolic permittivity region. This result is not expected based only on anisotropic charge mobility but implies that also the effective mass of the charge carriers becomes anisotropic upon polymer alignment. This unique feature is used to demonstrate circularly symmetric nanoantennas that provide different plasmonic resonances parallel and perpendicular to the alignment direction. The nanoantennas are further tuneable via the redox state of the polymer. Importantly, polymer alignment could blueshift the plasma wavelength and resonances by several hundreds of nanometers, forming a novel approach toward reaching the ultimate goal of redox-tunable conducting polymer nanoantennas for visible light. Traditional anisotropic nanoantennas have asymmetric shape. In this work, symmetry is instead broken by straining of a conducting polymer, leading to an in-plane anisotropic plasma frequency. This enables circularly symmetric nanoantennas with polarization-dependent localized surface plasmon resonances. The polarization dependence is consistent with inverse changes of the effective mass and mobility of thecharge carriers along different in-plane directions.image

  • 34.
    Dyer, Aubrey L.
    et al.
    Georgia Institute Technology, GA 30332 USA .
    Bulloch, Rayford H.
    Georgia Institute Technology, GA 30332 USA .
    Zhou, Yinhua
    Georgia Institute Technology, GA 30332 USA Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China .
    Kippelen, Bernard
    Georgia Institute Technology, GA 30332 USA .
    Reynolds, John R.
    Georgia Institute Technology, GA 30332 USA Georgia Institute Technology, GA 30332 USA .
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Vertically Integrated Solar-Powered Electrochromic Window for Energy Efficient Buildings2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 28, p. 4895-4900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A solution-processed self-powered polymer electrochromic/photovoltaic (EC/PV) device is realized by vertically integrating two transparent PV cells with an ECD. The EC/PV cell is a net energy positive dual functional device, which can be reversibly switched between transparent and colored states by PV cells for regulating incoming sunlight through windows. The two PV cells can individually, or in pairs, generate electricity.

  • 35.
    Dyreklev, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Wennerström, Olof
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hjertberg, Thomas
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode1995In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 43-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polarized light sources based on stretch-oriented conjugated polymers are reported. The devices, based on poly 3(4-octylphenyl)-2,2′-bithiophene, show an external quantum efficiency of 0.1% and are produced using a very simple method which may be easily extended to other polymers. The fabrication of the devices is described and factors such as the emission and spectral differences parallel and prependicular to the stretching direction discussed.

  • 36.
    Fabiano, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Weverberghs, Eric
    University of Mons-UMONS, Belgium.
    Gerbaux, Pascal
    University of Mons-UMONS, Belgium.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Poly(ethylene imine) impurities induce n-doping reaction in organic (semi)conductors2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 34, p. 6000-6006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile impurities contained in polyethyleneimine (PEI), and identified as ethyleneimine dimers and trimers, are reported. These N-based molecules show a strong reducing character, as demonstrated by the change in electrical conductivity of organic (semi) conductors exposed to the PEI vapor. The results prove that electron transfer rather than a dipole effect at the electrode interface is the origin of the work-function modification by the PEI-based layers.

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  • 37.
    Fabiano, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Usta, Hakan
    Polyera Corp, IL 60077 USA; Abdullah Gul University, Turkey.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Facchetti, Antonio
    Polyera Corp, IL 60077 USA.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selective Remanent Ambipolar Charge Transport in Polymeric Field-Effect Transistors For High-Performance Logic Circuits Fabricated in Ambient2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 44, p. 7438-7443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

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    fulltext
  • 38.
    Fuchs, Franz
    et al.
    CEA INAC SPrAM UMR5819 CEA CNRS UJF, France.
    Linares, Mathieu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    de Vet, Christiaan
    CEA INAC SPrAM UMR5819 CEA CNRS UJF, France.
    Leclere, Philippe
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Demadrille, Renaud
    CEA INAC SPrAM UMR5819 CEA CNRS UJF, France.
    Grevin, Benjamin
    CEA INAC SPrAM UMR5819 CEA CNRS UJF, France.
    On the Photo-Induced Charge-Carrier Generation within Monolayers of Self-Assembled Organic Donor-Acceptor Dyads2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 37, p. 6416-6422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 39.
    Gabrielsson, Erik O.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simon, Daniel T.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Four-Diode Full-Wave Ionic Current Rectifier Based on Bipolar Membranes: Overcoming the Limit of Electrode Capacity2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 30, p. 5143-5147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-wave rectification of ionic currents is obtained by constructing the typical four-diode bridge out of ion conducting bipolar membranes. Together with conjugated polymer electrodes addressed with alternating current, the bridge allows for generation of a controlled ionic direct current for extended periods of time without the production of toxic species or gas typically arising from electrode side-reactions.

