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  • 1. Borch, Thomas
    et al.
    Ambus, Per
    Laturnus, Frank
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Svensmark, Bo
    Gron, Christian
    Biodegradation of chlorinated solvents in a water unsaturated topsoil2003In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 51, p. 143-152Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Caliz, Joan
    et al.
    University of Girona.
    Vila, Xavier
    University of Girona.
    Marti, Esther
    University of Barcelona.
    Sierra, Jordi
    University of Barcelona.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Baneras, Lluis
    University of Girona.
    Montserrat, Genoveva
    University of Girona.
    The microbiota of an unpolluted calcareous soil faces up chlorophenols: Evidences of resistant strains with potential for bioremediation2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 104-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To highlight the effects of a variety of chlorophenols (CP) in relation to the response of an indigenous bacterial community, an agricultural Mediterranean calcareous soil has been studied in microcosms incubated under controlled laboratory conditions. Soil samples were artificially polluted with 2-monochlorophenol (MCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP), at concentrations ranging from 0.1 up to 5000 mg kg(-1). Both activity and composition of the microbial community were assessed during several weeks, respectively, by respirometric methods and PCR-DGGE analysis of extracted DNA and RNA. Significant decreases in soil respirometric values and changes in the bacterial community composition were observed at concentrations above 1000 mg kg(-1) MCP and TCP, and above 100 mg kg(-1) PCP. However, the persistence of several active bacterial populations in soil microcosms contaminated with high concentration of CP, as indicated by DGGE fingerprints, suggested the capacity of these native bacteria to survive in the presence of the pollutants, even without a previous adaptation or contact with them. The isolation of potential CP degraders was attempted by culture plating from microcosms incubated with high CP concentrations. Twenty-three different isolates were screened for their resistance to TCP and PCP. The most resistant isolates were identified as Kocuria palustris, Lysobacter gummosus, Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas putida, according to 16S rRNA gene homology. In addition, these four isolates also showed the capacity to reduce the concentration of TCP and PCP from 15% to 30% after 5 d of incubation in laboratory assays (initial pollutant concentration of 50 mg L(-1)). Isolate ITP29, which could be a novel species of Bacillus, has been revealed as the first known member in this bacterial group with potential for CP bioremediation applications, usually wide-spread in the soil natural communities, which has not been reported to date as a CP degrader.

  • 3.
    Dahlén, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Ephraim, James
    Borén, Hans
    Determination of the Molecular Weight of Fulvic Acids By UV/VIS Spectroscopy1999In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 783-794Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Dahlén, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre, Örebro University.
    Hagberg, Jessica
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre, Örebro University.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Determination of nitrate and other water quality parameters in groundwater from UV/VIS spectra employing partial least squares2000In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of UV/Vis spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS) regression for the simultaneous prediction of nitrate and non-purgeable organic carbon (NPOC) in groundwaters was evaluated. A model of high quality was obtained using first order derivative spectra in the range 200–300 nm. Inclusion of non-UV-absorbing constituents in the modeling procedure, i.e., chloride, sulfate, fluoride, total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC), alkalinity, pH and conductivity was also evaluated. This model seemed to be useful for prediction of chloride, TC, IC, alkalinity and conductivity, while its ability to predict sulfate, fluoride and pH was poor. In conclusion, application of PLS regression, which requires neither filtration of samples nor addition of chemicals, is a promising alternative for fast interpretation of geochemical patterns of groundwater quality.

