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  • 1. Abom, A.E.
    et al.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Influence of gate metal film growth parameters on the properties of gas sensitive field-effect devices2002In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 409, no 2, p. 233-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of Pt have been grown as gate metals on the oxide surface of gas sensitive field-effect devices. Both electron beam evaporation and dc magnetron sputtering has been used. The energy of the impinging Pt atoms, the substrate temperature and the thickness of the Pt film were used as parameters in this study. The influence of the growth parameters on the gas response has been investigated and compared with the properties of the films, studied by transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The conditions during growth of the Pt film are found to have a large impact on the properties of the device. As expected, crystallinity, morphology and the metal/substrate interfacial structure are also affected by processing parameters. Three different growth processes stand out as the most promising from gas sensor considerations, namely room temperature evaporation, sputtering at high pressures and sputtering at high temperatures. The correlation between gas responses and properties of the gas sensitive layer is discussed. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Adamovic, Dragan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Münger, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greene, Joe
    University of Illinois.
    Enhanced intra- and interlayer mass transport on Pt(111) via 5 - 50 eV Pt atom impacts on two-dimensional Pt clusters2006In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 4, p. 2235-2243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded-atom molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the effects of low-energy (5–50 eV) normally-incident self-ion irradiation of two-dimensional compact Pt3, Pt7, Pt19, and Pt37 clusters on Pt(111). We follow atomistic pathways leading to bombardment-induced intra- and interlayer mass transport. The results can be described in terms of three impact energy regimes. With E ≤ 20 eV, we observe an increase in 2D island dimensions and negligible residual point defect formation. As the impact energy is raised above 20 eV, we observe an increase in irradiation-induced lateral mass transport, a decrease in island size, and the activation of interlayer processes. For E ≥ 35 eV, this trend continues, but point defects, in the form of surface vacancies, are also formed. The results illustrate the richness of the dynamical interaction mechanisms occurring among incident energetic species, target clusters, and substrate atoms, leading to island preservation, reconfiguration, disruption and/or residual point defects formation. We discuss the significance of these results in terms of thin film growth.

  • 3.
    Aiempanakit, Montri
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Petter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hysteresis and process stability in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of metal oxides2011In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 519, no 22, p. 7779-7784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the further development of reactive sputter deposition, strategies which allow for stabilization of the transition zone between the metallic and compound modes, elimination of the process hysteresis, and increase of the deposition rate, are of particular interest. In this study, the hysteresis behavior and the characteristics of the transition zone during reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of Al and Ce targets in an Ar-O(2) atmosphere as a function of the pulsing frequency and the pumping speed are investigated. Comparison with reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) reveals that HiPIMS allows for elimination/suppression of the hysteresis and a smoother transition from the metallic to the compound sputtering mode. For the experimental conditions employed in the present study, optimum behavior with respect to the hysteresis width is obtained at frequency values between 2 and 4 kHz, while HiPIMS processes with values below or above this range resemble the DCMS behavior. Al-O films are deposited using both HiPIMS and DCMS. Analysis of the film properties shows that elimination/suppression of the hysteresis in HiPIMS facilitates the growth of stoichiometric and transparent Al(2)O(3) at relatively high deposition rates over a wider range of experimental conditions as compared to DCMS.

  • 4.
    Alami, Jones
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Jon M.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lattemann, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wallin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Böhlmark, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phase tailoring of Ta thin films by highly ionized pulsed magnetron sputtering2007In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 7-8, p. 3434-3438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ta thin films were grown on Si substrates at different inclination angles with respect to the sputter source using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), an ionized physical vapor deposition technique. The ionization allowed for better control of the energy and directionality of the sputtered species, and consequently for improved properties of the deposited films. Depositions were made on Si substrates with the native oxide intact. The structure of the as deposited films was investigated using X-ray diffraction, while a four-point probe setup was used to measure the resistivity. A substrate bias process-window for growth of bcc-Ta was observed. However, the process-window position changed with changing inclination angles of the substrate. The formation of this low-resistivity bcc-phase could be understood in light of the high ion flux from the HIPIMS discharge.

  • 5.
    Alami, Jones
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Emmerlich, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wilhelmsson, O.
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jansson, U.
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    High-power impulse magnetron sputtering of Ti-Si-C thin films from a Ti3SiC2 compound target2006In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 4, p. 1731-1736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have deposited Ti-Si-C thin films using high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) from a Ti3SiC2 compound target. The as-deposited films were composite materials with TiC as the main crystalline constituent. X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that they also contained amorphous SiC, and for films deposited on inclined substrates, crystalline Ti5Si3Cx. The film morphology was dense and flat, while films deposited with dc magnetron sputtering under comparable conditions were rough and porous. Due to the high degree of ionization of the sputtered species obtained in HIPIMS, it is possible to control the film composition, in particular the C content, by tuning the substrate inclination angle, the Ar process pressure, and the bias voltage.

  • 6.
    Almer, J
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Håkansson, G
    Bodycote Värmebehandling AB Linköping.
    Microstructure, stress and mechanical properties of arc-evaporated Cr-C-N coatings2001In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 385, no 1-2, p. 190-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationships between coating microstructure and properties in the Cr-C-N system have been investigated as a function of composition and post-deposition annealing. Coatings of varying compositions were grown using arc-evaporation, by varying the reactive gas flow ratio fR = f(C2H4)/f(N2) from 0 to 0.2, and were found to consist primarily of the cubic d-Cr(C,N) phase. Changes in both the unstressed lattice parameter, ao, and X-ray diffraction background intensity indicate that both the carbon concentration within the d-phase and amorphous/crystalline content increases with fR. Increasing fR also decreases the magnitude of the compressive biaxial residual stress, from approximately 6 to 1 GPa, while increasing both the inhomogeneous stress and thermal stability. The elastic modulus and hardness of as-deposited coatings were determined from nanoindentation to be 320 and 23 GPa, respectively, for moderate carbon concentrations (fR=0.05). Concurrent variations in microstructure and hardness with post-deposition annealing indicate that the as-deposited hardness is significantly enhanced by the microstructure, primarily by lattice defects and related stresses (microstresses) rather than average stresses (macrostresses).

  • 7.
    Anders, Andre
    et al.
    University of California Berkeley.
    Lim, Sunnie H. N.
    University of California Berkeley.
    Man Yu, Kin
    University of California Berkeley.
    Andersson, Joakim
    University of California Berkeley.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    McFarland, Mike
    Acree Technology Inc.
    Brown, Jeff
    Acree Technology Inc.
    High quality ZnO:Al transparent conducting oxide films synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition2010In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 518, no 12, p. 3313-3319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, ZnO:Al or AZO, is a well-known n-type transparent conducting oxide with great potential in a number of applications currently dominated by indium tin oxide. In this study, the optical and electrical properties of AZO thin films deposited on glass and silicon by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition are systematically studied. In contrast to magnetron sputtering, this technique does not produce energetic negative ions, and therefore ion damage can be minimized. The quality of the AZO films strongly depends on growth temperature while only marginal improvements are obtained with post-deposition annealing. The best films, grown at a temperature of about 200 degrees C, have resistivities in the low to mid 10(-4) Omega cm range with a transmittance better than 85% in the visible part of the spectrum. It is remarkable that relatively good films of small thickness (60 nm) can be fabricated using this method.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Jon Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wallin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kreissig, U.
    Institute for Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, PF 510119, D-01314 Dresden, Germany.
    Münger, E. Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phase control of Al2O3 thin films grown at low temperatures2006In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 513, no 1-2, p. 57-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-temperature growth (500 °C) of α-Al2O3 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering was achieved for the first time. The films were grown onto Cr2O3 nucleation layers and the effects of the total and O2 partial pressures were investigated. At 0.33 Pa total pressure and ≥ 16 mPa O2 partial pressure α-Al2O3 films formed, while at lower O2 pressure or higher total pressure (0.67 Pa), only γ phase was detected in the films (which were all stoichiometric). Based on these results we suggest that α phase formation was promoted by a high energetic bombardment of the growth surface. This implies that the phase content of Al2O3 films can be controlled by controlling the energy of the depositing species. The effect of residual H2O (10− 4 Pa) on the films was also studied, showing no change in phase content and no incorporated H (< 0.1%). Overall, these results are of fundamental importance in the further development of low-temperature Al2O3 growth processes.