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  • 40.
    Gao, Feng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Xinyi
    Nanjing University, China.
    Yin, Kuibo
    Nanjing University, China.
    Dong, Shuai
    Nanjing University, China.
    Ren, Zhifeng
    Boston College, USA.
    Yuan, Fang
    Nanjing University, China.
    Yu, Tao
    Nanjing University, China.
    Zou, Zhigang
    Nanjing University, China.
    Liu, Jun-Ming
    Nanjing University, China.
    Visible-light photocatalytic properties of weak magnetic BiFeO3 nanoparticles2007In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 19, no 19, p. 2889-2892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycrystalline BiFeO3 nanoparticles (size 80-120 nm) are prepared by a simple sol-gel technique. Such nanoparticles are very efficient for photocatalytic decomposition of organic contaminants under irradiation from ultraviolet to visible frequencies. The BiFeO3 nanoparticles also demonstrate weak ferromagnetism of about 0.06 mu(B)/Fe at room temperature, in good agreement with theoretical calculations.

  • 41.
    Gao, Feng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Himmelberger, Scott
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hanifi, David
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Xia, Yuxin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Shaoqing
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Jianpu
    Nanjing Technical University, Peoples R China; Nanjing Technical University, Peoples R China.
    Hou, Jianhui
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Salleo, Alberto
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Effect of Processing Additives on Energetic Disorder in Highly Efficient Organic Photovoltaics: A Case Study on PBDTTT-C-T:PC71BM2015In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 27, no 26, p. 3868-3873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energetic disorder, an important parameter affecting the performance of organic photovoltaics, is significantly decreased upon the addition of processing additives in a highly efficient benzodithiophene-based copolymer blend (PBDTTT-C-T:PC71BM). Wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements suggest that the origin of this reduced energetic disorder is due to increased aggregation and a larger average fullerene domain size together with purer phases.

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  • 42.
    Granlund, T
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, Appl Phys Lab, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Organ Chem & Polymer Technol, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Roman, LS
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, Appl Phys Lab, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Organ Chem & Polymer Technol, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, M
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Patterning of polymer light-emitting diodes with soft lithography2000In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 269-273Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Guell-Grau, Pau
    et al.
    Inst Microelect Barcelona IMBCNM CSIC, Spain; CSIC, Spain; BIST, Spain; Networking Res Ctr Bioengn Biomat & Nanomed CIBER, Spain.
    Pi, Francesc
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Spain.
    Villa, Rosa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biophysics and bioengineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Inst Microelect Barcelona IMBCNM CSIC, Spain; Networking Res Ctr Bioengn Biomat & Nanomed CIBER, Spain.
    Eskilson, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biophysics and bioengineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biophysics and bioengineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nogues, Josep
    CSIC, Spain; BIST, Spain; ICREA, Spain.
    Sepulveda, Borja
    Inst Microelect Barcelona IMBCNM CSIC, Spain.
    Alvarez, Mar
    Inst Microelect Barcelona IMBCNM CSIC, Spain.
    Elastic Plasmonic-Enhanced Fabry-Perot Cavities with Ultrasensitive Stretching Tunability2022In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 34, no 7, article id 2106731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging stretchable photonics field faces challenges, like the robust integration of optical elements into elastic matrices or the generation of large optomechanical effects. Here, the first stretchable plasmonic-enhanced and wrinkled Fabry-Perot (FP) cavities are demonstrated, which are composed of self-embedded arrays of Au nanostructures at controlled depths into elastomer films. The novel self-embedding process is triggered by the Au nanostructures catalytic activity, which locally increases the polymer curing rate, thereby inducing a mechanical stress that simultaneously pulls the Au nanostructures into the polymer and forms a wrinkled skin layer. This geometry yields unprecedented optomechanical effects produced by the coupling of the broad plasmonic modes of the Au nanostructures and the FP modes, which are modulated by the wrinkled optical cavity. As a result, film stretching induces drastic changes in both the spectral position and intensity of the plasmonic-enhanced FP resonances due to the simultaneous cavity thickness reduction and cavity wrinkle flattening, thus increasing the cavity finesse. These optomechanical effects are exploited to demonstrate new strain-sensing approaches, achieving a strain detection limit of 0.006%, i.e., 16-fold lower than current optical strain-detection schemes.