  • 5.
    Eklind, Y.
    et al.
    Department of Soil Sciences, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Kotheus, M.
    Kirchmann, H.
    Department of Soil Sciences, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Formation of chloromethoxybenzaldehyde during composting of organic household waste2004In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 475-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standardized household waste was mixed with different litter amendments, straw, leaves, hardwood shavings, softwood shavings, paper, and sphagnum peat, resulting in six compost mixtures. In addition non-amended household waste was composted. Composting was done in small rotatable bins and compost samples were taken on a regular basis until day 590. Extraction and analysis of wet compost samples showed no evidence for the presence of chloroorganic compounds. Drying and re-wetting of compost samples, however, revealed that chloromethoxybenzaldehyde (CMBA) was formed in all composts at concentrations varying between 5.6 and 73.4 µgkg-1 dry matter. CMBA was not present in the original materials. During composting, there was a clear positive relation between formation of CMBA and microbial activity, as indicated by C losses and temperature. Formation took place during the most intensive phase of composting when C losses were highest. Under anaerobic conditions, however, which prevailed initially in the non-amended compost, no CMBA was formed. Calculation of total amounts of CMBA in composts revealed that there was a small decrease during storage in the hardwood, peat, and softwood composts. However, all composts contained CMBA after 590 days. The mean concentration was 33.4 µgkg-1 dry matter (s.d.=21.9). Possible biocidal effects of composts when used in cultivation may be explainable by the presence of natural toxic compounds formed during composting. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Spatial patterns of organic chlorine and chloride in Swedish forest soil2003In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 391-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentration of organic carbon, organic chlorine and chloride was determined in Swedish forest soil in the southern part of Sweden and the spatial distribution of the variables were studied. The concentration of organically bound chlorine was positively correlated to the organic carbon content, which is in line with previous studies. However, the spatial distribution patterns strongly indicate that some other variable adds structure to the spatial distribution of organic chlorine. The distribution patterns for chloride strongly resembled the distribution of organic chlorine. The spatial distribution of chloride in soil depends on the deposition pattern which in turn depends on prevailing wind-direction, amount of precipitation and the distance from the sea. This suggests that the occurrence of organic chlorine in soil is influenced by the deposition of chloride of some variable that co-varies with chloride. Two clearly confined strata were found in the area: the concentrations of organic chlorine and chloride in the western area were significantly higher than in the eastern area. No such difference among the two areas was seen regarding the carbon content.

  • 7.
    Karlsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Environmental Science.
    UV-light induced mineralization of organic matter bound chlorine in Lake BjΣn, Sweden - A laboratory study2003In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 463-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface water and aqueous solutions of isolated organic matter from a humic rich lake in southern Sweden were exposed to artificial UV radiation to investigate the UV light induced influence on organic matter bound chlorine in natural systems. It was found that the photodegradation of organic matter bound chlorine was more pronounced than the photodegradation of organic carbon. After 120 h of irradiation of the isolated organic matter, only 35% of the initial organochlorine was still in the solution compared to about 70% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A similar result was obtained for unfractionated surface water. Furthermore, our results indicate that the loss of organic chlorine was mainly due to a mineralization of organic chlorine into chloride ions. The total decrease of organic chlorine after 120 h was 32 ╡g Clorg l-1, of which the major part disappeared in the initial irradiation phase. A similar increase was observed in the chloride concentration (34 ╡g Cl- l-1).

  • 8.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Time-integrated sampling of glyphosate in natural waters2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, no 6, p. 1821-1828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental monitoring of pesticide residues in surface water is often done with time-integrated sampling where a specified volume is sampled each hour during, e.g., a week, thus avoiding at momentary high or low extreme concentrations. However, sampling over an extended period of time can result in losses of easily degradable analytes, why the stability of the target analytes over the timespan of the sampling must be checked. Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides. Because of its chemical complexity, glyphosate binds differently to metals and colloids at different pH, and the degradation may also be affected. Recovery of glyphosate from spiked natural waters after one and three weeks of storage was higher when the samples were acidified to approximately pH 2 rather than at their natural pH. Keeping the samples refrigerated to 4 °C in darkness also enhanced recovery, while glyphosate losses were substantial from samples kept at their natural pH at 20 °C. Total loss of glyphosate was observed in some samples kept at natural pH, 20 °C, and daylight; a loss partly due to binding to metals or colloids that could only partially be reversed by acidification. For one-week time-integrated sampling a small amount of hydrochloric acid in a piece of heat-sealed hydrophobic micro-porous tubing is added to the sampling bottles before deployment, a procedure that acidifies the samples during collection keeping them below pH 2 until analysis, thus minimizing losses of glyphosate. The method also allows determination of the primary degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA).

  • 9.
    Olofsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Comprehensive mass flow analysis of Swedish sludge contaminants2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 28-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening of metals, persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs),and other organic contaminants in sludge from seven Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs) was performed in this study. This extensive screening provides information on mass flows of 282 compounds used in the Swedish society to sewage sludge. It reveals constant relative contaminant concentrations (ng-mg kg‑1 d.w.), except for some pesticides and perfluorinated compounds, indicating that these originate from broad usage and diffuse dispersion rather than (industrial) point sources. There was a five order of magnitude difference in the sum concentrations of the most and least abundant species (metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans, respectively). Lower total concentrations were found in sludge from STPs processing primarily food industry or household sewage. Proportions of the amounts used (in Sweden) found in sludge were lower for compounds that are present in consumer goods or are diffusely dispersed into the environment (0.01-1% recovered in sludge) than for compounds used as detergents or PPCPs (17–63%). In some cases, the recovery seemed to be affected by evaporation (e.g. octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane) or biotransformation (e.g. adipates) losses, while polychlorinated alkanes and brominated diphenyl ethers were recovered to disproportionately high degree (ca. 4%); likely due to incomplete statistics for imported goods.