  • 9. Aouadi, S
    et al.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stuber, M.
    Veprek, S.
    Franz, R.
    ICMCTF 2014 : Preface2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 572, p. 1-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 41st International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings andThin Films (ICMCTF), sponsored by the Advanced Surface EngineeringDivision (ASED) of the American Vacuum Society (AVS), was heldfrom April 28 to May 2, 2014 in San Diego, California, USA.The week's technical program consisted of 37 technical sessions,which were organized into 13 symposia. The conference opened witha Plenary Lecture by Prof. Sybrand van der Zwaag, Materials Scienceand Engineering at the faculty of Aerospace Engineering at the TUDelft, The Netherlands, on “Self-healing Materials: an Alternative Approachto Create More Durable/Reliable Materials and Products”. TheExhibition Keynote Lecture was presented by Prof. Timothy P. Weihs,Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Johns HopkinsUniversity, Baltimore, MD, USA, on “Driving Commercial Applicationsand Exploring Scientific Questions with Reactive Multilayer Foils”.During the conference week, a well subscribed poster session wasattended by a large and appreciative attendee audience. An expansivelarge two-day interactive industrial exhibition, with more than 50booths,was held inwhich companies displayed theirmost recent developmentsin vacuumscience and plasma-based deposition technologies.In addition to the technical symposia sessions, there were threefocused topical sessions, and six specialized short courses offered.Professor Jindrich Musil from the faculty of Applied Sciences atthe University of Bohemia, Plzeň, Czech Republic, was the recipientof the 2014 ASED R.F. Bunshah Annual Award; he presented the HonoraryLecture, “Advanced Hard Nanocomposite Coatings with UniqueProperties”. The award recognizes and honors Prof. Musil's seminalcontributions to the development of advanced nanocomposite coatingswith enhanced hardness, oxidation resistance, toughness, and crackresistance.The ASED Annual ICMCTF Graduate Student Awards werepresented to Shiyu Liu (Gold Medal), University of Cambridge, UK;Samantha K. Lawrence (Silver Medal), Purdue University, WestLafayette, IN, USA; and Trevor Hardcastle (Bronze Medal), Universityof Leeds, UK.The electronic submission and handling of manuscripts via theElsevier Editorial System (EES), including the selection of reviewersand evaluation ofmanuscripts,were identical to the procedures appliedto manuscripts submitted as regular contributions for publication ininternational scientific journals. Following the tradition practiced since1987, the accepted manuscripts are published in the archival journalsSurface and Coatings Technology and Thin Solid Films. ICMCTF 2014proceedings are open-access to the participants for one year via theElsevier journals' web sites.The organization of this conference and the preparation of proceedingsvolumes would have been impossible without the tremendouseffort and dedication of many individuals, including the General Chair,Yip-Wah Chung, Northwestern University, USA, and the ProgramChair, Claus Rebholz, the University of Cyprus, the team of symposiaand session chairs that made possible the realization of an exciting technicalprogram. We especially thank all the authors and presenters fortheir contributions; we also thank the hundreds of reviewers for theirtimely submission of high quality reports. To our sponsors,we acknowledge,appreciate, and thank these companies for their most generousand continuing support.The 42nd International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings andThin Films (ICMCTF 2015) will be held in San Diego, California, April20–24, 2015, with Claus Rebholz, University of Cyprus, as the GeneralChair and Suneel Kodambaka, the University of California at Los Angeles, as the Program Chair.

  • 10.
    Aouadi, Samir
    et al.
    University of North Texas, TX 76203 USA.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Figueroa, Carlos A.
    University of Caxias do Sul, Brazil.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Muratore, Christopher
    University of Dayton, OH 45469 USA.
    Stueber, Michael
    Karlsruhe Institute Technology, Germany.
    ICMCTF 2017-Preface2017In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 644Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 11.
    Arias, A.C.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Univ. Cambridge, Cavendish Lab., M., Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Roman, L.S.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Toniolo, R.
    Departamento de Física, Univ. Fed. Do Parana, C.P., Curitiba, Brazil.
    Meruvia, M.S.
    Departamento de Física, Univ. Fed. Do Parana, C.P., Curitiba, Brazil.
    Hummelgen, I.A.
    Hümmelgen, I.A., Departamento de Física, Univ. Fed. Do Parana, C.P., Curitiba, Brazil.
    Use of tin oxide thin films as a transparent electrode in PPV based light-emitting diodes2000In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 371, no 1, p. 201-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tin oxide (TO) thin films, nominally undoped, have been used as electrodes in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) based organic electroluminescent devices. The evolution of the crystallinity and the electrical resistance of TO films submitted to the PPV thermal conversion conditions, have been investigated. It has been found that the electrical resistance is decreased whereas the crystallinity of the film is increased. It is shown in this work, that the photoluminescence of PPV converted on top of TO substrates is not as quenched as it is when converted on top of indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrates. The quantum efficiency of light-emitting diode is 0.07% at 17 V forward bias. It is also shown that the work function of TO films is very stable to different cleaning procedures, in contrast with previous results obtained for ITO films.

  • 12.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Ellipsometry on thin organic layers of biological interest: Characterization and applications2000In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 377-378, p. 48-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thickness resolution and in situ advantage of ellipsometry make this optical technique particularly suitable for studies of thin organic layers of biological interest. Early ellipsometric studies in this area mainly provided thickness quantification, often expressed in terms of surface mass. However, today it is possible to perform monolayer spectroscopy, e.g. of a protein layer at a solid/liquid interface, and also to resolve details in the kinetics of layer formation. Furthermore, complicated microstructures, like porous silicon layers, can be modeled and protein adsorption can be monitored in such layers providing information about pore filling and penetration depths of protein molecules of different size and type. Quantification of adsorption and microstructural parameters of thin organic layers on planar surfaces and in porous layers is of high interest, especially in areas like biomaterials and surface-based biointeraction. Furthermore, by combining ellipsometric readout and biospecificity, possibilities to develop biosensor concepts are emerging. In this report we review the use of ellipsometry in various forms for studies of organic layers with special emphasis on biologically-related issues including in situ monitoring of protein adsorption on planar surfaces and in porous layers, protein monolayer spectroscopy and ellipsometric imaging for determination of thickness distributions. Included is also a discussion about recent developments of biosensor systems and possibilities for in situ monitoring of engineering of multilayer systems based on macromolecules.

  • 13.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comparison and analysis of Mueller-matrix spectra from exoskeletons of blue, green and red Cetonia aurata2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 571, p. 739-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exoskeleton, also called the cuticle, of specimens of the scarab beetle Cetonia aurata is a narrow-band reflector which exhibits metallic shine. Most specimens of C. aurata have a reflectance maximum in the green part of the spectrum but variations from blue–green to red–green are also found. A few specimens are also more distinct blue or red. Furthermore, the reflected light is highly polarized and at near-normal incidence near-circular left-handed polarization is observed. The polarization and color phenomena are caused by a nanostructure in the cuticle. This nanostructure can be modeled as a multilayered twisted biaxial layer from which reflection properties can be calculated. Specifically we calculate the cuticle Mueller matrix which then is fitted to Mueller matrices determined by dual-rotating compensator ellipsometry in the spectral range 400–800 nm at multiple angles of incidence. This non-linear regression analysis provides structural parameters like pitch of the chiral structure as well as layer refractive index data for the different layers in the cuticle. The objective here is to compare spectra measured on C. aurata with different colors and develop a generic structural model. Generally the degree of polarization is large in the spectral region corresponding to the color of the cuticle which for the blue specimen is 400–600 nm whereas for the red specimen it is 530–730 nm. In these spectral ranges, the Mueller-matrix element m41 is non-zero and negative, in particular for small angles of incidence, implicating that the reflected light becomes near-circularly polarizedwith an ellipticity angle in the range 20°–45°.