  • 44.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marcilla, Rebeca
    CIDETEC, Spain.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fiber-Embedded Electrolyte-Gated Field-Effect Transistors for e-Textiles2009In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 573-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrolyte-gate organic field-effect transistors embedded at the junction of textile microfibers are demonstrated. The fiber transistor operates below I V and delivers large current densities. The transience of the organic thin-film transistors current and the impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that the channel is formed in two steps.

  • 45.
    Hamedi, Mahiar Max
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Herland, Anna
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pei, Qibing
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Organic Polymer Electronics - A Special Issue in Honor of Prof. Olle Inganas2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 22, article id 1901940Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 46.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, M.
    Thin Film Electronics AB.
    Hagel, O.-J.
    Thin Film Electronics AB.
    Gustafsson, G.
    Acreo AB.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Low-Voltage Polymer Field-Effect Transistors Gated via a Proton Conductor2007In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 97-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low operating voltages for p-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) can be achieved by using an electrolyte as the gate insulator. However, mobile anions in the electrolyte can lead to undesired electrochemistry in the channel. In order to avoid this, a polyanionic electrolyte is used as the gate insulator. The resulting OFET has operating voltages of less than 1 V (see figure) and shows fast switching (less than 0.3 ms) in ambient atmosphere.

  • 47.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tierney, Steve
    Merck Chemicals Ltd..
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polyelectrolyte-Gated Organic Complementary Circuits Operating at Low Power and Voltage2011In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 23, no 40, p. 4684-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, polyanionic and polycationic electrolytes are used as gate insulators in p- and n-channel thin-film transistors, respectively. These material combinations are motivated by that the mobile ions in the electrolytes will be attracted to the oppositely charged gate electrodes when the transistors are operated in the accumulation mode. The electronic charges in the semiconductor channels will thus be balanced by the polyions, which are effectively immobile and cannot penetrate into the semiconductor bulk and cause electrochemical doping.

  • 48.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cölle, Michael
    Merck Chemicals Ltd Chilworth Science Park Southampton, SO16 7QD, UK.
    Tierney, Steven
    Merck Chemicals Ltd Chilworth Science Park Southampton, SO16 7QD,l UK.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Low-Voltage Ring Oscillators Based on Polyelectrolyte-Gated Polymer Thin-Film Transistors2010In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 72-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A polyanionic electrolyte is used as gate insulator in top-gate p-channel polymer thin-film transistors. The high capacitance of the polyelectrolyte film allows the transistors and integrated circuits to operate below 1.5 V. Seven-stage ring oscillators that operate at supply voltages down to 0.9 V and exhibit signal propagation delays as low as 300 µs per stage are reported.

  • 49.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Noh, Yong-Young
    Cavendish Laboratory University of Cambridge, UK.
    Zhao, Ni
    Cavendish Laboratory University of Cambridge, UK.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sirringhaus, Henning
    Cavendish Laboratory University of Cambridge, UK.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Downscaling of Organic Field-Effect Transistors with a Polyelectrolyte Gate Insulator2008In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 20, no 24, p. 4708-4713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A polyelectrolyte is used as gate insulator material in organic field-effect transistors with self-aligned inkjet printed sub–micrometer channels. The small separation of the charges in the electric double layer at the electrolyte-semiconductor interface, which builds up in tens of microseconds, provides a very high transverse electric field in the channel that effectively suppresses short-channel effects at low applied gate voltages.

  • 50.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Organic Photovoltaics over Three Decades2018In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 30, no 35, article id 1800388Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of organic semiconductors for photovoltaic devices, over the last three decades, has led to unexpected performance for an alternative choice of materials to convert sunlight to electricity. New materials and developed concepts have improved the photovoltage in organic photovoltaic devices, where records are now found above 13% power conversion efficiency in sunlight. The author has stayed with the topic of organic materials for energy conversion and energy storage during these three decades, and makes use of the Hall of Fame now built by Advanced Materials, to present his view of the path travelled over this time, including motivations, personalities, and ambitions.

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