  • 10. Rodstedth, M
    et al.
    Ståhlberg, Carina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Environmental Science.
    Chloride imbalances in soil lysimeters2003In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 381-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assumption that soil neither acts as a source or a sink of chloride is evaluated by incubating soil cores in lysimeters in a climate chamber under controlled conditions. Some of the lysimeters acted as a sink while others acted as a source of chloride. Considerable amounts of organic chlorine were lost by leaching. The loss by leaching of organic chlorine could only explain part of the discrepancy in the lysimeters where the soil acted as a sink and it could certainly not explain the cases where the soil acted as a source. The storage of organic chlorine was four times larger than the storage of chloride and comparably small changes in the organic chlorine storage will thus have a considerable influence on the chloride budget. However, the soil was too heterogeneous to determine whether a change in the storage had taken place or not. It is concluded that the observed chloride surplus and also, at least to some extent, the observed chloride deficit, most likely was caused by net-changes in the storage of organic chlorine in soil. An inverse correlation was found between the initial chloride content of the soil and the imbalance in the chloride budget. Dry deposition of chloride is generally assumed to equal the run-off minus the wet deposition. Extrapolation to the field situation suggests that the output of organic chlorine by soil leachate is at risk to cause an underestimation of the dry deposition by about 25%. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedenstrom, Mattias
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stehr, Jan Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dario, Mårten
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hertkorn, Norbert
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Germany.
    Björn (Fredriksson), Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pretreatment,of anaerobic digester samples by hydrochloric acid for solution-state H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopic characterization of organic matter2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 199, p. 201-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pretreatment of anaerobic digester samples by hydrochloric acid (HCl) resulted in removal of Fe-based mineral and coordination compounds, attenuating their interferences with solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic characterization of the solid phase organic matter. Substrate (influent) and digestate (effluent) samples from two full-scale anaerobic digesters, designated CD (co-digester) and SSD (sewage sludge digester), were investigated. Pretreatment of CD samples with 0.2-2.0 mol l(-1) HCl and pretreatment of SSD samples with 1.0-3.0 mol l(-1) HCl removed 96-100% and 76-80% of total Fe, respectively. Pretreatment declined overall paramagnetic characteristics of digestate samples, manifested by 50% (CD) and 70% (SSD) decrease in electron paramagnetic resonance signal intensities. As a result, meaningful solution-state H-1,C-13 heteronuclear single quantum coherence and H-1 NMR spectra of DMSO-d(6) soluble organic matter could be acquired. Sample pretreatment with the lowest concentration of HCl resulted in alteration of C:N ratios in solid phase, likely due to removal of labile organic and inorganic C- and N-containing compounds, while elevating the HCl concentration did not further change the C:N ratios. Furthermore, sample pretreatment increased the solubility of carbohydrates and proteins in DMSO-d(6), enabling the detection of NMR resonances from certain structural units of carbohydrates (e.g. anomeric O2CH) and proteins (e.g. CH alpha in amino acids). Both attenuation of the paramagnetic matrix as well as art enhanced solubility of carbohydrate and protein fractions of the samples in DMSO-d(6) solvent contributed to an improved molecular characterization of anaerobic digester samples by solution-state NMR analysis.

