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  • 1.
    Bhattacharya, Aparajita
    et al.
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, KTH, 10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, KTH, 10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Morth, Magnus
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Environmental assessment of abandoned mine tailings in Adak, Vasterbotten district (northern Sweden)2006In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1760-1780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfide-rich mine tailings in Adak that are exposed to weathering cause acid mine drainage characterized by low PH (2-4) and high SO4 (UP to 800 mg L-1). Surface water, sediment and soil samples collected in this study contain higher concentrations of As, Cu, Fe and Zn, compared to the target and/or intervention limits set by international regulatory agencies. In particular, high As concentrations in water (up to 2900 mu g L- 1) and sediment (up to 900 mg kg(-1)) are of concern. There is large variability in trace element concentrations, implying that both physical (grain size) and chemical factors (pH, secondary phases as sulfides, Al-oxides or clay minerals) play an important role in their distribution. The low PH keeps the trace elements dissolved, and they are transported farther downstream. Trace element partition coefficients are low (log K-d = 0.3-4.3), and saturation indices calculated with PHREEQC are < 0 for common oxide and sulfidic minerals. The sediment and soil samples indicate an enhanced pollution index (up to 17), and high enrichment factors for trace elements (As up to 38,300; Zn up to 800). Finally, leaves collected from different plant types indicate bioaccumulation of several elements (As, Al, Cu, Fe and Zn). However, some of the plants growing in this area (e.g., Salix, Equisetum) are generally resistant to metal toxicity, and hence, liming and phytoremediation could be considered as potential on-site remediation methods.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, E.
    et al.
    Division of Applied Geology, Luleå University of Technology, SE-977 52 Luleå, Sweden.
    Ohlander, B.
    Öhlander, B., Division of Applied Geology, Luleå University of Technology, SE-977 52 Luleå, Sweden.
    Holmstrom, H.
    Geochemistry of the infiltrating water in the vadose zone of a remediated tailings impoundment, Kristineberg mine, Northern Sweden2003In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 659-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the remediated tailings Impoundment 1 at Kristineberg, Northern Sweden, installations of tension lysimeters were performed in the protective cover (10, 50, and 100 cm), in the oxidised tailings (150 cm), in the unoxidised secondarily enriched tailings (200 cm) and in the unoxidised tailings (260 cm). The lysimeters in the till protective cover contained relatively low concentrations of most elements. After infiltration through the sealing layer, consisting of 0.3 m compacted clayey till, pH decreased and conductivity, together with the concentrations of several major and trace elements, increased significantly. In the lysimeters installed in the tailings at depths of 150 and 200 cm average pH decreased to 3.4 at 150 cm and 3.2 at 200 and average conductivity increased to 2.9 mS/cm. Elements such as Al, Cd, Co, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Si and Zn had the highest concentrations in the lysimeter at 200 cm depth. Examples of concentration averages for this lysimeter are Cd 600 µg/L, Fe 1500 mg/L, Mn 11 mg/L, Ni 1.06 µg/L, S 1800 mg/L, and Zn 190 mg/L. Between the depths of 200 and 260 cm the concentration of most elements decreased. The increase between the lysimeters at the depths of 150 and 200 cm can be explained by remobilization of secondarily retained oxidation products as well as from the continued oxidation. The decrease between the second and the third lysimeters is interpreted as co-precipitation with different Fe oxyhydroxides as well as adsorption onto secondarily formed minerals and primary mineral surfaces. Calculations of saturation indices indicate that several different hydroxides might precipitate at this level. This retainment takes place mainly due to the increase in pH. The pH increases from 3.2 up to 4-4.4 in this depth interval. Between the deepest lysimeter and the groundwater table, the element concentrations probably decrease even further. pH increases to 5-6.5 in the groundwater. Most of the pre-remediation oxidation products that are secondarily retained above or below the oxidation front and are released by the small amount of infiltrating water together with the present oxidation products are retained again during continued transport downwards. If the depth to the groundwater table is large enough, most of the metals released by the infiltrating water and the diffusing O2 do not reach the groundwater. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Danielsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cato, I.
    SGU.
    Carman, R.
    SU.
    Rahm, Lars
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Spatial clustering of metals in the sediments of Skagerrak/Kattegat.1999In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 14, p. 689-706Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Das, Supriyo Kumar
    et al.
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roychoudhury, Alakendra N.
    Department of Geological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa.
    Klump, J. Val
    Department of Biological Sciences and Department of Geosciences, Great Lakes WATER Institute, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 600 East Greenfield Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53204, USA.
    Major and trace element geochemistry in Zeekoevlei, South Africa: A lacustrine record of present and past processes2008In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 2496-2511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports a multi-parameter geochemcial investigation in water and sediments of a shallow hyper-eutrophic urban freshwater coastal lake, Zeekoevlei, in South Africa. Zeekoevlei receives it greater fraction of dissolved major and trace elements from natural Sources (e.g., chemical weathering and sea salt). Fertilizers, agricultural wastes, raw sewage effluents and road runoff in contrast, constitute the predominant anthropogenic sources, which supply As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in this lake. The overall low dissolved metal load results from negligible industrial Pollution, high pH and elevated metal Uptake by phytoplankton. However, the surface sediments are highly polluted with Pb, Cd and Zn. Wind-induced sediment resuspension results in increased particulate and dissolved element concentrations in bottom waters. Low C/N ratio (10) indicates primarily an algal Source for the sedimentary organic matter. Variation in sedimentary organic C content with depth indicates a change in primary productivity in response to historical events (e.g., seepage from wastewater treatment plant, dredging and urbanization). Primary productivity controls the enrichment of most of the metals ill sediments, and elevated productivity with higher accumulation of planktonic debris (and siltation) results in increased element concentration in surface and deeper sediments. Aluminium, Fe and/or Mn oxy-hydroxides, clay minerals and calcareous sediments also play an important role in adsorbing metals in Zeekoevlei Sediments. 