  • 14.
    Bantikassegn, W.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dannetun, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Salaneck, William R.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Absence of Schottky barrier formation in junctions of Al and polypyrrole-polyelectrolyte polymer complexes1993In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 224, no 2, p. 232-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of conducting polypyrrole doped with large polymeric anions of polystyrene-sulphonate are electrochemically prepared to study the metal/polymer junctions. Aluminium and gold contacts are vacuum deposited to form metal/polymer/gold sandwich structures for current-voltage characterization. Photoelectron spectroscopy, using UV and X-ray photons, is carried out to investigate the possible causes of current limitation in the Al/PPy(PSS) junction.

  • 15.
    Bastuck, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Saarland, Germany.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huotari, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Sauerwald, T.
    University of Saarland, Germany.
    Lappalainen, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Schuetze, A.
    University of Saarland, Germany.
    Exploring the selectivity of WO3 with iridium catalyst in an ethanol/naphthalene mixture using multivariate statistics2016In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 618, p. 263-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature cycled operation and multivariate statistics have been used to compare the selectivity of two gate (i.e. sensitive) materials for gas-sensitive, silicon carbide based field effect transistors towards naphthalene and ethanol in different mixtures of the two substances. Both gates have a silicon dioxide (SiO2) insulation layer and a porous iridium (Ir) electrode. One of it has also a dense tungsten trioxide (WO3) interlayer between Ir and SiO2. Both static and transient characteristics play an important role and can contribute to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the gas sensor. The Ir/SiO2 is strongly influenced by changes in ethanol concentration, and is, thus, able to quantify ethanol in a range between 0 and 5 ppm with a precision of 500 ppb, independently of the naphthalene concentrations applied in this investigation. On the other hand, this sensitivity to ethanol reduces its selectivity towards naphthalene, whereas Ir/WO3/SiO2 shows an almost binary response to ethanol. Hence, the latter has a better selectivity towards naphthalene and can quantify legally relevant concentrations down to 5 ppb with a precision of 2.5 ppb, independently of a changing ethanol background between 0 and 5 ppm. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Furland, Andrej
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Czigany, Zs.
    Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary.
    Neidhardt, Jörg
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of amorphous carbon and amorphous,graphitic and fullerene-like carbon nitride thin films2009In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 517, no 24, p. 6652-6658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nitride (CNx) and amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films are deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering onto silicon (001) wafers under controlled conditions to achieve amorphous, graphitic and fullerene-like microstructures. As-deposited films are analyzed by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in the UV–VIS–NIR and IR spectral ranges in order to get further insight into the bonding structure of the material. Additional characterization is performed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Between eight and eleven resonances are observed and modeled in the ellipsometrically determined optical spectra of the films. The largest or the second largest resonance for all films is a feature associated with C–N or C–C modes. This feature is generally associated with sp3 C–N or sp3 C–C bonds, which for the nitrogen-containing films instead should be identified as a three-fold or two-fold sp2 hybridization of N, either substituted in a graphite site or in a pyridine-like configuration, respectively. The π→πlow asterisk electronic transition associated with sp2 C bonds in carbon films and with sp2 N bonds (as N bonded in pyridine-like manner) in CNx films is also present, but not as strong. Another feature present in all CNx films is a resonance associated with nitrile often observed in carbon nitrides. Additional resonances are identified and discussed and moreover, several new, unidentified resonances are observed in the ellipsometric spectra.

  • 17.
    Bernard, M
    et al.
    CNRS, LEPES, F-38042 Grenoble 9, France Fac Sci & Tech St Jerome, MATOP, CNRS, F-13397 Marseille, France Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Deneuville, A
    CNRS, LEPES, F-38042 Grenoble 9, France Fac Sci & Tech St Jerome, MATOP, CNRS, F-13397 Marseille, France Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Thomas, O
    CNRS, LEPES, F-38042 Grenoble 9, France Fac Sci & Tech St Jerome, MATOP, CNRS, F-13397 Marseille, France Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Gergaud, P
    CNRS, LEPES, F-38042 Grenoble 9, France Fac Sci & Tech St Jerome, MATOP, CNRS, F-13397 Marseille, France Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sandstrom, P
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Raman spectra of TiN/AlN superlattices2000In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 380, no 1-2, p. 252-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TiN (4.5 nm)/AIN (3, 6, 22 nm) superlattices deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on MgO(001) at a temperature of 850 degreesC exhibit Raman signals. They indicate N and Ti vacancies (as in thick TiN) in TiN1-x layers (x = 3 +/- 2%). x is higher for the sample with 3-nm thick AIN layers, which is ascribed to N diffusion from AIN (standing close to the TiN interfaces) to TiN. In comparison to Raman peaks of thick ALN, there are split signals of wurzite ALN phase, and a signal from another phase, which might be defective rocksalt AIN standing close to the TiN interfaces. The Raman signals clearly show interactions between ALN and TiN layers. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Birch, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Joelsson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Single crystal CrN/ScN superlattice soft X-ray mirrors: epitaxial growth, structure, and properties2006In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 514, no 1-2, p. 10-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single crystal CrN/ScN superlattice films with modulation periods of 1.64 nm were grown on MgO(001) substrates. By utilizing a magnetically enhanced plasma in the vicinity of the substrate and a negative substrate bias, ion/metal nitride flux ratios of 45 and 144 were achieved during deposition of CrN and ScN, respectively. The effects of ion energies in the range [16–58 eV] and substrate temperatures in the range [535–853 °C] on the composition, interface width, crystal quality, and microstructure evolution were investigated using elastic recoil detection analysis, hard X-ray reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Minimal interface widths of 0.2 nm = 1/2 nitride unit cell were achieved at a growth temperature of 735 °C and ion energies of 24 and 28 eV for CrN and ScN, respectively. Under these conditions, also an optimum in the crystal quality was observed for near stoichiometric composition of CrN and ScN. TEM confirmed a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship for the system with CrN(001)ScN(001)MgO(001) and CrN[100]ScN[100]MgO[100]. Also, the layers were coherently strained to each other with no misfit dislocations, threading dislocations, surface cusps, voids or gas bubbles present. Higher ion energies or lower deposition temperatures gave over-stoichiometric films with poor superlattice modulation while higher growth temperatures yielded a decreased crystal quality, due to loss of N. As-deposited superlattices with only 61 periods exhibited an absolute soft X-ray reflectance of 6.95% at an energy of 398.8 eV (Sc 2p-absorption edge) which is comparable to the performance of Cr/Sc. The compositional modulation and phase structure was stable during extended annealing at 850 °C, which is the highest thermal stability for an X-ray multilayer mirror. It is concluded that the ScN layers serve as effective diffusion barriers to hinder decomposition of the CrN layers and stabilize the pseudomorphic superlattice structure. Nanoindentation experiments showed that the hardness of the CrN/ScN superlattice films was 19 GPa.

  • 19.
    Broitman, E
    et al.
    Carnegie Mellon University.
    Kostov Gueorguiev, Gueorgui
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Furlan, Andrej
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son, Tien Nguyen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gellman, A J
    Carnegie Mellon University.
    Stafström, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman , Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Water adsorption on fullerene-like carbon nitride overcoats2008In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 517, no 3, p. 1106-1110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humidity influences the tribological performance of the head-disk interface in magnetic data storage devices. In this work we compare the uptake of water of amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) films, widely used as protective overcoats in computer disk drive systems, with fullerene-like carbon nitride (FL-CNx) and amorphous carbon (a-C) films. Films with thickness in the range 10-300 run were deposited on quartz crystal substrates by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. A quartz crystal microbalance placed in a vacuum chamber was used to measure the water adsorption. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to correlate water adsorption with film microstructure and surface defects (dangling bonds). Measurements indicate that the amount of adsorbed water is highest for the pure a-C films and that the FL-CNx films adsorbed less than a-CNx. EPR data correlate the lower water adsorption on FL-CNx films with a possible lack of dangling bonds on the film surface. To provide additional insight into the atomic structure of defects in the FL-CNx, a-CNx and a-C compounds, we performed first-principles calculations within the framework of Density Functional Theory. Emphasis was put on the energy cost for formation of vacancy defects and dangling bonds in relaxed systems. Cohesive energy comparison reveals that the energy cost formation for dangling bonds in different configurations is considerably higher in FL-CNx than for the amorphous films. These simulations thus confirm the experimental results showing that dangling bonds are much less likely in FL-CNx than in a-CNx and a-C films.