  • 12.
    van Aswegen, JD
    et al.
    North West University, South Africa.
    Nel, L
    North West University, South Africa.
    Strydom, NA
    Nelson Mandela University, South Africa.
    Minnaar, Karen
    North West University, South Africa.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Comparing the metallic elemental compositions of Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus eggs and eggshells from the Swartkops Estuary, Port Elizabeth, South Africa2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 221, p. 533-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals attributed to pollution may increase their concentrations above the geological background and pose toxic challenges towards humans and biota. We analysed sixteen Kelp Gull eggs and eggshells for 30 metallic elements from the Swartkops Estuary (SE), an important recreational, industrial, and ecological asset for Port Elizabeth, the region, and South Africa. Mean concentrations for eggshell and egg content for Hg was 0.02 and 0.4 mg/kg dm, Cr was 4 and 18 mg/kg dm (the highest yet recorded for any gull or tern egg), for Zn 2.1 and 62 mg/kg dm, for Sr 880 and 12 mg/kg dm, for V 170 and 1.3 mg/kg dm, and for Co 1.7 and 0.002 mg/kg dm, respectively. Zink, Se, and Hg, increased on a dry-mass basis from sediment via small fish to gull egg content, indicating bioaccumulation. No effect on eggshell thickness was seen. We also determined that eggshell concentrations cannot be used as a proxy for egg content concentrations. Mercury, Cr, V, Co, and Zn were elements we identified as potentially problematic that require source identification and mitigation. Further research into other high-trophic animals such as herons, egrets, cormorants, and otters in the SE system is proposed.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-01-07 12:13
  • 13.
    Westblad, C.
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Levendis, Y.A.
    334 Snell Engineering Centre, College of Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, United States.
    Richter, H.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States.
    Howard, J.B.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States.
    Carlson, J.
    US Army Natick, RDandE Center, Natick, MA 01760, United States.
    A study on toxic organic emissions from batch combustion of styrene2002In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 395-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from a laboratory-scale investigation on batch combustion of styrene are reported herein. Limited quantities of waste styrene monomer are incinerated, however this monomer is, also, the primary pyrolyzate during combustion of waste polystyrene, the second most abundant polymer produced worldwide. Thus, its combustion-generated emissions are of importance to the operation of hazardous waste incinerators and municipal waste-to-energy powerplants. This work focuses on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particulates, as well as carbon monoxide. To investigate methods for minimizing such emissions, batch combustion of the monomer was conducted in a two-stage muffle furnace. An additional air mixing chamber was installed between the two stages. Small quantities of the liquid monomer were inserted in the primary furnace which served as a gasifier/burner. The furnace temperature was in the range of 300-1000 °C and diffusion flames were formed under most conditions. Upon mixing with additional air, combustion of unburned gaseous fuel and primary reaction products continued in the secondary furnace (afterburner), which was kept at a constant temperature of either 1000 or 800 °C. Using this technique, conditions that minimize emissions were explored and theoretical investigations on the fate of pollutants in the secondary furnace were undertaken. Results revealed that combustion of styrene, which is a highly volatile fuel, occurred with the formation of flames that were often non-anchored, unsteady and unstable. Emissions of organic pollutants, soot and CO were more intense than in the case of the polystyrene combustion, studied previously under identical conditions, due to the additional depolymerization/pyrolysis steps therein. The emissions from the secondary furnace exceeded those of the primary furnace, consistent with the fact that a very significant fraction of the fuel conversion occurred in the secondary chamber. Clear trends in the emissions of PAHs and soot, products of incomplete combustion, with the temperature of the primary furnace (gasifier) were observed. Emissions were drastically reduced with lowering the gasifier temperature. While final cumulative emissions of PAHs and soot accounted for more than one third of the mass of the fuel at high temperatures, their concentrations at the exit of the afterburner were negligible when the primary furnace was operated at 300 °C under pyrolytic conditions. In the latter case air was added to the afterburner. Numerical modeling based on a complex reaction network was used for the description of the primary furnace as well as of the afterburner. Kinetic analysis showed acetylene and benzene to be key species in the growth of PAHs. Formation of PAHs in the afterburner, found experimentally, was reproduced by the model using a plug-flow assumption. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Niedan, Volker
    Pavasars, Ivars
    Chloroperoxidase-mediated chlorination of aromatic groups in fulvic acid2000In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 779-785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to investigate whether exo-enzymatically mediated chlorination of fulvic acid (FA) results in the formation of chlorinated groups within the macromolecules which correspond to those which were previously detected in soil and surface water samples. The chlorination was carried out by exposing FA to a commercial chloroperoxidase (CPO) in the presence of chloride and hydrogen-peroxide. The exposed FA was then chemically degraded using an oxidative technique and finally analysed for four different aromatic groups and their chlorinated analogues. The particular aromatic groups included were the methyl esters of 4-ethoxybenzoic acid, 3-methoxy-4-ethoxybenzoic acid, 3,4-diethoxybenzoic acid, and 3,5- dimethoxy-4-ethoxybenzoic acid, along with their mono-and dichlorinated analogues. Prior to the chemical degradation procedure, the FA was analysed for AOX (adsorbable organic halogens) and chlorinated acetic acids. The original FA contained 1.4 mg Cl(org) g-1 and detectable amounts of two chlorinated aromatic groups. After exposure to the enzyme, the concentration of AOX increased to 44.3 mg Cl(org) g-1 and detectable amounts of four chlorinated aromatic groups as well as di- and trichloroacetic acid were found. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

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