  • 5.
    Ghosh, Devanita
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Indian Institute Science Educ and Research Kolkata, India.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dario, Mårten
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bhadury, Punyasloke
    Indian Institute Science Educ and Research Kolkata, India.
    Elemental and biomarker characteristics in a Pleistocene aquifer vulnerable to arsenic contamination in the Bengal Delta Plain, India2015In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 61, p. 87-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An elevated level of arsenic (As) in the Indo-Gangetic delta plain aquifers has been reported since the 1990s. Organic matter (OM) present in groundwater and aquifer sediments supports the microbial communities in these aquifers. During installation of a drinking water well, 26 sediment intervals of 6 m each were retrieved up till 156 m from a Pleistocene brown sand aquifer (BSA). Grain size distribution, sequential extraction of metals and total extractable lipids were analyzed in each sample. These parameters were statistically correlated in order to establish relationship between the physical vs. inorganic and organic characteristics, and how these properties affected the distribution of As in BSAs. The aquifer sediments consisted of medium to coarse sand except the surface sediments and those at the bottom of the well, which had high clay and slit content. Arsenic (As) concentration in sediments ranged from 2 to 21 mg/kg and indicated a strong correlation with grain size. Arsenic was mostly associated with crystalline oxides and silicate-rich minerals. Arsenic showed significant correlation with Fe in all fractions, and suggests presence of pyrite bound As-bearing minerals in these sediments. The diagnostic sedimentary lipid biomarkers indicated presence of compounds derived from vascular plants and microbial cell wall. This inference was supported by various diagnostic lipid ratios. The biomarkers were abundant in surface and deeper layers, which had high clay and silt content. The BSA sediments indicated preferential preservation of n-alkanes over other functional compounds, which were more reactive and subject to degradation. The thick clay layer at 132-156 m contained visible plant fragments, and OM in this layer indicated preferential preservation of organic carbon most likely due to the absence of specific microbial communities that degraded these compounds and mobilized As. Statistical analyses indicated the influence of selective inorganic and organic components (As, Fe and fatty acids) controlling the co-distribution of various inorganic and organic components in the aquifer.