  • 20.
    Broitman, E.
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
    Pushkarev, V. V.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
    Gellman, A. J.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
    Neidhardt, Jörg
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Furlan, Andrej
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Water adsorption on lubricated fullerene-like CNx films2006In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 3, p. 979-983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humidity influences the tribological performance of the head–disk interface in magnetic data storage devices. In this work we compare the uptake of water of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-CHy) and carbon nitride (a-CNx) films, widely used as protective overcoats in computer disk drive systems, with two types of amorphous non-hydrogenated carbon (a-C and a-Csp2) films, and fullerene-like carbon nitride (FL-CNx) films. Carbon films were deposited on quartz crystal substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering in Ar/N2 discharges. After deposition, some of the films were coated with a 2-nm-thick layer of Z-tetraol, a lubricant used in hard disk devices. A quartz crystal microbalance placed in a vacuum chamber was used to measure the adsorption of water at room temperature and at pressures of water corresponding to relative humidities in the range RH = 0 to 90%. Water adsorption and desorption is fast, indicating that equilibrium with ambient humidity is reached on time scales of minutes, much faster than the time scales for fluctuations in ambient humidity. The amount of water adsorbed on the non-lubricated amorphous carbon films is significantly higher than that on the fullerene-like films. The presence of the lubricant influences water adsorption but its impact differs on different carbon films.

  • 21.
    Böhlmark, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lattemann, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gudmundsson, J.T.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; and Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Ehiasarian, A.P.
    Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.
    Aranda Gonzalvo, Y.
    Hiden Analytical Ltd., Warrington, UK.
    Brenning, N.
    Division of Plasma Physics, Alfvén Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The ion energy distributions and ion flux composition from a high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge2006In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 4, p. 1522-1526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy distribution of sputtered and ionized metal atoms as well as ions from the sputtering gas is reported for a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge. High power pulses were applied to a conventional planar circular magnetron Ti target. The peak power on the target surface was 1-2 kW/cm2 with a duty factor of about 0.5 %. Time resolved, and time averaged ion energy distributions were recorded with an energy resolving quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion energy distributions recorded for the HIPIMS discharge are broader with maximum detected energy of 100 eV and contain a larger fraction of highly energetic ions (about 50 % with Ei > 20 eV) as compared to a conventional direct current magnetron sputtering discharge. The composition of the ion flux was also determined, and reveals a high metal fraction. During the most intense moment of the discharge, the ionic flux consisted of approximately 50 % Ti1+, 24 % Ti2+, 23 % Ar1+, and 3 % Ar2+ ions.

  • 22.
    Böhlmark, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östbye, M.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lattemann, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ljungcrantz, H.
    Impact Coatings AB, Sweden.
    Rosell, T.
    Impact Coatings AB, Sweden.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Guiding the deposition flux in an ionized magnetron discharge2006In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 4, p. 1928-1931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of the ability to control the deposition flux in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge using an external magnetic field is presented in this article. Pulses with peak power of 1.4 kWcm-2 were applied to a conventional planar magnetron equipped with an Al target. The high power creates a high degree of ionization of the sputtered material, which opens for an opportunity to control of the energy and direction of the deposition species. An external magnetic field was created with a current carrying coil placed in front of the target. To measure the distribution of deposition material samples were placed in an array surrounding the target and the depositions were made with and without the external magnetic field. The distribution is significantly changed when the magnetic field is present. An increase of 80 % in deposition rate is observed for the sample placed in the central position (right in front of the target center) and the deposition rate is strongly decreased on samples placed to the side of the target. The measurements were also performed on a conventional direct current magnetron discharge, but no major effect of the magnetic field was observed in that case.

  • 23.
    Campoy-Quiles, M.
    et al.
    ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Müller, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Garriga, M.
    ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Wang, E.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alonso, M. I.
    ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    On the complex refractive index of polymer:fullerene photovoltaic blends2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 571, p. 371-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a detailed investigation of the refractive index of polymer:fullerene blends for photovoltaic applications. The donor polymers poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-5,5-(4,7-di-2-thienyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (APFO3), poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1), and poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-5,5-(5,10-di-2-thienyl-2,3,7,8-tetraphenyl-pyrazino[2,3-g] quinoxaline)] (APFO-Green9) were blended with either [6,6]-phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or [6,6]-phenyl-C-71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). We measured variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry for three systems, namely APFO3:PCBM, TQ1:PC71BM and APFO-Green9:PC71BM, as a function of composition and analyze the data employing a number of models. We found that Bruggeman effective medium approximations (EMA) are not precise for the description of the optical properties of these blends. This is due to a number of reasons. First, we find that there are energy shifts associated to changes in conjugation length that cannot be accounted for using EMA. Second, blending results in a strong reduction of anisotropy. Finally, our data suggest that there is some degree of vertical segregation between components. Therefore, our results support the idea that the optical properties of polymer:fullerene mixtures should be treated as alloys rather than non-interacting blends.

  • 24.
    Carlberg, M H
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Münger, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Defects and energy accommodation in epitaxial sputter deposited Mo/W superlattices studied by molecular dynamics1998In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 317, no 1-2, p. 10-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report here the results of a Molecular Dynamics-Embedded Atom Method-investigation of the pathways generating point defects in Mo/W superlattices during bombardment with energetic (50 to 200 eV) Ar and Kr neutrals. Energy accommodation coefficients are computed for the different structures and are found to be roughly independent of the incident energy, and substantially higher for structures with Mo on top. Several different types of defects are shown, and two general processes generating those are discussed. Trapping of the incoming noble gas was observed for the case of Kr impinging on structures with Mo as the top monolayer; this is interpreted as an effect of the small mass difference between the Mo and the Kr atoms. An increase in atomic mass of the gas translates into a more disparate behaviour of the studied structures. The energy exchange with the surface layer dictates the behaviour of the superlattice; this is accentuated when bombarding with the heavier gas, Kr. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science S.A.

  • 25. Chen, LC
    et al.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Roman, LS
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Appl Phys Lab, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Organ Chem & Polymer Technol, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, M
    Andersson, M
    Self organised polymer photodiodes for extended spectral coverage2000In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 363, no 1-2, p. 286-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the use of self organised blends of conjugated polymers for improving the spectral coverage of the solar spectrum, and in this way to enhance solar energy conversion efficiency in photodiodes and solar cells. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

  • 26.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials.
    Applications of optically detected magnetic resonance in semiconductor layered structures2000In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 364, no 1, p. 45-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A short introduction is given on the physics, method, capabilities and limitations of the optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique. The advantages of the optical detection method in terms of sensitivity and of its direct probe in recombination processes, as compared with the traditional spin resonance technique, will be demonstrated. The importance of these advantages for the ODMR applications in semiconductor layered and quantum structures will be emphasized. The ability of the ODMR technique to provide important information on physical properties of semiconductor layered structures will be highlighted. These include chemical identification, electronic and geometric structure of both radiative and non-radiative defects, carrier recombination mechanism, electronic excitation, etc. Representative cases from CVD-SiC and MBE-Si/SiGe based layered structures will be discussed as examples. The most recent progress, on-going efforts and prospects in achieving unprecedentedly high spectral, time and spatial resolution of the ODMR technique will also be outlined.