  • 6.
    Ranjan, Rajesh Kumar
    et al.
    Biogeochemistry Laboratory, School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Department of Earth Sciences, IISER-Kolkata, Mohanpur, India.
    Ramanathan, A. L.
    Biogeochemistry Laboratory, School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.
    Bulk organic matter characteristics in the Pichavaram mangrove: estuarine complex, south-eastern India2010In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 1176-1186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pichavaram mangrove ecosystem is located between the Vellar and Coleroon Estuaries in south-eastern India. To document the spatial-depth-based variabilities in organic matter (OM) input and cycling, five sediment cores were collected. A comparative study was carried out of grain-size composition, pore water salinity, dissolved organic C (DOC), loss-on-ignition (LOI), elemental ratios (C/N and H/C), pigments (Chl a, Chl b, and total carotenoids), and humification indices. Sand is the major fraction in these cores ranging from 60% to 99% followed by silt and clay; cores from the estuarine margin have high sand content. In mangrove forests, pore-water DOC concentrations are high (32 +/- 14 mg L(-1)), whereas salinity levels are low (50 +/- 5.5 parts per thousand). Likewise, LOI, organic C and N, and pigment concentrations are high in mangroves. OM is mainly derived from upstream terrestrial matter and/or mangrove litter, and marine OM. The humification indices do not vary significantly with depth because of rapid OM turnover. The bulk parameters indicate that the Vellar and Coleroon Estuaries are more affected by anthropogenic processes than mangrove forests. Finally, greater variability and sometimes lack of specific trends in bulk parameters implies that the 2004 tsunami caused extensive mixing in sediments. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Routh, Joyanto
    et al.
    Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.
    Grossman, Ethan L.
    Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.
    Ulrich, Glenn A.
    Institute for Energy and the Environment, Department of Botany and Microbiology, 770 Van Vleet Oval, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 73019-0245, USA.
    Suflita, Joseph M.
    Institute for Energy and the Environment, Department of Botany and Microbiology, 770 Van Vleet Oval, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 73019-0245, USA.
    Volatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas2001In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 183-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geochemical and microbiological evidence indicates that viable microorganisms produce and consume volatile organic acids (VOA) in the Yegua formation. Acetic and propionic acid concentrations in mudstones range from 200 to 1270 and 20 to 38 nmol·gdw−1 respectively, whereas concentrations in sands are 50–200 and less than 20 nmol·gdw−1. VOA concentrations in sediments and in laboratory incubations suggest net production of VOAs by microorganisms in mudstones, and net consumption of VOAs by SO4 reducing bacteria (SRB) in sands. Notably, SRB activity is mostly confined to aquifer sands. Vertical diffusion and advection were modeled to estimate acetic acid transport from aquitard to aquifer. Assuming that SRB completely respire the acetic acid transported into the aquifer (3.2 μmol·l−1·m·a−1), the CO2 production rate in the aquifer sands is 5.3 μmol·l−1·a−1. This slow mineralization rate of in situ organic matter is within the range for deep aquifers, and probably accounts for the long-term survival of microorganisms in oligotrophic environments. Finally, the microbial communities in Yegua sediments appear to exhibit a loose commensalism, with microorganisms in aquitards providing VOAs for respiratory processes (i.e., SO4 reduction) in aquifers.

  • 8.
    Routh, Joyanto
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, IISER-Kolkata, Mohanpur, India.
    Hjelmquist, Per
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Distribution of arsenic and its mobility in shallow aquifer sediments from Ambikanagar, West Bengal, India2011In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 505-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediments from a core retrieved during installation of a shallow drinking water well in Ambikanagar (West Bengal, India) were analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. The geochemical analyses included: (1) a 4-step sequential extraction scheme to determine the distribution of As between different fractions, (2) As speciation (As(3+) vs. As(5+)), and (3) C, N and S isotopes. The sediments have a low percentage of organic C and N (0.10-0.56% and 0.01-0.05%, respectively). Arsenic concentration is between 2 and 7 mg kg(-1), and it is mainly associated with the residual fraction, less susceptible to chemical weathering. The proportion of As(3+) in these sediments is high and ranges from 24% to 74%. Arsenic in the second fraction (reducible) correlates well with Mn, and in the residual fraction As correlates well with several transition elements. The stable isotope results indicate microbial oxidation of organic matter involving SO(4) reduction. Oxidation of primary sulfide minerals and release of As from reduction of Fe(oxy)hydroxides do not seem important mechanisms in As mobilization. Instead, the dominance of As(3+) and presence of As(5+) reducing microorganisms in this shallow aquifer imply As remobilization involving microbial processes that needs further investigations.

  • 9.
    Routh, Joyanto
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, IISER-Kolkata, Mohanpur 741 252, India.
    Hjelmquist, Per
    Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Distribution of arsenic and its mobility in shallow aquifer sediments from Ambikanagar, West Bengal, India2011In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 505-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediments from a core retrieved during installation of a shallow drinking water well in Ambikanagar (West Bengal, India) were analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. The geochemical analyses included: (1) a 4-step sequential extraction scheme to determine the distribution of As between different fractions, (2) As speciation (As(3+) vs. As(5+)), and (3) C, N and S isotopes. The sediments have a low percentage of organic C and N (0.10-0.56% and 0.01-0.05%, respectively). Arsenic concentration is between 2 and 7 mg kg(-1), and it is mainly associated with the residual fraction, less susceptible to chemical weathering. The proportion of As(3+) in these sediments is high and ranges from 24% to 74%. Arsenic in the second fraction (reducible) correlates well with Mn, and in the residual fraction As correlates well with several transition elements. The stable isotope results indicate microbial oxidation of organic matter involving SO(4) reduction. Oxidation of primary sulfide minerals and release of As from reduction of Fe(oxy)hydroxides do not seem important mechanisms in As mobilization. Instead, the dominance of As(3+) and presence of As(5+) reducing microorganisms in this shallow aquifer imply As remobilization involving microbial processes that needs further investigations.

  • 10.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Thermodynamic modeling of iron and trace metal solubility and speciation under sulfidic and ferruginous conditions in full scale continuous stirred tank biogas reactors2014In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 47, p. 61-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the equilibrium chemistry and chemical speciation of S, Fe and metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in eight full scale Continuous Stirred Tank Biogas Reactors (CSTBR). Five reactors were digesting mixtures of different organic wastes (referred to as Co-Digester; CD) and three were digesting Sewage Sludge (SS). Iron was continuously added to the CD reactors to remove sulfide produced during anaerobic digestion and SS was rich in Fe, amended for phosphate removal in wastewater treatment plants prior to anaerobic digestion. As a consequence of different S:Fe molar ratios (0.3–2.8), ferruginous (Fe(II)-dominated) conditions prevailed in SS reactors and sulfidic (S(-II)-dominated) conditions in CD reactors. In all reactors, the chemical speciation of S, as determined by S K-edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure spectroscopy, was dominated by FeS(s). Reduced organic S forms, consisting of RSH (thiol) and RSR (organic sulfide), were the second most abundant S species. Zero-valent S (elemental S, polysulfides, and possible traces of pyrite) was detected in all reactors, ranging between 6% and 26% of total S, with the highest proportion formed under ferruginous conditions. Thermodynamic modeling suggested that Fe in the aqueous phase was dominated by Fe(II)-thiol complexes under sulfidic conditions (CD reactors) and by Fe(II)-phosphate complexes under ferruginous conditions (SS reactors). Thiols, representing organic functional groups, and sulfide complexes were the major aqueous species of Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) under sulfidic conditions. Under ferruginous conditions thiol complexes were still important, but carbonate and phosphate complexes in particular dominated the aqueous phase speciation of Co(II) and Ni(II). The aqueous phase speciation of Zn and Cu was dominated by Zn(II)-sulfide and Cu(I)-polysulfide complexes, respectively. The results highlights the importance of S:Fe molar ratio as a regulating factor for the chemical speciation of metals in biogas reactors which in turn is important for microbial trace metal uptake and growth as well as potential metal toxicity. Both these aspects are critical for a successful performance of biogas production process.

  • 11.
    Shilla, Dativa
    et al.
    Dar Es Salaam Univ, Tanzania.
    Pajala, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dario, Mårten
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kristoffersson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Trophodynamics and biomagnification of trace metals in aquatic food webs: The case of Rufiji estuary in Tanzania2019In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 100, p. 160-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transfer of trace metals into fish of commercial value poses a public health concern. Therefore, sediments, invertebrates, and fish from three sampling sites in the Rufiji estuary were analyzed for trace metals to evaluate their concentrations and trophic transfer within estuarine food web. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were also used to study the trophic relationship between different organisms. Biomagnification of trace metals in organisms from different trophic levels was quantified and evaluated by calculating the bioaccumulation factor and biomagnification factor. Trophic magnification factor for different trace metals was determined from the slope of the regression line between trace metal concentration and the trophic level of functional groups in sampled organisms. The results indicated that As and Zn displayed trophic level-dependent accumulation in the Rufiji food webs. As and Zn increased with the trophic level, whereas Ag, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Pb depicted an opposite trend. Food web magnification factors varied from -0.57 for Ni to 0.39 for Zn, whereas trophic magnification factor varied from 0.27 for Ni to 2.47 for Zn. Zn and Ni bioaccumulate in the food webs as indicated by a slope greater than zero, whereas the remaining trace metals are eliminated from food webs or their trophic transfer is interrupted.

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