  • 27.
    Cheng, M.H.
    et al.
    National Nano Device Labs, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    National Nano Device Labs, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
    Luo, G.L.
    National Nano Device Labs, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
    Huang, S.C.
    National Nano Device Labs, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
    Chang, J.J.
    National Chiao Tung University.
    Lee, C.Y.
    National Chiao Tung University.
    Growth and characterization of Ge nanostructures selectively grown on patterned Si2008In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 517, no 1, p. 57-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By utilizing different distribution of strain fields around the edges of oxide, which are dominated by a series of sizes of oxide-patterned windows, long-range ordered self-assembly Ge nanostructures, such as nano-rings, nano-disks and nano-dots, were selectively grown by ultra high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV-CVD) on Si (001) substrates. High-resolution double-crystal symmetrical omega/2 theta scans and two-dimensional reciprocal space mapping (2D-RSM) technologies employing the triple axis X-ray diffractometry have been used to evaluate the quality and strain status of as-deposited as well as in-situ annealed Ge nanostructures. Furthermore, we also compare the quality and strain status of Ge epilayers grown on planar unpatterned Si substrates. It was found that the quality of all Ge epitaxial structures is improved after in-situ annealing process and the quality of Ge nano-disk structures is better than that of Ge epilayers; on planar unpatterned Si substrates, because oxide sidewalls are effective dislocation sinks. We also noted that the degree of relaxation for as-deposited Ge epilayers on planar unpatterned Si substrates is less than that for as-deposited Ge nano-disk structures. After in-situ annealing process,all Ge epitaxial structures are almost at full relaxation whatever Ge epitaxial structures grew on patterned or unpatterned Si substrates.

  • 28.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Münger, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greene, J.E.
    Materials Science Department, Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, 104 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Sundgren, J.-E.
    Cluster diffusion and surface morphological transitions on Pt (111) via reptation and concerted motion2000In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 370, no 1, p. 179-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded-atom molecular dynamics simulations were used to follow the diffusion dynamics of compact Pt clusters with up to 19 atoms on Pt (111) surfaces. The results reveal a novel cluster diffusion mechanism, involving successive shear translations of adjacent subcluster regions, which give rise to reptation, a snake-like gliding motion. We show that for compact clusters with 4 to 6 atoms, this mechanism competes energetically with that of island diffusion through concerted motion. However, as the cluster size increases from > 7 to ? 20 atoms, reptation becomes the energetically favored diffusion mechanism. The concerted shear motion of subcluster regions, leading to reptation, is also shown to play a significant role in dendritic-to-compact morphological transitions of Pt island.

  • 29.
    Cobet, C.
    et al.
    Technische Universität Berlin, Inst. Festkorperphysik, H., Berlin, Germany.
    Wilmers, K.
    Technische Universität Berlin, Inst. Festkorperphysik, H., Berlin, Germany, Max-Planck-Inst. Festkorperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Wethkamp, T.
    Technische Universität Berlin, Inst. Festkorperphysik, H., Berlin, Germany, Max-Planck-Inst. Festkorperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Edwards, N.V.
    Esser, N.
    Technische Universität Berlin, Inst. Festkorperphysik, H., Berlin, Germany.
    Richter, W.
    Technische Universität Berlin, Inst. Festkorperphysik, H., Berlin, Germany.
    Optical properties of SiC investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry from 3.5 to 10 eV2000In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 364, no 1, p. 111-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present the dielectric function of hexagonal 4H- and 6H-SiC polytypes as well as the cubic 3C-SiC polytype in the energy range from 3.5 to 10 eV measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. We operated with synchrotron radiation at the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY I. Additionally the samples were investigated by atomic force microscopy to correct the measured dielectric function for the influence of surface roughness. The experimental results are compared to theoretical calculations.

  • 30.
    Dannetun, Per
    et al.
    Groupe de Physique des Solides, Unité associée au CNRS 040017, Universités Paris 7 et Paris 6, Tour 23, 2 Place Jussieu, France.
    Schott, M
    Groupe de Physique des Solides, Unité associée au CNRS 040017, Universités Paris 7 et Paris 6, Tour 23, 2 Place Jussieu, France.
    Vilar, M.Rei
    Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Infrarouge et Raman (CNRS), Thiais, France.
    High-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy of thin crystalline highly oriented films of poly(tetrafluoroethylene)1996In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 286, no 1-2, p. 321-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) spectra of highly oriented films of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) are reported. With one exception, all peaks in the spectra correspond to IR active vibrations. They are well resolved, and with a remarkably high intensity, more than two orders of magnitude greater than we have observed on any other polymer in HREELS. The angular distributions of the elastic peak, and of the vibrational peaks are very narrow, which indicates both a well ordered system and a dipolar scattering behaviour. No evidence of amorphous regions in these films is found. A Raman active mode can be observed in off-specular geometry, using an incident electron beam coplanar with the PTFE fibers direction. This corresponds to resonance excitation of a transient negative ion state, with a maximum cross-section at an incident electron kinetic energy of about 4 eV.

  • 31.
    Donchev, V.
    et al.
    Faculty of Physics, Sofia Univ., 5 Blvd. James B., Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Germanova, K.
    Faculty of Physics, Sofia Univ., 5 Blvd. James B., Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Shtinkov, N.
    Faculty of Physics, Sofia Univ., 5 Blvd. James B., Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Vlaev, S.
    Inst. of Gen. and Inorg. Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Photoluminescence study of AlAs/GaAs superlattices containing enlarged wells2000In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 364, no 1, p. 224-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of MBE grown short-period AlAs/GaAs superlattices with one or two enlarged wells (5 and 12 nm) have been measured at 2 K. Sharp PL peaks corresponding to excitonic transitions between the lowest electron and heavy-hole states in the enlarged wells are observed. The excitonic transition energies are calculated by means of an envelope function based model, taking into account the exciton binding energies. The model incorporates a smooth potential at the interfaces, which is represented by a diffusion potential, the diffusion length being a parameter. The calculated and experimentally observed excitonic transition energies agree well if diffusion lengths of 3.5 and 4.5 monolayers are considered in the samples with and without a buffer layer, respectively. These values are consistent with the complicated nature of the growth kinetics and mechanisms of quantum heterostructures. The PL spectra reveal also complicated structures connected with the superlattice. Their qualitative discussion confirms the smooth potential model. Thus, an attempt is made to extend the analysis of complicated AlAs/GaAs heterostructures towards real interfaces, which is essential for advanced device fabrication.

  • 32.
    Edström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sangiovanni, Davide G.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects of atomic ordering on the elastic properties of TiN- and VN-based ternary alloys2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 571, no Part 1, p. 145-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved toughness is one of the central goals in the development of wear-resistant coatings. Previous studies of toughness in transition metal nitride alloys have addressed the effects of chemical composition in these compounds. Herein, we use density functional theory to study the effects of various metal sublattice configurations, ranging from fully ordered to fully disordered, on the mechanical properties of VM2N and TiM2N (M2 = W, Mo) ternary alloys. Results show that all alloys display high incompressibility, indicating strong M-N bonds. Disordered atomic arrangements yield lower values of bulk moduli and C11 elastic constants, as well as higher values of C44 elastic constants, compared to ordered structures. We attribute the low C44 values of ordered structures to the formation of fully-bonding states perpendicular to the applied stress. We find that the ductility of these compounds is primarily an effect of the increased valence electron concentration induced upon alloying.

  • 33.
    Edström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sangiovanni, Davide
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and the Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Greene, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and the Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Ti and N adatom descent pathways to the terrace from atop two-dimensional TiN/TiN(001) islands2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 558, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use classical molecular dynamics and the modified embedded atom method to determine residence times and descent pathways of Ti and N adatoms on square, single-atom-high, TiN islands on TiN(001). Simulations are carried out at 1000 K, which is within the optimal range for TiN(001) epitaxial growth. Results show that the frequency of descent events, and overall adatom residence times, depend strongly on both the TiN(001) diffusion barrier for each species as well as the adatom island-edge location immediately prior to descent. Ti adatoms, with a low diffusion barrier, rapidly move toward the island periphery, via funneling, where they diffuse along upper island edges. The primary descent mechanism for Ti adatoms is via push-out/exchange with Ti island-edge atoms, a process in which the adatom replaces an island edge atom by moving down while pushing the edge atom out onto the terrace to occupy an epitaxial position along the island edge. Double push-out events are also observed for Ti adatoms descending at N corner positions. N adatoms, with a considerably higher diffusion barrier on TiN(001), require much longer times to reach island edges and, consequently, have significantly longer residence times. N adatoms are found to descend onto the terrace by direct hopping over island edges and corner atoms, as well as by concerted push-out/exchange with N atoms adjacent to Ti corners. For both adspecies, we also observe several complex adatom/island interactions, before and after descent onto the terrace, including two instances of Ti islandatom ascent onto the island surface.

  • 34.
    Edström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sangiovanni, Davide
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and the Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Greene, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and the Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The dynamics of TiNx (x = 1 – 3) admolecule interlayer and intralayer transport on TiN/TiN(001) islands2015In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 589, p. 133-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been shown both experimentally and by density functional theory calculations that the primary diffusing species during the epitaxial growth of TiN/TiN(001) are Ti and N adatoms together with TiNx complexes (x = 1, 2, 3), in which the dominant N-containing admolecule species depends upon the incident N/Ti flux ratio. Here, we employ classical molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations to probe the dynamics of TiNx (x = 1–3) admolecules on 8 × 8 atom square, single-atom-high TiN islands on TiN(001), as well as pathways for descent over island edges. The simulations are carried out at 1000 K, a reasonable epitaxial growth temperature. We find that despite their lower mobility on infinite TiN(001) terraces, both TiN and TiN2 admolecules funnel toward descending steps and are incorporated into island edges more rapidly than Ti adatoms. On islands, TiN diffuses primarily via concerted translations, but rotation is the preferred diffusion mechanism on infinite terraces. TiN2 migration is initiated primarily by rotation about one of the N admolecule atoms anchored at an epitaxial site. TiN admolecules descend from islands by direct hopping over edges and by edge exchange reactions, while TiN2 trimers descend exclusively by hopping. In contrast, TiN3 admolecules are essentially stationary and serve as initiators for local island growth. Ti adatoms are the fastest diffusing species on infinite TiN(001) terraces, but on small TiN/TiN(001) islands, TiN dimers provide more efficient mass transport. The overall results reveal the effect of the N/Ti precursor flux ratio on TiN(001) surface morphological evolution and growth modes.

  • 35. Edwards, N.V.
    et al.
    Bremser, M.D.
    North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, United States.
    Batchelor, A.D.
    Analytical Instrumentation Facility, Box 7531, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, United States.
    Buyanova, Irina A.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials.
    Madsen, L.D.
    Yoo, S.D.
    North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, United States.
    Wethkamp, T.
    Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623, Berlin, Germany.
    Wilmers, K.
    Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623, Berlin, Germany.
    Cobet, C.
    Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623, Berlin, Germany.
    Esser, N.
    Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623, Berlin, Germany.
    Davis, R.F.
    North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, United States.
    Aspnes, D.E.
    North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, United States.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Optical characterization of wide bandgap semiconductors2000In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 364, no 1, p. 98-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our work primarily concerns the characterization of wide-gap III-V nitride semiconductors, nondestructively and at variable temperature, with spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and reflectometry in the spectral range from 1.5 to 6 eV. In the case of GaN, there are three main concerns associated with such data: (a) the quantification of the dispersion of the index of refraction with energy, (b) the removal of surface overlayers in real-time, and (c) the determination of the variation of valence bands with biaxial stress and the quantification of residual stress in thin films. The SE and reflectance capabilities provide (1) broadband spectra from 1.5 to 6 eV, which yield information about (a) below the bandgap and (b) above it, and (2) high resolution spectra (less than 1 meV at 3.4 eV) in the vicinity of the gap (3.3-3.6 eV), which enables (c). Here we will discuss issues concerning the relation of (c) to GaN material and growth parameters, though similar data for other wide bandgap materials will be discussed where relevant. Specifically, optimal heterostructure design for potential valence band engineering applications will be discussed in the context of trends in residual stress as a function of film thickness, growth temperature and substrate orientation for GaN/AlN/6H-SiC heterostructures. Standard heterostructures are mostly compressive for samples less than about 0.7 µm thick, are tensile up to about 2 µm and then abruptly become less tensile with stress values near 1 kbar thereafter. Additionally, these trends can be circumvented for moderately thick (approximately 2 µm) GaN layers (normally>2 kbar, tensile) by the introduction of a `buried interface' approach, namely, a strain mediating layer (SML) above the standard high-temperature AlN buffer layer designed to yield a range of compressive stresses from 0 to 2 kbar. The strain characteristics but also the growth rates of subsequently deposited nitride layers can be modulated by changing the growth parameters of the SML. This is achieved by in situ techniques during crystal growth without degrading the optical and structural properties of the deposited layer, as confirmed by XRD, SEM, PL, and AFM data taken on the overlying GaN layers. These results are interpreted in terms of coefficient of thermal expansion data for the layers and data concerning the planarization of GaN layers and growth behavior in non-(0001) directions.

  • 36.
    Ehiasarian, A. P.
    et al.
    Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.
    Hovsepian, P. Eh.
    Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties of chromium nitride-based coatings deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and by the combined steered cathodic arc/unbalanced magnetron technique2004In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 457, no 2, p. 270-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sliding, abrasive, and impact wear tests were performed on chromium nitride (CrN)-based coatings deposited on mirror-polished M2 high speed steel substrates by the novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) utilising high peak cathode powers densities of 3000 W cm−2. The coatings were compared to single layer CrN and multilayer superlattice CrN/NbN coatings deposited by the arc bond sputtering (ABS) technique designed to improve the coating substrate adhesion by a combined steered cathodic arc/unbalanced magnetron (UBM) sputtering process. The substrates were metal ion etched using non-reactive HIPIMS or steered cathodic arc at a substrate bias voltage of −1200 V. Subsequently a 2- to 3-μm thick CrN or CrN/NbN coating was deposited by reactive HIPIMS or UBM. No bias was used during the HIPIMS deposition, while the bias during UBM growth was in the range 75–100 V. The ion saturation current measured by a flat electrostatic probe reached values of 50 mA cm−2 peak for HIPIMS and 1 mA cm−2 continuous during UBM deposition. The microstructure of the HIPIMS coatings observed by transmission electron microscopy was fully dense in contrast to the voided columnar structure observed in conventional UBM sputtered CrN and CrN/NbN. The sliding wear coefficients of the HIPIMS CrN films of 2.3×10−16 m3 N−1 m−1 were lower by a factor of 4 and the roughness of the wear track was significantly reduced compared to the UBM-deposited CrN. The abrasive wear coefficient of the HIPIMS coating was 2.2×10−13 m3 N−1 m−1 representing an improvement by a factor of 3 over UBM deposited CrN and a wear resistance comparable to that of the superlattice CrN/NbN. The adhesion of the HIPIMS deposited CrN was comparable to state-of-the-art ABS technology.

  • 37.
    Eklund, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beckers, Manfred
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The M(n+1)AX(n) phases: Materials science and thin-film processing2010In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 518, no 8, p. 1851-1878Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a Critical review of the M(n + 1)AX(n) phases ("MAX phases", where n = 1, 2, or 3) from a materials science perspective. MAX phases are a class of hexagonal-structure ternary carbides and nitrides ("X") of a transition metal ("M") and an A-group element. The most well known are Ti2AlC, Ti3SiC2, and Ti4AlN3. There are similar to 60 MAX phases with at least 9 discovered in the last five years alone. What makes the MAX phases fascinating and potentially useful is their remarkable combination of chemical, physical, electrical, and mechanical properties, which in many ways combine the characteristics of metals and ceramics. For example, MAX phases are typically resistant to oxidation and corrosion, elastically stiff, but at the same time they exhibit high thermal and electrical conductivities and are machinable. These properties stem from an inherently nanolaminated crystal structure, with M1 + nXn slabs intercalated with pure A-element layers. The research on MAX phases has been accelerated by the introduction of thin-film processing methods. Magnetron sputtering and arc deposition have been employed to synthesize single-crystal material by epitaxial growth, which enables studies of fundamental material properties. However, the surface-initiated decomposition of M(n + 1)AX(n) thin films into MX compounds at temperatures of 1000-1100 degrees C is much lower than the decomposition temperatures typically reported for the corresponding bulk material. We also review the prospects for low-temperature synthesis, which is essential for deposition of MAX phases onto technologically important substrates. While deposition of MAX phases from the archetypical Ti-Si-C and Ti-Al-N systems typically requires synthesis temperatures of similar to 800 degrees C, recent results have demonstrated that V2GeC and Cr2AlC can be deposited at similar to 450 degrees C. Also, thermal spray of Ti2AlC powder has been used to produce thick coatings. We further treat progress in the use of first-principle calculations for predicting hypothetical MAX phases and their properties. Together with advances in processing and materials analysis, this progress has led to recent discoveries of numerous new MAX phases such as Ti4SiC3, Ta4AlC3. and Ti3SnC2. Finally, important future research directions are discussed. These include charting the unknown regions in phase diagrams to discover new equilibrium and metastable phases, as well as research challenges in understanding their physical properties, such as the effects of anisotropy, impurities, and vacancies on the electrical properties, and unexplored properties such as Superconductivity, magnetism, and optics.

  • 38.
    Eklund, Per
    et al.
    Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Sridharan, Madanagurusamy
    Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Sillassen, Michael
    Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Böttiger, Jörgen
    Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
    α-Cr2O3 template-texture effect on α-Al2O3 thin-film growth2008In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 516, no 21, p. 7447-7450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We employ textured α-Cr2O3 thin films as templates for growth of α-Al2O3 by reactive inductively coupled plasma magnetron sputtering. The texture of the template has a strong influence on the nucleation and growth of α-Al2O3. Extended growth of α-Al2O3 at a substrate temperature of 450 °C is obtained using a predominantly [101̄4]-textured α-Cr2O3 template layer, while only limited α-Al2O3 nucleation is seen on a [0001]-textured α-Cr2O3 template.

  • 39.
    Enquist, F.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The fabrication of amorphous SiO2 substrates suitable for transmission electron microscopy studies of ultrathin polycrystalline films1986In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 145, no 1, p. 99-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to produce SiO2 transmission electron microscopy substrates by means of silicon micromachining is described. The substrate consists of an SiO2 window 50–200 nm thick suspended in a silicon frame. It was developed to enable the study of ultrathin porous gate metals grown on the same substrate as in the device studied. The thin film to be studied can be vapour phase deposited directly onto the substrate and then without any further manipulations inserted into the transmission electron microscope.

  • 40.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Schäfers, Franz
    Gullikson, Eric M.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interface engineering of short-period Ni/V multilayer X-ray mirrors2006In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 500, no 1-2, p. 84-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-energy ion-assisted magnetron sputter deposition has been used for the synthesis of highly reflective Ni/V multilayer soft X-ray mirrors. A low ion energy and a high ion-to-metal flux ratio were employed in order to stimulate the adatom mobility while minimizing ion-induced intermixing at the interfaces. An analytic model, based on the binary collision approximation, was used in order to gain insight into low-energy ion-surface interactions as a function of ion energy and ion-to-metal flux ratio. The model predicted a favorable region in the ion energy-flux parameter space where only surface atomic displacements are stimulated during growth of Ni and V for multilayers. For a series of Ni/V multilayer mirrors with multilayer periods about Λ = 1.2 nm, grown with a continuous ion assistance using energies in the range 7-36 eV and with ion-to-metal flux ratios ΦNi = 4.7 and ΦV=20.9, specular and diffuse X-ray scattering analyses revealed that ion energies of ∼27-31 eV produced the best trade-off between reduced interfacial roughness and intermixing. However, it was also concluded that an interface mixing of about ± 1 atomic distance is unavoidable when a continuous flux of assisting ions is used. To overcome this limitation, a sophisticated interface engineering technique was employed, where the first 0.3 nm of each layer was grown with a high-flux low-energy ion assistance and the remaining part was grown with a slightly higher ion energy. This method was demonstrated to largely eliminate the intermixing while maintaining the smoothening effect of ion assistance. Two Ni/V multilayer soft X-ray mirror structures, one with 500 periods designed for near-normal incidence and one 150 periods reflecting polarizer at the Brewster angle, were grown utilizing the interface engineering concept. Both the near-normal incidence reflectivity as well as polarizability were improved by a factor of 2 as compared to previously reported data for an X-ray energy of E = 511 eV. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 41.
    Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemical and Optical Sensor Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Olsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences.
    Erlandsson, Ragnar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemical and Optical Sensor Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekedahl, Lars-Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Morphology changes of thin Pd films grown on SiO2: influence of adsorbates and temperature1999In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 342, no 1-2, p. 297-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under certain conditions morphology changes occur when thin Pd films, grown on SiO2 at room temperature, are subject to elevated temperatures. First holes in the metal are observed, followed by network formation and finally isolation of metal islands. This process is known as agglomeration. The influence of gas exposures on this restructuring process has been studied by following variations in the capacitance of the structure and by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The capacitance measurements show that carbonaceous species have an impeding influence on the rate of agglomeration and may lock the film structure in a thermodynamic non-equilibrium state. By removing these species with oxygen exposure, i.e. by forming volatile CO and CO2, a clean surface is obtained and the agglomeration process can proceed. High oxygen or hydrogen coverages also lower the rate of restructuring, compared to the case of a clean surface. For the clean Pd surface, an apparent activation energy of 0.64 eV is found for the restructuring process.

  • 42.
    Fernandez Del Rio, Lía
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polarizing properties and structural characteristics of the cuticle of the scarab Beetle Chrysina gloriosa2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 571, no 3, p. 410-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scarab beetle Chrysina gloriosa is green with gold-colored stripes along its elytras. The properties of light reflected on these areas are investigated using Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry. Both areas reflect light with high degree of left-handed polarization but this effect occurs for specular reflection for the gold-colored areas and for off-specular angles for the green areas. The colors and polarization phenomena originate from reflection of light in the cuticle and a structural analysis is presented to facilitate understanding of the different behaviors of these two areas. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the cross section of beetle cuticles show a multilayered structure. On the gold-colored areas the layers are parallel to the surface whereas on the green-colored areas they form cusp-like structures. Optical microscopy images show a rather flat surface in the gold-colored areas compared to the green-colored areas which display a net of polygonal cells with star-shaped cavities in the center. Each of the polygons corresponds to one of the cusps observed in the SEM images. Atomic force microscopy images of the star-shaped cavities are also provided. The roughness of the surface and the cusp-like structure of the green-colored areas are considered to cause scattering on this area.

  • 43.
    Flink, Axel
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Andersson, J.M.
    Seco Tools AB.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Daniel, R.
    Christian Doppler Laboratory for Advanced Hard Coatings.
    Sjölén, J.
    Seco Tools AB.
    Karlsson, L.
    Seco Tools AB.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Structure and thermal stability of arc evaporated (Ti0.33Al0.67)1 − xSixN thin films2008In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 517, no 2, p. 714-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (Ti0.33Al0.67)1 − xSixN (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.29) thin solid films were deposited onto cemented carbide substrates by arc evaporation and analyzed using analytical electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation, and density functional theory. As-deposited films with x ≤ 0.02 consisted mainly of a metastable c-(Ti,Al)N solid solution for which Si serves as a veritable grain refiner. Additional Si promoted growth of a hexagonal wurtzite (Al,Ti,Si)N solid solution, which dominated at 0.02 < x < 0.17. For x ≥ 0.17, the films were X-ray amorphous. Despite these widely different microstructures, all as-deposited films had nanoindentation hardness in the narrow range of 22–25 GPa. Isothermal annealing of the x = 0.01 alloy film at a temperature of 900 °C, corresponding to that in turning operation, resulted in spinodal decomposition into c-AlN and TiN and precipitation of h-AlN. For x = 0.09 films, annealing between 600 °C and 1000 °C yielded c-TiN precipitation from the h-(Al,Ti,Si)N phase. Furthermore, the x = 0.01 and x = 0.09 films exhibited substantial age hardening at 900 °C, to 34 GPa and 29 GPa due to spinodal decomposition and c-TiN precipitation, respectively. Films with a majority of c-(Ti,Al)N phase worked best in steel turning tests, while films with x > 0.02 developed cracks during such operation. We propose that the cracks are due to tensile strain which is caused by a decrease in molar volume during the phase transformation from hexagonal wurtzite (Al,Ti,Si)N into cubic TiN phase, which results in degradation in machining performance.

  • 44.
    Forsén, Rikard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, M P.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects of Ti alloying of AlCrN coatings on thermal stability and oxidation resistance2013In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 534, p. 394-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quaternary cubic (TixCr1 − xAl~ 0.60)1 N1 coatings with 0 < x < 0.33 have been grown using reactive cathodic arc evaporation. When adding Ti the hardness was retained after annealing up to 1100 °C which is a dramatic improvement compared to CrAlN coatings. The coatings showed an age hardening process caused by spinodal decomposition into coherent TiCr- and Al-rich cubic TiCrAlN domains and the formation of hexagonal AlN precipitates and cubic TiCrN domains in the vicinity of the grain boundaries. The improved hardness was attributed to the stabilization of the cubic structure suppressing the formation and growth of hexagonal AlN. Furthermore, the presence of Ti atoms generated incoherent nanometer-sized crystallites within the hexagonal AlN precipitates disrupting the hexagonal lattice during the coarsening process.

    The addition of Ti promoted the formation of a TiO2 layer over Al2O3 resulting in a lower oxidation resistance. However, by tuning the composition it is possible to design coatings to have both good oxidation resistance and good high temperature mechanical stability.

  • 45.
    Frodelius, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beckers, Manfred
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sputter deposition from a Ti2AlC target: Process characterization and conditions for growth of Ti2AlC2010In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 518, no 6, p. 1621-1626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sputter deposition from a Ti2AlC target was found to yield Ti-Al-C films with a composition that deviates from the target composition of 2:1:1. For increasing substrate temperature from ambient to 1000 degrees C, the Al content decreased from 22 at.% to 5 at.%, due to re-evaporation. The C content in as-deposited films was equal to or higher than the Ti content. Mass spectrometry of the plasma revealed that the Ti and Al species were essentially thermalized, while a large fraction of C with energies andgt;4 eV was detected. Co-sputtering with Ti yielded a film stoichiometry of 2:0.8:0.9 for Ti:Al:C, which enabled growth of Ti2AlC. These results indicate that an additional Ti flux balances the excess C and therefore provides for more stoichiometric Ti2AlC synthesis conditions.

  • 46.
    Fullager, Daniel B.
    et al.
    Univ N Carolina, NC 28223 USA.
    Boreman, Glenn D.
    Univ N Carolina, NC 28223 USA.
    Ellinger, Carolyn D.
    Eastman Kodak Co, NY 14650 USA.
    Hofmann, Tino
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ N Carolina, NC 28223 USA.
    Broadband optical properties of aluminium zinc oxide thin films prepared by spatial atomic layer deposition2018In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 653, p. 267-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a broadband ellipsometric investigation of aluminium zinc oxide (AZO) from the infrared to the ultraviolet spectral range is presented. Aluminium zinc oxide samples were fabricated using spatial atomic layer deposition (SALD) having a range of percent aluminium incorporation. The AZO was deposited using a coflow of diethyl zinc (DEZ) and dimethyl aluminium isopropoxide (DMAI), where the amount of aluminium incorporation was controlled by varying the DMAI partial pressure. The broadband permittivity is reported as a function of the aluminium content of these aluminium zinc oxide thin films. A model dielectric function, which includes the contribution of recently predicted broad shallow donor states, is presented and discussed. We find that an increase in the aluminium content of the aluminium zinc oxide thin films results in a monotonically decreasing scattering time while the carrier density increases with diminishing efficiency. To demonstrate the necessity of broadband ellipsometric measurements for the accurate determination of the dielectric function of aluminium zinc oxide, a comparison with the classical Drude model and a semi-empirical extended Drude dispersion model, which are frequently employed in the literature to describe the optical response of aluminium zinc oxide, is given.

  • 47.
    Furlan, Andrej
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gueorguiev, Gueorgui Kostov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Czigány, Zsolt
    Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, P.O. Box 49, Budapest, H-1525, Hungary.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Correia, Rosario
    I3N and Physics Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Structure and properties of phosphorus-carbide thin solid films2013In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 548, no 2, p. 247-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus-carbide (CPx) thin films have been deposited by unbalanced reactive magnetron sputtering and investigated by TEM, XPS, SEM, ERDA, Raman scattering spectroscopy, nanoindentation testing, and four-point electrical probe techniques. As-deposited films with x=0.1 are electron amorphous with elements of FL structure and high mechanical resiliency with hardness of 34.4 GPa and elastic recovery of 72%. The electrical resistivity of the films are in the range 0.4-1.7 Ωcm for CP0.027, 1.4-22.9 Ωcm for CP0.1, and lower than the minimal value the four-point probe is able to detect for CPx with x≥0.2.

  • 48.
    Furlan, Andrej
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gueorguiev, Gueorgui Kostov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stafström, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fullerene–like CPx: A first–principles study of the relative stability of precursors and defect energetics during synthetic growth2006In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 3, p. 1028-1032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inherently nanostructured CPx compounds were studied by first-principles calculations. Geometry optimizations and cohesive energy comparisons show stability for C3P, C2P, C3P2, CP, and P4 (P2) species in isolated form as well as incorporated in graphene layers. The energy cost for structural defects, arising from the substitution of C for P and intercalation of P atoms in graphene, was also evaluated. We find a larger curvature of the graphene sheets and a higher density of cross-linkage sites in comparison to fullerene-like (FL) CNx, which is explained by differences in the bonding between P and N. Thus, the computational results extend the scope of fullerene-like thin film materials with FL-CPx and provide insights for its structural properties.

  • 49.
    Gadisa, Abay
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sharma, Deepak
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India.
    Svensson, Mattias
    Department of Organic Chemistry and Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improvements of fill factor in solar cells based on blends of polyfluorene copolymers as electron donors2007In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 5, p. 3126-3131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The photovoltaic characteristics of solar cells based on alternating polyfluorene copolymers, poly(2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′-benzothiadiazole)) (APFO-3), and poly(2,7-(9,9-didodecyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′-benzothiadiazole)) (APFO-4), blended with an electron acceptor fullerene molecule [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), have been investigated and compared. The two copolymers have the same aromatic backbone structure but differ by the length of their alkyl side chain. The overall photovoltaic performance of the solar cells is comparable irrespective of the copolymer used in the active layer. However, the fill factor (FF) values of the devices are strongly affected by the copolymer type. Higher FF values were realized in solar cells with APFO-4 (with longer alkyl side chain)/PCBM bulk heterojunction active layer. On the other hand, devices with blends of APFO-3/APFO-4/PCBM were found to render fill factor values that are intermediate between the values obtained in solar cells with APFO-3/PCBM and APFO-4/PCBM active film. Upon using APFO-3/APFO-4 blends as electron donors, the cell efficiency can be enhanced by about 16% as compared to cells with either APFO-3 or APFO-4. The transport of holes in each polymer obeys the model of hopping transport in disordered media. However, the degree of energetic barrier against hopping was found to be larger in APFO-3. The tuning of the photovoltaic parameters will be discussed based on studies of hole transport in the pure polymer films, and morphology of blend layers. The effect of bipolar transport in PCBM will also be discussed.

  • 50.
    Gago, R.
    et al.
    Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden.
    Neidhardt, Jörg
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vinnichenko, M.
    Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden.
    Kreissig, U.
    Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden.
    Czigany, Zsolt
    Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, .
    Kolitsch, A.
    Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Möller, W.
    Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden.
    Synthesis of carbon nitride thin films by low-energy ion beam assisted evaporation: On the mechanisms for fullerene-like microstructure formation2005In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 483, no 1-2, p. 89-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nitride (CNx) thin films were grown at different substrate temperatures by low-energy (<100 eV) ion beam assistance deposition (LE-IBAD) in order to discern possible formation mechanisms of a fullerene-like (FL) microstructure. The samples are compared to those of well-structured FL-CNx films synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering (MS). The comparison yields similar trends for both techniques, such as limitation of the nitrogen content at 20–25 at.%, dominance of sp2 hybrids, as well as thermally activated chemical desorption of CxNy species from the substrate during growth. However, CNx films produced by LE-IBAD are amorphous. The lack of FL structural features correlates with a lower degree of sp2 clustering, attributed to the promotion of nitrile groups. Therefore, low-energy ion bombardment is shown not to be a sufficient condition for the growth of FL-CNx. This result reinforces the eventual relevance of pre-formed CxNy species at the sputtering target in MS for the introduction and/or evolution of FL arrangements.

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